Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes PSYC-1000-02
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 6 Learning Definitions Learning relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience 0 Excludes situational variables ex being upset in the moment and maturational variables developmental 0 Typically repeated experiences with the environment 0 In uenced by motivation of subject Conditioning process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses learning Associations we learn by making associations 0 Condition stimulus and unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning o Behaviorconsequence in operant conditioning Classical Conditioning Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus NS becomes paired associated with an unconditioned stimulus UCS unlearned response to elicit a conditioned response CR learned response 0 Stimuli occur before responses 0 UCS associated with UCR re ex arc 0 CS associated with CR learned response 0 No crosstalk UU and CC Pavlov s Contribution o Studied digestion physical re exes o Noticed that dogs would salivate to a white lab coat changed his research to study this phenomena I Psychic Secretions Basic form of learning that occurs with or without our awareness o Taps into re exes which can occur without out awareness Neutral Stimulus NS stimulus that before conditioning doesn t naturally bring about the response of interest 0 Ex Lab coat in Pavlov s experiment lab coat would not typically cause a dog to salivate Unconditioned Stimulus UCS stimulus that elicits an UCR occurring without previous conditioning 0 Food Unconditioned Response UCR unlearned reaction to a UCS occurring without prior conditioning o Salivation Conditioned Stimulus CS previously NS that through repeated pairings with an UCS not causes a CR 0 White lab coat Conditioned Response CR learned reaction to a CS occurring because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS o Salivation Acquisition the phase in the process in which initial learning occurs first phase 0 When the UCS is paired with the CS 0 In CC acquisition occurs through the association between the USC and the CS 0 During conditioningquot Order or Paring UCS and CS Delayed Conditioning most effective NS presented before UCS and remains until UCR begins 0 Tone presented before food Simultaneous Conditioning NS presented at the same time as UCS 0 Tone and food presented simultaneously Trace Conditioning NS presented and then taken away or ends before USC presented 0 Tone rang but food presented only once the sound stops Backward Conditioning least effective USC presented before NS 0 Food presented before the tone 0 Ex Pushing a begging dog away from food before saying quotNoquot Studies often report that approximately 12 a second is the optimal time between the NS which becomes the CS and UCS parings Classically Conditioned Emotions Conditioned Emotional Response CER Watson demonstrated how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus NS Watson and Rayner created a fear of rats a CER in his baby Albert 0 Watson s experiments were the first to systematically show a learned fear response I Paired a loud sound with a white rat appearing I Learned to cry in response to the rat appearing would originally only cry from the sound of the cymbals I Subsequent studies have indicated that emotional responses can be conditioned to words objects or symbols I UCS cymbals CS white rat UCR amp CR cryingfear Conditioning s Basic Principles Not specific to any type of conditioning Stimulus Generalization learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli CS 0 Generalized responses taper off as we decrease similarity from original stimulus 0 Ex All snakes are badquot I Occurs in both classical conditioning and operant conditioning Stimulus Discrimination learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimuli 0 With continued training the subject responds only to stimuli very similar to original stimulus 0 Ex Only some snakes are bad Acquisition gt Generalization gt Discrimination Extinction gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response CR CCCS repeatedly presented without USC 0C withhold reinforcement 0 Active process where you learn to not respond 0 The response of an animal salivating with a white lab coat will discontinue if a person in a white lab coat continually comes in without the meat in classical conditioning o Opposite of a learning curve Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response with additional training CR 0 After some extinction the learned response comes back when meat is brought back in HigherOrder Conditioning Neutral stimulus NS becomes a conditioned stimulus CS through repeated pairing with a previously conditioned stimulus CS Operant Conditioning Involves voluntary behavior and not necessarily linked to re exes Future occurrence of behavior is linked to consequences 0 Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences good consequences increase behavior while bad consequences reduce behavior immediate outweighs distant associations between behavior and response 0 Thorndike s Law of Effect behaviors followed by a pleasurable state of affairs tend to be repeated behaviors followed by an unpleasant state of affairs tend to not be repeated 0 Skinner s Contribution Reinforcement and Punishment defined based on occurrence of the behavior I Schedules of reinforcement strengthening a response as evidenced by an increase in behavior Primary Reinforcers normally satisfy an unlearned biological need ex Food Secondary Reinforcers normally