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Chapter 6 Notes

by: LSTEARNS Notetaker

Chapter 6 Notes PSYC-1000-02

LSTEARNS Notetaker
GPA 3.6
Introductory Psych
Hebert, Thomas

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Here are the notes from Chapter 6! Enjoy!
Introductory Psych
Hebert, Thomas
Class Notes
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by LSTEARNS Notetaker on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-02 at Tulane University taught by Hebert, Thomas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Exam I Study Guide CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Research Methods Introducing Psychology Psychology the scientlfic study of behavior and mental processes hard vs soft science 0 Hard science natural science chemistry physics biology etc I Can be directly measured 0 Soft science social sciences ex psychology I Cannot be directly measured Psychology focuses on critical thinking the process of objectively evaluation comparing analyzing and synthesizing information Pseudopsychologies ex Psychics mediums are nonscientific o Are unreliable approaches that do not use the scientific method I Ex Astrology Palmistry Psychokinetic humans can move objects through mental concentration Follicology personality characteristics are related to hair color Scientific collects and evaluates information using systematic observations and measurements Behavior anything we do that can be directly observed and recordedtalking sleeping texting Mental Processes private internal experiences thoughts perceptions feelings and memories Psychology s Four Goals 1 Description tells what occurred 2 Explanation tells why a behavior or mental process occurred 3 Prediction identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occurquot 4 Change applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals The largest group of PHD recipients in psychology is in Clinical and Counseling psychology What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a clinical counseling psychologist Psychiatrist medical doctors have an MD have a license to prescribe meds and drugs Clinical Counseling Psychologist degrees in human behavior and methods of therapy often work with psychiatrists Origins of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt father of psychologyquot Leipzig Germany 1879 o Preformed the first lab in psychology Structuralism focused on sensations and perceptual experiences sought to identify the basic building blocks or structures of the mind through introspection the contents of the conscious brain basic sensations and feelings based off of a simple noise smell sound etc o Wundt used trained subjects which was a aw to look at apples through a small hole in order to describe the small amounts that they saw structuralism o Wundt and Titchener key leaders Functionalism studies how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment 0 William James key leader 1875 I Studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment 0 Modern psychology would be closest to functionalism Psychoanalyticpsychodynamic perspective unconscious processes and unresolved past con icts Freud was the founder 0 Changed his theory so he could never be wrong 0 Doesn t lend itself to testability 0 Not much science involved in his ideas 0 Modern perspective unconscious processes unresolved past con icts Gestalt psychology emphasized perception the notion that the whole is more than the sum of the parts Wertheimer More Recent Schools of Thought Behavioral perspective objective observable environmental in uences on overt behavior Watson Pavlov and Skinner were leaders 0 Watson found that fears could be conditioned o Skinner thought that environment determines everything given any child he could train them to be any person or type of person lawyer doctor beggar thief The behavioral perspective has had a great and continuing in uence on modern psychology 0 Behaviors stress observable and quantitative aspects of science Humanist perspective free will selfactualization and a positive growth seeking human nature Rogers and Maslow were key figures I We can choose how to act Stresses free will All individuals naturally strive to grow develop and move toward selfactualization state in which we realize our highest potential I Rogerian Therapy I Maslow talks about the hierarchy of needs 0 Opposition to psychoanalytic psychodynamic perspective Freud I Freud is pessimistic saying we are constantly in con ict and trapped by the animalistic aspects of the brain Cognitive perspective thought perception and information processing 0 Thinking perception memory language and problem solving I They would be interested in how you interpret the meaning of her words 0 Information processing likening the mind to a computer that takes in info processes it and then produces a response 0 Serial processing parallel learning Original way of thinking before info processingthought process is quicker 0 Reaction time is measured NeuroscienceBiopsychology perspective genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system 0 Brain Differences I The difference between the brains of men and women is quite small Only a few areas have been reported to differ significantly I Society paints a pictures that female and male brains are much more different than they actually are Females have more connectivity between the two sides of the brain Evolutionary natural selection adaptation and evolution 0 Female spiders can mate with multiple male spiders separately store the sperm and then choose which sperm she would like to put in her reproductive system I Mate choice I Natural selection I E O Wilson Sociocultural social interaction and cultural determinants Sociobiology o Mamie and Kenneth Clark 0 Ethnicity religion occupation socioeconimic More Psychology Views Psychoanalytic view emphasizes the unconscious mind Freud Behaviorism focuses on objective and measurable behaviors WatsonSkinner Humanistic psychology emphasizes the innerself and the importance of subjective feelings Maslow Cognitive psychology focuses on mental function and reasoning Ebbinghaus The Science of Psychology Psychological as well as all research can be either 0 Basic conducted to advance scientific knowledge seeks answers for theoretical questions I Ex How is hunger controlled by the brain 0 Applied designed to solve current practical problems seeks answers for specific application problems I Ex Organizational psychology studies leadership job satisfaction job training and development Alcohol abuse combines basic and applied research The Scientific Method Thomas Kuhn o Paradigm Shift a