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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Hanford on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CDS 212 at Syracuse University taught by Tammy Kordas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comm/Sci & Disorders in Art at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
101915 Monday October 19 2015 346 PM Voice Disorders disruption or change in voice quality loudness pitch and quality are used to describe how we perceive a normal voice Normal voice production Fundamentalfrequencyperceived as pitch males 125hz females 226hz children 300hz Vocal fold movement is quasiperiodicvocal folds behaved like strings Determinants of frequencyin strings length mass tension Erythematous redness of inflammation of the vocal folds Aphonia total loss of voice Dysphonia abnormalvoice disturbed phonation Voice quality descriptors Harsh excessive muscle tension amplifies the high frequency component ofthe voice ex Speaking as if you are furious but without yelling Breathy produced with a partial whisper vocal folds are vibrating but are not fully adducted during phonation Hoarse combination of harsh and breathy presence of vocal fold tension coupled with breathiness Muscle Tension Dysphonia MTD disordered voices that are due to inordinate tension in the laryngeal muscles simultaneous contraction adductorsabductors patient presents with a hoarse voice type A personalities General causes off voice disorders Discrete diffuse tissue enlargement Reduction in tissue atrophy Increased muscle activity Hyper function Reduced muscle activity Hypo function Muscle dysfunction myopathy Psychological disorders Voice disorders due to neurological impairment damage to the cerebral cortex pyramidal tract peripheral nerves or neuromuscularjunctions Unilateral vocal fold paralysis affected vocal fold can not be fully adducted resulting in a breathy voice attempts to increase the adductory function ofthe unaffected fold to over adduct Spasmodic dysphonia rare 1 to 210000 defect in the basal ganglia ofthe brain causes dystonia disordered muscle tonicity muscles working against each other treated with BOTOX Nodules quotcallusesquot that develop on the vocal folds in response to trauma which adversely affects voice hoarse voice most common form of vocal fold abnormality SLP39s responsibility Is to help patient eliminate vocal abuse or misuse Polyps hemorrhagic or serous 2 types Serous pendunculated polyp narrow stalk with a baloon top Sessile polyp spread over a large area Result from vocal abuse once time occurrence unilateral Contact ulcers appears as open sore granulation tissue caused by excessive production of low pitch frequent nonproductive cough throat clearing GERD Intubation Papillomas human papilloma virus HPV cause warts will go away with time surgical removal if airway is threatened Carcinoma 11000 new cases per year slowly form with smoking synergistic relationship with alcohol invades body of folds may metastasize Instrumental evaluation Endoscopy allows clinician to visualize vocal folds and surrounding areas Stroboscopy a device that causes a light to pulsate at a particular frequency the movement characteristics of the vocal folds can be carefully examines Artificial larynx a mechanical device used to create a spectrum of tones which are modulated by the articulators to produce intelligible speech Esophageal speech air supply for phonations originated in the upper portion of the esophagus air is released and the walls ofthe esophagus are drawn into vibration speech is low pitched and limited due to mass of esophagus loudness variability is restricted due to limited volume of air Tracheoesophageal speech air is routed from the lungs to the esophagus longer phrase length greater pith and loudness variability than esophageal speech Review 1 which speech sounds are among those that are typically mastered before age 5 BDW 2 omission of speech sounds s normal in the speech ofyoung children 2 lwhpn a ton Ipnr nlrl Clth l l l ll l PQVV fnr r in cnpprh nrndiirfinn VII quotIIVIIM n vll wul Vlvl UVIMUBIBVIBVU 39I I ll I Illurlvvvll rllvvlvlvblvllli It can negatively affect how other view the child 4 phonological processes Describe patterns of sound errors that affect multiple sounds 5 a young child says I sink its funny meaning I think its funny This is an example ofspeech sound substitution 6 the occurrence ofdisfluency in speech Can be normal at any age 7 stuttering most commonly involves Repetition of sounds at the beginning of words 8 disfluencies that are most characteristic of stuttering include Prolongations of sounds of words 9 stuttering Can include nonverbal behaviors 10 the majority of Children who stutter Will overcome stuttering through maturation or therapy Language Communication an exchange of meaning between a sender and a receiver animals can communicate can be verbal or nonverbal ran ho in39lon39linnal nr Innin39lon39linnal ball UC IIILCIILIUIIUI UI UIIIIILCIILIUIIUI Language A socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rulegoverned combinations ofthose symbols doesn t have to be spoken Symbols may be sounds as in speech letters as in writing or hand movements as in sign We represent concepts primarily through words but must combine them to specify relationships ofthingsideasactionsetc Speech The oral expression of language Mechanical aspects of planning and producing soundsfor language Speech cannot exist without language Receptive Language Understanding comprehension eg listening reading a book watching a person sign Expressive Language Producing language to send a message eg talking writing signing Classification of language compared to communication 1 Productivitv quotgenerativequot can be used in novel ways say sentences never said before Ex quotThe snake s intelligent siblings lack the ability to ambulate in an erect fashion English word order can be used to express this newidea so English can be considered a language 2 Semanticitv express ideasconcepts words stand for something specific Ex a 4 month old baby cries but cannot specifically express specific concepts such as hungrythirsty tired so the baby is not using language at this point 3 Displacement can talk about things not in timespace physically Ex a dog cannot express quotI sawa burglar with a gun outside Thus the dog s bark is not language because he cannot tell about anything specific that is not present Semantics meaning of language linguistic representation of objects ideasfeelings and events also the relations between phenomena CONTENT Semantic Disorder problem with understanding or using words meanings vocabulary ex You ask a child to point to a bird and they point to a cat Phonology rules or governing the sound system of the language Phonemes FORM Phonology disorder problems applying the rules ofthe sound system on the language Syntax grammar rules by which sentences are made organizing word order word combinations Syntax disorder problems forming sentences wrong order Morphology internal organization of words small units of meaning Morphemes smallest unit of language that carries meaning SOUND Free morphemes can stand alone as one word Bounds morpheme changes the meaning of words adding their own meaning but can only be used as attachments of free morphemes Morphological disorder child may omit morphemes MORPHOLOGY PRACTICEfreebound divide by utterance The dogs are barking 42 6 She hated that idea 51 5 Mom walks too slowly42 6 That is Alex s house 41 5 Is she going with us 51 6 They walked to the store5166 They lived happily ever after 52 7 The man crashed the truck 51 6 We will go swimming tomorrow 51 6 He likes the picture 41 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF MORPHEMES 58 MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE MLU 58 MLU mean length of utterance average numberof morphemes in an utterance Pragmatics rules for language in social context conversation deciding what to say to who how to say it and when Pragmatic Disorder problem with one of those pragmatic skills Autism asperger syndrome children have difficulty learning the social rules for language Ex turn taking humor topic maintenance topic elaboration requesting clarification indirect requests is Jane there commenting making eye contact using politeness Ex Codeswitching using different dialectlanguage in different situations with different communication partners understanding background knowledge of communication partner we ll return to this n have difficulty learning the social rules forlanguage Language Variation social regional cultural context dictates language we use addressing someone responding to a question distance the language in schools might not match the language expectations that a child experiences at home Dialects variations of a language that is understood by all speakers ofa language
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