History 110 10/19-10/21
History 110 10/19-10/21 History 110
Popular in Western Civilization to 1500
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Markezich on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 110 at Northern Illinois University taught by Fernandez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization to 1500 in History at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Rome Citystate to Mediterranean Power Movie clip Alexander s speech httpsWWWyoutubecomWatchv SszcPYOOBY ancient stereotypes 1 primary source 2nd book 1 secondary source 0 Ruling Hellenistic kingdoms 0 military protector benefactor 0 local language or rulership 0 Greek Macedonia 0 Seleucid kingdom o Ptolemaic kingdom o Romans will take over these practices Archaic Rome 700 c 500 BCE during the time of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empire and the Archaic Greek Early Roman Republic 500241 BCE during the time of the Persian Empire Imperial Republic 24149 BCE during the time of Hellenistic period 0 state formation thanks to Greek presence 0 social hierarchies 0 not equally distributed 0 merchants would trade With certain in uential people only or Bronze statuette of Astarte Gilgamesh Camas Seville 0 change in culture The Rise of the State in Central Italy and Rome 8th6th century 0 the Western Mediterranean in the 8th century 0 Greek and Phoenician colonization 0 social stratification 0 commercial exchanges Orientalizing period c Archaic period 7th6th century 0 city states O literacy public use census calendar communal organization 0 burials religious buildings from celebrating the individual to celebrating the community 0 just like the Near East and Greeks O alphabet and Latin Phoenician O census of citizens military rosters O shape of burials communal burials relatively equal male head of household Archaic Rome to c 500 O citizen body populus Romanus census military service 0 kingship charismatic military 0 council of elders senex senate O Latium Latin 0 only wealthy served in army 0 Roman kings were similar to Greek description of tyrants After 500 BCE Q from monarchy to republic Early Republic Rome 5th4th century 0 replace kings O constant war 0 not always expanding O seasonal wars war and territorial expansion 0 after 3rd century beginning of expansion 0 Rome dominated most of Italy before imperial Roman Italian Alliance Roman territory cities with Latin rights allies colonies 0 Italy became a mosaic of city states 0 cities were independent 0 some lost their independence 0 freedom to decide over own institution 0 Latin rights could marry legal Roman citizens Non Roman citizens could keep their identity 2 requirements 0 Rome needs soldiers and cities provided them 0 could not ally with other kingdoms nor could they not pay for war 0 colonies were islands of Roman citizens throughout the country of Italy Also kept the institution 0 allow Rome to get soldiers without a bureaucracy Roman aggressiveness O encouragement of war 0 take risks 0 obtain victories 0 all for political purposes of Rome Social con ict Greek stasis 0 land distribution offices magistrates O patricians and plebeians 0 solution end of debt slavery tribune of plebeians access to magistrates O by imperial time social con ict had disappeared by 3rd century patricians and wealthy plebeians with magistrates the nobilitas formation of Italian Alliance Imperial Republic 2449 BCE 0 political system Q magistrates assembly senate priests O priests pontiffs and augurs O imperial Republic was formed by the senate O former magistrates 0 most important people few formal roles could not go against role of senate assembly had important roles in theory control by minority citizens mostly controlled by wealthy in Greek terms Rome was an oligarchy 0 supported oligarchy factions alliances 0 way of justify authority soft power OOOOO Cicero Political Speech 0 delivered to assembly in support of Pompey to receive military command in East 0 assembly granted that power 0 formality o qualities 0 military knowledge 0 courage heroism ability virtus O foresight in planning 0 dedication O thoroughness O luck felix o luck divine will Christian view not how Cicero was describing it 0 person has special relationship With gods favored O fortunate O authority auctorita o authority reputation name achievements esteem magistrates position of military commandment OOOOOO military victories and knowledge 0 This is how Romans encouraged expansion 0 Soft Power Rosenstein O auctoritas and patronage 0 public display 0 political competition 0 participate in political life thanks to ancestors a Togate Barberini Musei Capitolini Rome maintain status throughout generations Notes for 1021 Rome The Republic Monarchy Bring Agricola for Monday Guidelines are posted exam due Nov 2 Cont of Monday 0 deserve respect due to service to the empire 0 most expansion took place during the Republic the last century 0 all done Without an administration