HSTA 255 Notes 12-16 October
HSTA 255 Notes 12-16 October HSTA 255 - 01
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HSTA 255 - 01
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HSTA 101H - 00
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Wednesday October 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 255 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Jeffrey M. Wiltse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Montana History in History at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/21/15
Smoke Wars 12 October 2015 I Introduction A K Ross Toole Quote B Environmentalism in Montana a Before the late 19th century Montanans didn t express concern about how economic development was affecting the environment i Concern begun with copper smelting air pollution C Smoke Wars a Groups of Montana people reformed against air pollution in Butte Anaconda 11 Smoke War in Butte A Air pollution 1 Granville Stuart visit to Butte in 1885 a Stuart early gold mining specter who went to Butte with an English visitor b Smoke was yellow suffocating filled with arsenic and sulfur due to Copper smelters 2 Heap roasting a Giant open air barbecue pits for iron ore b Used to relieve the copper of impurities sulfur c 25000 tons of ore was being heap roasted at any given time in Butte B Different views of the smoke pollution a Viewed as a sign of prosperity testified to Butte being a center of industry b Smoke was disinfectant against microbe causing diseases c quotSmoke is what makes Butte women prettyquot William A Clark d Some saw it as detrimental i No grass or shrubs 4 living trees in 1890s e Safety problems people couldn t find their way around town street cars had bells f Huge nose bleedvomiting problem i Highest rates of respiratory diseases in the country 1 Average age of death was 38 C Fight against smoke pollution 1 Heber Robarts and Jerry Rounder a 1890 Middle class residents organize antipollution campaign b Robarts doctor and Rounder protestant minister in charge of the movement i Robarts saw the smoke as a health issue ii Rounder believed that pollution and filth were sinful c The two wrote articles gave speeches raising awareness and pressuring politicals 2 Butte City Council Ordinance 167 3 December 17 1890 4 Pollution is seen as a quotPublic Nuisancequot ordinance prohibits businesses from creating toxic smoke a Makes pollution a public concern although it s done on private business property b Encourages law enforcement to punish businesses for violation 5 Was a symbolic victory but smelting companies just ignored it 111 Smoke War in the Deer Lodge Valley i Deer Lodge Valley was home of established farms ranches and fertile lands A Anaconda Smelters 1 Original smelter a Not large enough to keep up with the Copper Demand 2 Washoe smelter a Built in Anaconda in 1902 b Could process 7000 tons a day c Emitted up to 59000 pounds of arsenic each day one study concludes i Sulfur dioxide arsenic lead and zinc dust B Environmental damage i Everything was killed horses livestock crops soil by the smoke making it quotbarren and desert likequot ii Farmer s demanded 12 million in damages 1 Anaconda first paid then refused and got sued to shut down the smelter C Court case 1 Deer Lodge Valley Farmers Association a This was a competition for economic reasons 2 Arguments a Once again was quotpublic nuisancequot on private property b Anaconda argued that it couldn t be shut down for economic reasons 3 Amalgamated Mining Co work outside the courtroom a Fired relatives of farmers ranchers that worked for the company b Bought newspapers used them to sway public their way c Entertained Judge William Hunt paid for all of his dining entertainment 4 Judge William Hunt s decision 1909 a Ruled in favor of Anaconda Mining Co because of economic degradation IV Conclusion a Smoke wars represent a fundamental shift in MT viewpoints b Economic prosperity was worth the cost of environmental degradation c Not really concerned about preserving the environment but quality of life i Middle class women wanted gardens ii Ranchers wanted successful farms II III Clark Daly Feud 14 October 2015 Introduction A Marcus Daly Anaconda Mining Co and William A Clark Super Wealthy Clark mining Companies B Feud involved two main issues 1 Clark s ambition to become a US Senator 2 Where the state capital would be located Round One 1888 Election 1 Montana was still a territory but was allowed to elect a delegate to represent in senate 2 Whoever was the delegate in the house of representatives when MT became a state was rst in line to be a US Senator B Clark s ambition to become a US Senator 1 Clark was Rags to Riches came from humble beginnings 2 He wanted to be a part of the social aristocracy C Daly supports Republican Thomas Carter 1 Pressuredencouraged his workers to vote republican 2 Carter won by 5000 votes although MT was a democratic territory D Why 1 Pragmatic reasons Daly assumed that Ben Harrison republican Presidential candidate would win the election 1 Thus a republican representative would have more power in the senate once MT became a state Round Two 1893 Legislative Session 1 Legislature only holds sessions every 2 years for 2 months B State legislature appoints US Senators 1 8 Democrats wanted Dixon Daly s lawyer the rest wanted Clark 2 The republicans wanted Wilbur Fitsanders spell C Deadlock and Bribery 1 None of the three got the majority vote therefore none were appointed 2 Clarke offered bribes to all to vote his way 3 Daly dug up dirt to blackmail republicans into voting his way 