satisfy a learned value ex Money praise Real world reinforcement vs Experimentation Many experimental studies use primary reinforcement while much of human behavior is motivated through secondary reinforcement o Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles I Positive Reinforcement adding or presenting a stimulus which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur ex Candy or praise pressing a lever to get food I Negative Reinforcement taking away or removing a stimulus which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur ex Headache removed after taking an aspirin pressing lever turns off shock Avoidance of the stimulus is common in anxiety disorders and is reinforced through negative reinforcement Ll SUMMARY TABLE 62 Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Adds to and Takes away and strengthens behavior strengthens behavior You do a favor for a friend You do the dishes and your and she buys you lunch roommate stops yelling Primary in return Reinforce You wash your friend39s car You take an aspirin for your and she hugs you headache which takes away the pain Ill39il 2l3v39 z i39ujhft 1mm M 39i quotWIT l lint pk ll39l I39I I39I Schedules of Reinforcement Determines when we give a reinforcer 1 Fixed Ratio FR Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses the ratio number or amount is xed a FR1 is called continuous reinforcement b Best for starting a behavior 2 Variable Ratio VR Reinforcement occurs unpredictable the ratio number or amount varies 3 Fixed Interval Fl Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed the interval times is xed 4 Variable Interval VI Reinforcement occurs unpredictably the interval time varies Partial reinforcement is any other schedule than FR1 and has a greater resistance to extinction De nitions Response Rates Examples 2 Fixed 39ra tijov Reinforcement inqduces a39ihigh Bagents pay a childquot10a er FR occdrsiafter a irate of he Washos zl fIi39lz a 39 xed number of but a brlefidljopoff laborat qqlalrat i eceivesa responses a 39ijust a er 39 39 fo od pellet39a er preSIIig rel forcement bar 7 7 Variable Rei fOrcemerit V ngh respor e rates Slbt machines are designed ratiqt R comunpre no pause after to gay out after anaaverage dietably the fei fdrcement a nd hurilber of r a39sporxes n39iaybe ratio number very regi mfto every l0tiines but any one and amount extin tf0n machine may pay futon the varies39a er the rst response39then seventh responses made theh thetWeritieth A Ratio Smede re pdxiSe based Behavioral response effects of Schedules Ratios produce faster rates than do intervals FRPost reinforcement pause FI Scalloping Operant Conditioning in the real world Shaping Reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response 0 Shaping by the Method of Successive Approximations o Necessary in real world applications Punishment weakening a response 0 Informs us of what NOT to do 0 Positive Punishment adding or presenting a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur ex Shouting o Negative Punishment taking away or removing a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur ex Restriction time out Side Effects of Punishment 0 Can result in a brief increase in behavior followed by the expected decrease in behavior 0 Can lead to increased aggression passive aggressiveness avoidance behavior modeling temporary suppression learned helplessness CognitiveSocial Theory Learning 0 Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior 0 development of cortex Kohler s chimps demonstrated insight learning sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution mastery of task thereafter Very different finding when compared to rats highlights working with different species Tolman s rats built a cognitive map a mental image of a 3D space They also displayed latent learning hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs Latent Learning Two groups of rats one trained with food reward other trained with no obvious reward Group trained with food reward performs better than other group When nonfood group is switched to a food reward performance quickly improves to exceed the equal other group Results indicate that both groups learned maze but the nonfood group was lacking incentive to reveal learning We measured performance Observational Learning Learning new behaviors or information by watching others Bandura s Famous Bobo Doll study Involves four processes 1 Attention 2 Retention 3 Motor Reproduction 4 Reinforcement Neuroscience and Learning When we learn something we experience the creation strengthening of synapses and alteration s in many brain structures receptors 0 Long Term Potentiation cellular model of learning hippocampus glutamate and aspartate Biology Evolution and Learning Conditioned Taste Aversion classically conditioned negative associations of food to illness Biological Preparedness builtin innate readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses Instinctive Drift conditioned responses shift or drift back toward innate response pattern Conditioning and Society Classical Conditioning can be seen in 0 Marketing 0 Prejudice 0 Medical Treatments 0 Phobias Racial prejudice can be classically conditioned with or without a child s awareness A popular theory of emotion states that we have a cognitive assessment following physiological arousal If this arousal is paired with one race then the CC can occur Operant Conditioning can be seen in o Prejudice o Biofeedback o Superstitions CognitiveSocial Theory can be seen in o Prejudice 0 Media In uences
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