Techniques of Administration 0 urban institutions to an imperial scale 0 provinces sphere of in uence of a magistrate o imperium empire O to the Romans imperium meant the power of command the magistrate had Italian Alliance vs overseas empires military service and or tribute citizenship accumulated victories self forms of administration tribute from oversea territories O benefit for citizens enjoyment for Roman people farm taxes tax collectors O publicani 0 Matthew and Lazarus were tax collectors in the bible 0 people hated the tax collectors for obvious reasons 0 citizenship different than the Greeks socialite the Roman citizens dual citizenship throughout Italy for the Roman citizens only participate in Roman institutions in Italy by the 3rd century most Roman citizens did not live in Rome Roman slaves became citizens if the master was a Roman citizen and if he gave them permission in his will full rights after the 1st generation others could buy their freedom mostly an urban thing laws against the abuse of slaves in Roman society does not mean all the masters were nice to the slaves it was just frowned upon if ill treated rural and urban slaves could be given a small portion of land to live on and pay rent fee annually there were a lot of wealthy slaves in urban areas doctors instructors teachers servants legal marriage in Roman law war Rome vs allies because they wanted Roman citizenship socius ally after the war most people were now legal Roman citizens part of Roman state elites benefited the most alliance of oligarchies more tax collectors Ideology and Roman Republic Imperialism o the Roman civic gods and the empire 0 augurs triumph 00000000 0 0 000 00000 O ceremony procession marks the peak of military career in Rome 0 religio O conquest support of the gods but not a mandate from the gods 0 religious ceremony to give thanks to Jupiter Zeus O proper management in the relationship with the gods definition of the religio for the Romans 0 not about the belief philosophical not religious during this time 0 not doing this because the gods m it but because they all it A Moral Empire Virtus people service to the state simple life no luxury greed patriarchal authority respect to the Roman gods civil war and defeat more failure of Roman leadership compared themselves to their ancestors respect not worship of gods more people 0 not bringing order to the world 0 not a civilization 0 not about institution 0 embarrassing decline in population in the 2nd century Republic Monarchy During the time of the Parthian Empire Persia and the rise of the Sasanian Persia o the Republic never disappeared 0 control of all the Mediterranean Basin Fall of the Republic of the Nobiles c12944 BCE 0 social and political changes 0 growth of Rome rich and poor impoverishment and slavery 0 political competition and wealth more expensive 0 appeal to the people populares vs optimates O farmers still had to serve in the army while the rich had slaves 0 Julius Caesar was in debt when running for office 0 Army violence and politics 0 military threats 0 landless citizens and the army I landless citizens were offered to serve in the military in exchange for land after war 0 political violence 000 O politically successful Example Marius made promises but the senate did not want him to become more powerful military victories and political victories were important period of political and military violence many senators were murdered and expansion all in the 1st century 0 Toward autocracy O O dictatorship Marius Sulla Pompey Catiline and Cicero Towards a new monarchy 4927 BCE o Caesar s dictatorship 4944 BCE OOOOOOOOO 1st triumvirate 60 55 BCE Gallic wars 52 50 Civil war benefactor of Roman cult of personality Caesar asked the senate for dictatorship actually very popular among the people rebuilt the city built a new ceremonial center all equal that is why the senate wanted control Caesar attacked with the cult of personality no one could compete against him due to dictatorship 0 Civil wars 4430 BCE 0000 000 Octavian 2nd triumvirate Octavian vs Marc Antony Egypt Cleopatra and a son We know how that ended Antony and the son dead and Cleopatra committed suicide Antony supported Julius Caesar and Octavian punished those in the senate who murdered Julius Caesar Beware the ides of March conquered the last Hellenistic kingdom Egypt Octavian s settlement with the senate 27 BCE 0 He restored the laws and rights of the Roman people BCE 39 CC Aureus of Augustus 28 control provinces with troops Octavian controlled the military 0 not going to become a dictator claim he restored the Republic emperor appointed magistrates did not follow Julius Caesar s example 0 in theory Rome never had a king The Augustan Revolution 2714 BCE o ideological program 0 moral renewal O rebuilding Rome C peace 0 media literature and art 0 be moral no adultery even though Octavian was an adulterer
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