4 The Governor finally stepped in and unconstitutionally chooses someone else 1 Clark complains to Senate 2 For two years MT goes without the seat being filled IV Round Three The Capital Fight 1894 A Daly wanted Anaconda Clark backed Helena 1 Thought that Clark wanted Helena to spite Daly B Courting corrupting the electorate 1 Both men spent 500000 each trying to bribe voters towards their respective cities 1 Handed out cigars 5 bills 2 Newspapers Butte Miners for Clark Anaconda Standard for Daly C Clark exacts his revenge 1 Helena won 27000 to 25000 historians say the bribes didn t matter 1 People voted based on location Helena was most central 2 Clark celebrated by covering all bar tabs in Helena the night of the election 1 Around 30000 D Shows that voters became commodities Montanans became cynical about politics V Round Four 1899 Legislative Session 1 The majority of democrats vote for Clark but he doesn t get full majority 2 Clark offers 10000 to legislators to vote for him 1 Widely exposed corruption but people let it happen 2 10000 wasn t enough he offered 20000 to the remaining few 3 January 28 Clark gets majority finally becomes a US Senator B Read Punke 5 account in Chapter 5 C Main points 1 Clark used the press to de ect corruption charges 2 Hearings in Washington DC eXposed the corruption 1 Daly collected evidence and sends it to Carter MT Senator at the time 2 Clark resigns his seat before senate can refuse him 3 Neither felt bound by law democracy or basic ethics 1 Governor Robert Smith Daly loyalist and Lt Governor A E Spriggs Clark loyalist a Clark and Spriggs trick Smith into leaving the state b Acting Governor Spriggs then elects Clark c MT goes 2 more years Without senate seat filled VI Conclusion Historical Signi cance A Established a legacy of mining money corrupting MT politics B Established a pattern of mining interests using the press to manipulate public opinion War of the Copper Kings 16 October 2015 I Introduction 11 The Copper Trust A Major copper mining companies in the mid1890s i ii iii iV Vi Anaconda Mining Company hired mostly Irish people Boston and Montana Mining Company Butte and Boston Mining Company William Clark s Mining Properties Parrott Mining hired Cornish from Cornwall England Montana Ore Purchasing Company B Rogers and Rockefeller form Amalgamated Mining Co i ii Established a monopoly With Standard Oil Company Created Amalgamated Mining bought major interests in Copper mining business throughout the US C Consolidation of major copper mining companies under the Amalgamated umbrella i In 1899 acquired the controlling interest in Anaconda Mining Company though Daly still president ii By 1900 bought controlling interests in Boston and MT Butte and Boston and Parrot Mining Companies 1 William Clark s and MT Ore Purchasing Co outside of the umbrella 111 Legal Battles Between Fritz Heinze and Amalgamated A Apex Law i 1872 general mining law ownership rights are determined by where the vein of ore apexes or comes closest to the surface 1 Made sense in VT CA NM but not in MT a Veins are more complex in Montana B Lawsuits over ownership of copper ore deposits i Very easy to dispute as copper vein structures are very compleX and intricately woven ii Heinze goes through Butte records finds tiny pieces of land buys it then sues under the ApeX Law C Heinze s hometown advantage i Judge William Clancy as well as Judge Edward Harney were both friends of Heinze and ruled in his favor 1 Being a favorite of the judges was Heinze s main defense against Amalgamated Mining IV Election of 1900 A Heinze and Clark join forces 9propaganda against Amalgamated i They used newspapers they owned to encourage support of their candidates and attack Amalgamated B Amalgamated responds i Spent 15 million on campaigning for 1900 election ii Bought up a bunch of newspapers for their support 1 Hamilton Democrat Kalispell Bee Phillipsburg Democrat Red Lodge Democrat Anaconda Standard Bozeman Chronicle Livingston Enterprise C Election outcome i Heinze and Clark s candidates win 1 Clark elected for senate fairly serves one term without accomplishing much a Daly dies one week after election not living to see the day Clark sat in Senate D Clark reconciles with Amalgamated i They threaten his position in senate unless he sells ii In 1901 Clark s properties are controlled by Amalgamated V Shutdown of 1903 i Decisive moment between Heinze and Amalgamated and relationship with the state B Judge Clancy s decisions i October 1903 Clancy rules definitively on several rulings in favor of Heinze 1 Devastating for Amalgamated makes it impossible to gain profits from Montana companies that they own a It was illegal to hold such a monopoly C Amalgamated shuts down mining operations in Montana i 20000 men out of work due to shut down operations ii Economic Blackmail Amalgamated will only restart operations if the state passes the fair trials law D Montana state legislature passes fair trials law i Written by Amalgamated attorneys ii Made it easy for one side or another to disqualify biased judges and hold the case in different jurisdiction iii Cases were no longer biased towards Heinze VI Heinze sells to Amalgamated A In 1906 he sells to Amalgamated for 105 12 million VII Conclusion A Amalgamated became so economically powerful that it had potential control over the state government i Real governing power in Montana is Amalgamated Copper Co B Still some very small independent companies in Butte but Amalgamated had monopoly i Smaller companies worked with Amalgamated for majority of reformingprocessing