October 20-22 Notes Week (EXAM 2)
October 20-22 Notes Week (EXAM 2) Botany 260
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Botany 260 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dr. Adrian Treves in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Tuesday October 20 2015 Anna Wolves Cont Beef calves are the most frequent prey Wolf depredations are predictable Hunting to conserve issues SEE CHART See powerpoint mostly just straight facts Scandinavian Carnivores Sweden has lots of large carnivore while NonNay has some brown bears wolverines gray wolves and lynxes Swedish gov protects those 4 species They also maintain sheep populations Wolves are closely monitored One way they monitor is through urine Urine is a male while blood in urine is a female Territorial behavior could also be scratch marlts Many deaths of the wolves are due to undetectable poaching Wolves are a threat to reindeer ivestoclt pets dogs etc Wolves have been placed right in the middle Dogs have protective vests to protect against wof predation Bold wolves will go near homes you must remove anything that may be enticing them Firecraclter being thrown at wolves in image Thursday OcTober 22 2015 Annd Agroecology People and Plants Refurning To edrlier Themes in The yedr No longer Tdlting dbouT preddTion MuTudlism dnd compeTiTion will be more of This ecTure PldnT reproducTion PldnTs could hove boTh sexes Focused on ongiosperms Toddy Some spp ore dioecious Two differenT Trees for sexes Inbreeding is common in pldnTs which con be on issue becouse iT con incredse Frequency of ddmdged genes Self pollindTion seems To be moldddeive buT dlso useful To solidifying d useful seT of genes Con find 0 dee edsier dnd They hove more of d chdllenge finding dees becouse They do noT move Mdybe This is The evouTiondry souTion To noT being dble To find 0 dee How PldnTs Find MdTes lsefing self pollendTion 2 PldnTs clumping TogeTher 3 Moss flowering MdsT incredses chdnces To find 0 dee 4 Trdp lining in bredltfdsT of biodiversiTy specidl disTribuTion is impoernT PollindTors con follow 0 predichble pdTTern 2 4 bdsiCdlly relies on onimdls How PollindTors Help When onimdls ore involved iT s muTudlisTic PldnTs benefiT by moving The gdmeTes The onimdls benefiT from The nechr or proTein No inTenTion or purpose noT seelting To help The pldnTs OTher Thdn humdns will help pldnT reproduce becouse They dlso geT d benefiT SpecidlisT pollinoTors exomple Moddgdscor orchid con only be pollinoTed by one specific moTh very long Tongue con redch The nechr The benefiT is becouse The moTh con only redch Tth some flower insTedd of jusT dny flower Chdllenge for pollinoTors To find The flower efficienle coecT before The nechr is gone f There is d oT of compeTiTion iT could be depleTed by d differenT pollinoTors Crop pollindfion represenfs d mufuolisfic reldfionship befween 3 species Crop former hos on inferesf in fhe efficiency of fhe pollindfion If is of incredsing concern becouse formers ore hdving issues gelling fheir crops pollindfed reoding for foddy People specidlize in rdising Europedn domesficofed honey bees dnd fhen rely on fhem fo pollindfe They go dround form fo form hdving fhem pollindfe fhe former s crops Dependenf on good fiming knowledge of former dnd bee lteeper Thredfs include climdfe chdnge dnd colony colldpse syndrome Bee species colldpsing They found fhdf some of fhe forms were benefifing from ndfive bees Those formers could sove money Those formers fhdf lived nedr ndfurdl foresfs were fhe ones benefifing dnd dlso orgdnic formers fhdf didn f use pesficides Redding soys fhdf some yedrs d pdrficuldr bee