Week 4 Psych 202 Lecture
Week 4 Psych 202 Lecture PSY 202
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Psych 202 October 19 2015 Midterm studv cluide posted on Wednesdav o Midterm NEXT Wednesday 0 2 pencil 0 Will provide scantron and test 0 2 research credits hours due on Friday 1030 Socioeconomic Dimensions of Stress kt Chronic stress a key link between challenging social condition and negative heath oz Importance of socioeconomic status gradient each step downward in SES is associated with poorer health Stress Health and Personality oz How you Perceiveinterpret appraise one s circumstances are a key factor in how one resounds in both stressful and nonstressful situations and who get sick oz Personalities help to shape how we perceive interpret and appraise o Habitually grouchy people tend have poorer health outcomes THE A Vs B Personalities oz Type A 0 Time urgency o Intense ambition and competitiveness 0 Associated with heart disease oz Type B o More easygoing 0 Not associated with heart disease Research on TVDe A oz Time urgency and competitiveness not associated with poor health outcomes kt Negative emotions anger aggressive reactivity oz High levels of hostility increase chance of all disease Personality oz What type of person are you oz People can make betterthanchance judgements on personality based on 0 Seeing a photo of them 0 Looking at personal website 0 Seeing their bedroom Self vs Friend observations oz Friends description of you are more accurate of traits that are harder to observe Need Better Ways to Measure Personality 6 v Reliable tests of personality 0 Stable results over time oz Valid tests that measure what they are supposed to measure What should the Units of Personality be in our Better Measures oz Traits oz Beliefs about the self 60 Expectations about the world oz Unconscious con icts oz Needs goals and motivation oz Cultural values and practices oz Life stories Personality Traits characteristic patterns of emotional responses thoughts and behaviors that are relatively consistent across different people Early History of Trait Research oz Natural language Allport and Odbert 1936 identi ed 18000 English language terms that could distinguish the behavior of one person from another oz What are such terms re ected in our languages In how we think 0 We are motivated to categorize others 0 We are good guessing personality traits o Evolutionarily adaptive Moddern Approaches Classi cation of Traits and Links to Behavioral Disbositions 0 Eysenck39s hierarchical model 4 levels 0 The speci c response level Observed behaviors o Habitual response level Behvaiors observed on several occasions o Traits 0 Type or superordinate level oz Eysenck proposed 3 superordinate traits o lntroversion extraversion emotional stability and psychoticism constraint 0 Belle dbiological difference respobsible for individual variation in traits Bio Five Personalitv Factors oz Openness oz Conscienttiousness oz Extraversion oz Agreeableness 0 Neuroticism Situations oz Walter Mischel proposed that behaviors are determined as much by situations as by personality traits oz Situationism caused considerable rifts between 0 Social Psychologists Tended to emphasize situational forces 0 Personality Psychologists How the person reacts Biobehvaioral Basis of Personalitv oz Personality is rooted in genetics kt Emerges from temperament Temperament oz Temperament innate early biological structures of personality oz Temperament Biologically based tendency to react feel and behave kt Temperamental differences seen right away in infants Personalities Anchored in SelfSchema Structures kt Network of interconnected knowledge about thee self lter information 0 Memories beliefs generalizations about the self lter information oz Activation of the middle of the frontal lobes occurs when people process information about themselves oz These areas activate when others talking about you but now when talking about other people oz Less active in people Knowledge of self developmental process oz Selfawareness kt The constant self oz The objected self oz Looking glass self Mechanisms of self knowledge oz Selfdiscrepancy theory 0 Awareness of difference between personal standards and goalsideals leads to strong selfrelevant emotions Good vs bad Evaluations of others Norms and cultural values oz Selfreferential emotions provide you with knowledge about who you are and who you would like to be or you quotought to bequot Maintainino our views of self oz Most people have positive illusions in at least 3 domains Better than average effect 0 Unrealistic perception of our personal control over events 0 Unrealistically optimistic about our futures o SelfEvaluative maintenance People can feel threatened when someone close to them outperforms them on a task that is personally relevant How would you deal with this To maintain positive selfevaluations you would either distance yourself from the relationship or select a different aspiration 0 Social Comparisons People evaluate their own actions abilities and beliefs by contrasting them with those of others 0 People with high selfesteem make downward comparisons contrasting themselves with people who are de cient to them on relevant dimensions 0 Selfserving Bias oz People with high selfesteem tend to take credit for success but blame failure on outside factors oz Criticism is assumed by those with high selfesteem to be motivated by envy or prejudice Emotion Emotion Regulation the complex process that involves initiating inhibiting or modulating the components of emotion in the serve of accomplishing one s goal 60 Emotions are regulating 0 Emotions are regulating Strategies39 to regulate emotion oz Young children use behavioral strategies to regulate emotions oz However these can be more or less effective Hot vs Cold oz With age we tend to rely on cognitive strategies
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