HSTA 101H October 12-16 Notes
HSTA 101H October 12-16 Notes HSTA 101H - 00
University of Memphis
Popular in American History I
HSTA 101H - 00
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
HSTA 255 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 101H - 00 at University of Montana taught by Kyle G. Volk (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see American History I in History at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Creating American Republics 12 October 2015 0 British colonies were transformed into Independent republics o The Revolution was about the creation of a good government according to Thomas Jefferson This was a rare opportunity to choose a country s own government Abandoning monarchyaristocracy and embracing republicanism I Popular sovereignty quotThe People are the source of political power I Equality was the basis of sociopolitical order there was no nobility in the colonies o In context of European Monarchies all monarchal empires with social distinctions I Inequality was the norm in government the colonies broke away from it 0 There was a perilous history of republics I Fragile prone to corruption disorder leading to despotism I Failure of Ancient republics Athens Rome 0 More recently the English Commonwealth 1650 Cromwell s Despotism 0 Before the Constitution 1787 0 From 17761787 the country was running on individual state governments I Believed that republics had to be small and close to quotthe people I Little to no discussion of creating a big national republic o Unyielding unworkable historically inconsistent 0 Why Form Governments 0 They needed to win the war secure resources of war I Solidified a revolutionary cause establish a new source of authority 0 Silenced the dissent of loyalists o Introduced taxes to pay for the war 0 Established legitimacy of American Independence for Europe I Ability to uphold treaties I Desperate need for alliances especially France 0 Improve on British Constitutions I Unwritten British Constitution vs betterwritten constitution 0 17761780 The great period of state constitution making 0 Era of experimentation making their own government was a learning process 0 Design problems in the structure I Simple or complex government I Proximity of government power to the people 0 What level of democracy should we have I Popular will channeled to the government Balanced or unbalanced o The British government was complex and balanced I Hierarchy of King House of Lords aristocrats and House of Commons I No one part could act without consent of the others I Liberty protected by the balance of government 0 Thomas Paine believed that American government should be simple I Thought English government was flawed and sickly I Proposed a government by single assembly no governor high court etc legislature I John Adams hated this idea it was a disservice to the revolutionary cause 0 Paine s proposal was quottoo democratic and was tyrannicaldangerous 0 Wanted bicameral legislature assemble of representatives elected council of elites o Believed in a yearly elected governor judiciary separation of powers checks and balances o This early period was significant because people began brainstorming about forms of government I Came up with lasting political and constitutional practices 0 Early constitutional models follow Paine s model shaped by controversy with Britain I Gave power to elected assemblies with weak experiences 0 Pennsylvania in 1776 Constitution Unicameral legislature elected annually No governor Only check on government was quotThe People meaning voters were held close 000 The closest state to quotdirect democracy where people ruled directly I State couldn t act unless voters voted for laws entirely 0 Massachusetts in 1780 Constituion 0 Still in place today 0 Follows Adams s model Minorities of the Constitution Slaves and Women 14 October 2015 0 April 1781 Nathaniel Jennison Master versus Quock Walker slave 0 Walker escaped Jennison took refuge working on a farm in Massachusetts was found and beaten by Jennison then taken back to captivity I This incident spawned the quotQuock Walker Cases 0 The quotQuock Walker Cases I Walker v Jennison for assault and battery 0 Walker won declaring him a free man I Jennison v Cauldwell for quotenticing his slave to escape o Jennison won declaring Walker a slave I Commonwealth v Jennison 1783 with ChiefJustice Cushing 0 Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 Declaration of Rights says ALL MEN are created equal 0 Cushing can t fit slavery into this provision declares that MA has abolished slavery o In 1790 there were no slaves in Massachusetts 0 The Revolutionary quotContagion of Liberty 0 Other power arrangements brought into question I Unequal and hostile to liberty I Slave v Free Women v Man Young v Old Rich v Poor etc o Unintended consequences of revolution I abolishing slavery I enshrined in laws and constitutions I radical ideas liberty and equality o quotunfreequot use to claim liberty and equality 0 Women of the Revolution are now Women of the Republic 0 Women became heads of the households while their husbands were at war 0 Women enter the political sphere circulated petitions made appeals 0 They were central to the revolutionary cause I Boycotts making the homes themselves not under men supervision Abigail Adams quotRemember the Ladies 0 I Not bound by any laws in which they had no voicerepresentation I Where will women be in the republican political order 0 Opens ideological space Equality of the sexes I Beyond suffrage Common Law of Coverture Structured status of married