populdfion could be domindfe one yedr 0nd 0 differenf one fhe nexf yedr The complexify is differenf pollindfors ore beffer for differenf crops Even honeybees ore nof gredf for oil crops Diversify of crops dnd bees fogefher is whdf is beneficidl for fhe fdmer Seed Dispersol Offspring Seeds musf survive Fruif is fhe reword for fhe onimdl fhdf will disperse fhe dpple seed Almosf universol fhdf if is difficulf for fhe offspring fo survive under fhe pdrenf They ore more subjecf fo pdfhogens dnd herbivory They know where fo sedrch becouse fhere is 0 huge oollt free dcorn exomple Wind dnd wofer is d populdr mode of seed dispersol Willows grow by wofer dnd fhe fluffy fruif will be dispersed downsfredm Mdjorify of dispersol is done by onimdls The dilemmo is some of fhe onimdls will dlso desfroy fhe seed occidenfdlly or purposefully if confdins d lof of nufrifion Seed Preddfion Pldnfs defend fhe seeds by sepdrdfing fhe seed dred dnd fhe fruif IE dpples ther seeds ore so smdll fhdf fhey escope fhe crushing from feefh or being desfroyed in digesfion IE Figs Fig Digression Wild figs hove been orgued fo be llteysfone species bc so mdny onimdls edf fhem They fruif dsynchronously if doesn f mdfferwhen fhe ofher frees fruif becouse if doesn f depend on finding fhe ofher sex Bofh sexes ore normdlly in fhe some free They ore ledys fruifing somewhere lf s d gredf fdll bdcllt food Figs don f give much reword fhough Brdzil nuT hds The hdrdesT fruiT of dny oTher fruiT Hdrd ouTer surfdce MosT in sTores dre or wild nuT noT domesTicoTed Tries To proTecT iTself from The inTense rodenTs in The foresT Armor Poisonous seeds dre 0 good woy To proTecT The seed Odks will drop dcorns of The some Time They con drop millions of Them They produce so mdny Tth They cdn T edT oil of Them Where There is d loT of seed preddTors They will hide The seeds dnd if They dre producing mdny seeds They forgeT someTimes where They hide The seeds So now They hdve been pldnTed by The dnimdls PreddTor swomping PldnT Defenses To Herbivory DiluTion of rislt ided of sdfeTy in numbers STrucTurdl defenses Hdrd wood lignin dnd cellulose for The mosT pdrT Those dre indigesTible Holes in ledf insecT ddmdge They chew ground The cellulose Chemicols in The sTrucTurdl pdrTs of pldnTs reduce herbivory Spindch Digression Spindch hds someThing Tth reduces The dmounT of Iron If you cook if you geT more iron Unpdldeble medns Tth The TdsTe is bdd MuTudlism wiTh dnimdls con be one ds well Spicy peppers deTer dnimdls becouse of The spice Poison Ivy dnd mdngos hdve The some compound Tth reduce herbivory Alkdloids Humdns volue They evolved in The pldnTs becouse They dre good dgdinsT pldnTs Coffeine nicoTine cocoine dll con edT smdll dmounTs of Them buT in ldrge doses will kill you More diverse dnd common in Tropics becouse They hdve more insecT herbivores MuTudlism Wisconsin fdrmer using 0 scorecrow To proTecT crop from preddTors AnT dCdcid reword for dnT To sTdy The dnT form or colony wiThin The dCdcid They keep The dCdcid from herbivory They bdsic0y dre pdying for 0 body guord Crop rdiding ElephdnTs lillte To edT The piTh of The bdndnd free which dre desTroyed Bedrs Try To edT Tree pdrTs ds well We dre noT The only fdmers link The video is dbouT ledf cuTTer dnTs GidnT colonies of dnT Tth hdrvesT ledves dnd lelte smdll dmounT of ledves info The mounds dnd underground They Tendgdrden The mold Tth ede The Iedf frdgmenTs T produces 0 food source Tth They con feed on Use of pesTicides Think dbouT food web Field of crops is The bdse of The pyrdmid insecTs eoT The crops Then There ore The preddTors former iltes TO BE CONTINUED NEXT LECTURE