PSY 205 Learning Notes
PSY 205 Learning Notes PSY 205 - M001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Notetaker on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 205 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by T. Palfai in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Thursday October 15 2015 PSY 205 Chapter 6 Week 2 Notes Human Memory Encoding Storage Memory Storage Engram hypothetical means by which memories are stored Iconic Memory photographic memory for a very short period of time milliseconds Everyone has this type of memory Eidetic Memory photographic memory for a long period of time 1 in a million Uncommon type of memory George Sperling experiment on a visual sensory store afterimage Tested subjects iconic memory by flashing several rows of letters on a screen for a split second to see how many letters they could see and remember after just a short exposure to them Subjects were asked to read as many letters as they could and typically that was only 4 Longterm Potentiation LTP Longterm potentiation A longlasting increase in neural excitability in synapses of a specific neural pathway Think of it as persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity This process if thought to underline memory Encoding Getting Information into Memory Encoding is the first step in getting information into our memory Thursday October 15 2015 The role of attention Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events Selective attention selection of input Filtering screening out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through out conscious awareness Multitasking Current research suggests that the human brain can effectively handle only one attentionconsuming task at a time When multitasking we are really switching out attention back and forth among tasks rather than processing them simultaneously Levels of Processing Craik and Lockhart 1972 Incoming information is processed at different levels Deeper processing longer lasting memory codes Encoding levels Structural shallow Emphasizes the physical structure of the stimuli Phone c Emphasizes what a word sounds like Semantic Emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Deeper processing leads to enhanced memory Enriching Encoding Improving Memory Elaboration linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding Thursday October 15 2015 Thinking of examples Visual Imagery creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered Easier for concrete rather than attract objects SelfReferent Encoding Making information to be remembered personally meaningful Motivation to Remember The encoding process can be enhanced by strong motivation to remember example if you know information will be on future test DualCoding Theory Says that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall Storage Maintaining Information in Memory Atkinson amp Shiffrin model of memory storage Subdivide Sensory Memory Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time usually only a fraction of a second Allows the sensation of a visual pattern sound or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over Adaptive because it39ll give us additional time to recognize different stimuli Short Term Memory STM STM a limitedcapacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 seconds Thursday October 15 2015 Rehearsal the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information Limited Capacity Magical number is 7 plus or minus 2 items Chunking Grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unit example When shortterm memory i filled to capacity the insertion of new information bumps out some of the information currently in shortterm memory Working Memory Working Memory Capacity refers to ones ability to hold and manipulate information into conscious attention Stable personal trait But it can be temporarily reduced by situational factors such as pressure to preform or excessive worry Working memory capacity is critical to complex cognition and intelligence LongTerm Memory Unlimited Capacity Longterm memory is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time ls long term memory permanent Flashbulb memories usually vivid and detailed recollections of the circumstances in which people learned about momentous newsworthy events How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory Clustering tendency to remember similar items in a group ex remembering cat and dog in a long list of words Schemas an organized cluster of knowledge based on experience Thursday October 15 2015 ex a schema of what going out to dinner is like Semantic Networks Consists of nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that linked related concepts Connectionist or parallel distributed processing PDP models Assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks Retrieval getting information out of memory The tipofthetongue phenomenon the temporary inability to remember something you know accompanied by a feeling that its just out of reach Retrieval cues stimuli that help gain access to memories Recalling and event Context cues The often facilitate retrieval of information Reconstructing memories Misinformation effect occurs when participants recall of an event they witnessed is changed by introducing misleading postevent information Memory is constructive and fills in the gaps Ebbinghaus Contribution Serial Position Effect We remember the items at the start and end of a list better Ebbinghaus Savings score Know this and how to use it of trials in original learning of trials in relearning of trials in original leaning x 100 Thursday October 15 2015 Overlearning if you learn something once and then fully relearn it can improve your memory immensely Retention How we retain things in memory Recall reproducing information on our own without any clues Recognition measure the retention that requires subjects of elect previously learned info from array of options Relearning measuring of retention that requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time is saved by learning before Why do we forget Ineffective Encoding May have never been inserted into memory in the frist place Pseudoforgetting assume we know something but actually failed to encode the information Decay theory Attributes forgetting to the impermanence of memory storage Mere passage of time produces forgetting Not as much support for this theory Interference theory People forget information because of competition from other material Proactive occurs when previously learned info interferes with retention of new info Retroactive occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memories before the onset of amnesia Thursday October 15 2015 Mild case cant remember what happened right before More severe case no memories before present moment Anterograde Amnesia Loss of memory after set of amnesia Mild case cant remember what happened after accident More severe the patient HM Declarative vs Procedural Memory Procedural memory for actions skills operations and conditioned responses Declarative memory for factual information Declarative memory can be separated into Semantic vs Episodic Memory Semantic memory for general facts Episodic memory for personal facts Prospective vs Retrospective memory episodic Prospective memory to do things in the future Retrospective memory for past events
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