women Feme Covert Women are always under rood of man married woman was civilly dead Women had no right to contracts lawsuits property etc Feme Sole Single womenwidows were only women to own land 0 Questioning Coverture and Patrarchy quotHow can we resist husband tyranny 0 Women Voting New Jersey Constitution of 1776 o Exceptional case of women voting Feme Sole voters quotall inhabitants of full age worth fifty pounds gender neutral with property requirement 0 1790 Election Law determines who votes where says quothe or she in writing Grounded in revolutionary ideology quotevery free person who pays tax should be able to vote 0 People who opposed women s voting Argued that it masculised women to undermine male authority Men would come vote as men then crossdress and try to vote again as a woman mocking the establishment o 1807 Election Law disenfranchises women taking their vote away 0 American Paradox contradictions and hypocrisy 0 Revolution unintentionally led people to challenge slavery Opinion changes from slavery as natural to slavery as a problem 0 Contagion of liberty people used language of quotenslavementquot to protest British taxes Americans were enslaved by tea tac but held people as real slaves 0 Creating the quotFree North during the revolutionary period led to death of slavery A slow torturous process in 1810 there were 27000 slaves in northern States Regional variation but by 1804 all northern states committed to emancipation Quick in New England slavery not important economicallysocially Different in MidAtlantic States NY NJ PA where slavery was more vital 0 PA gradual emancipation in 1780 any slave born after March 1st would be free at age 28 NY adopted same law in 1799 NJ finally adopted same law in 1804 Religion in the New States 16 October 2016 o The Opportunity to create new governments inspired massive shifts in how Americans perceived religion s relationship with the government 0 North Hampton MA 1774 o Intolerable Acts were in place all public assemblies were illegal o 18 Baptist citizens were in jail for not paying taxes supporting the Congregational Puritan Church I This was a Massachusetts tax not a British tax I The Baptists believed that paying taxes violated their religious convictions 0 Isaac Backus Baptist Minister I One has no choice about religious convictions but you can choose to not dnnktea I What sources of moral authority will promote virtue among the people 0 Established churches were the norm during the 18th century 0 Received financial support from the government I Taxes were collected to support the church 0 Only that church s clergy could perform sacraments wedding funeral etc 0 Attendance was mandatory at that church 0 Dissenters were disqualified from running for public office 0 The Great Awakening 17305 0 Christian worship began to take place outside of establish churches o Focused on individual conscience saving YOUR soul I Your salvation was not the priest or king s decision Personal connection to gospel Significance I Mass movement throughout the colonies increased religious diversity I Encouraged people to trust their own views and be skeptical of leaders I Placed pressure on establish churches challenged the norm Puritans o Intellectuals influenced by the Great Awakening believed that government could not police religious beliefs I James Madison Thomas Jefferson 0 After the Great Awakening I Every state altered its religious establishment but not every state abolished it 0 MA tax support for Protestant ministers from 17801833 0 SC public offices must be filled by protestants in place until 1790 Revolutionaries concerned about creating virtuous moral societies 0 Separating church and state was not immediate but the process was begun o Disestablishing Religion in Virginia 0 State Constitution of 1776 declaration of rights states that you can t force someone into a belief Maintains right to tax based on religion but they chose not to enforce it o The possibility of this was too dangerous for all the Baptists living there 0 1779 Thomas Jefferson introduced a Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom It fails o 1784 Patrick Henry proposed liberal establishment Moderate tax for support of Christian religion all protestants are equal before the law 0 Leaves out Catholics Jews Muslims etc Concerned about promoting morality in the republican system quotGive me Liberty or Give me Death Attempting to strike good compromise endure Virginia has good people 0 The way to cultivate morality and liberty is by having a state religion 0 1785 James Madison s Memorial and Remonstrance against religious establishments 11 arguments including o The right of conscience is unalienable 0 Religion flourished best when left quotwithout support of human laws 0 Established religion leads to corruption 0 Establishments impede rather than promote the spread of Christianity 11000 Virginians support Madison many dissenting Christians 0 1786 Official end of Virginia Establishment Popular support led by Madison s arguments lead to the enactment of Jefferson s bill that originally failed in 1779 1787 State Constitution doesn t mention religious other than to ban oaths from office 1789 1st amendment guarantees free exercise of religion After this established religion in other states fall 0 These were political disputes not atheists wanting to get rid of religion 0 None of this ended religion s place in American public life 0 Controversies of 17705 and 17805 established a debate that continued I religion and religious liberties
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