change in the basic assumptions or paradigms within the ruling theory of science It is in contrast to his idea of normal science 0 Normal Science the regular work of scientists experimenting within a settled paradigm or explanatory framework 0 Revolutionary Science the transformation from one paradigm to another Contrasts with normal science Ethical Guidelines in Psychology Key issues for Human Research Participants Informed consent Voluntary participation Restricted use of deception Debriefing Confidentiality Alternative activities Respecting the rights of human research participants involves Informed consent is an explanation of a study and the responsibilities of experimenter and participant Deception involving the subjects must be justified Freedom to withdraw must be available Confidentiality of study information must be maintained Debriefing explaining the research process to subjects at the end of the study 0 Animal research must be justified and must minimize discomfort to participants Research Methods in Science Major Research Methods 1 Experimental Manipulation and control of variables a Used to identify cause and effect meets the explanation goals of psychology 2 Descriptive Naturalistic observation surveys case studies a Used to observe collect and record data meets the descriptive goal of psychology 3 Correlational Statistical analyses of relationships between variables a Used to identify relationships and how well one variable predicts another meets the predictive goal of psychology 4 Biological Studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system a Used to identify causation description and prediction meets one or more of the four goals of psychology The Experiment Experimental Research carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause and effect Key Features a Independent variable factor that is manipulated versus dependent variable factor that is measured operational definition b Experimental group receives treatment versus control group receives no treatment Iohn Stuart Mill Ioint method agreement and difference Experimental groups allow the agreement while the control group represents the difference Research Considerations Controls are important for determining causality o The only difference between the experimental and control groups is the presence or absence of the IV 0 All other aspects are the same 0 Gives the experiment an advantage over other forms of inquiry Placebo effects behavioral changes relative to expectations of a treatment as opposed to actual treatment 0 Greater placebo effects with I Bigger expensive painful I Administered by MD Only an experiment can determine cause and effect Potential Researcher Problems Experimenter Bias researcher in uences the research results in the expected direction 0 Refers to preconceived expectations hat in uence data collection I Can be controlled using blind procedures Experimenters and subjects are ignorant of treatment conditions I Blind data collection by assistants I Inadvertent research by assistants Ethnocentrism believing one s culture is typical of all cultures Potential Participant subject Problems Sample Bias Nonrepresentative Sample 0 Research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population must use random or representative sample Participant Bias Act different 0 Research participants are in uenced by the researcher or experimental conditions reveal only as much as necessary to collect data Research Method Descriptive Research Descriptive Research observe and record behavior without interfering and does not produce casual explanations Types Naturalistic Observation observation and recording of behavior in natural state or habitat o Refers to the systematic recording of data in a subjects natural state or habitat I Ex Iane Goodall observing apes in the wild Survey assessment of a sample or population 0 Written instruments designed to sample attitudes or behaviors I Representative sample asking persons at a PETA rally how they feel about animal rights issues I Must ask right questions Likert Scales Case Study in depth study of a single participant or subject 0 Freud used the case study method to probe anxiety 0 Sample representation 0 Often used when subjects are rare Research Method Correlations The researcher observes or measures without directly manipulating two or more variables to find relationships between them 0 Correlations characterize ongoing phenomena Very helpful in areas where it is unethical immoral to do an experiment However because there is no control group we are limited in determining a causal relationship between correlated variables The correlation technique indicates the mathematical association between variables Correlations indicate the corresponding changes in variables 0 Positive correlation changes in the value of variable 1 are associated with similar changes in the value of variable 2 I Two variables move or covary in the same direction either up or down Research shows there is a positive correlation between hours studying and overall GPA 0 Negative correlation changes in the value of variable 1 are associated with opposite changes in the value of variable 2 I Two variables move or covary in the opposite direction The higher the interest rate the fewer loans a bank makes 0 No correlation values of variable 1 are not related to variable 2 values I No mathematical relationship between two variables Correlations also indicate the degree to which the variables covary or follow each other 0 No correlation no relationship between the 2 variables and correlation coefficient is close to O 0 Strong correlation Knowing the value of one variable permits one to accurately estimate the value of the other variable and coefficient is closer to 1 or 1 I Strong correlation can be positive or negative I Correlation coefficient are in uenced by the slope of the regression line and how closely the data points fall next to the regression line Typical correlations in Psychology would vary from weak correlations of O 02 to moderate correlations of 03 04 and strong correlations of greater than 04 In biology a strong correlation might be 6 or 07 and in physics a strong correlation might be 08 or better Correlations can be seen in scatter plots 0 The terms positive and negative correlation are used because of the slope of the data scatterplots Regression line line of best fit Physical Biological and Psychological Sciences Correlational Research Correlation cannot show cause and effect If stress and cancer are positively correlated then does the cancer cause the stress or does the stress cause the cancer 0 Correlation is NOT causation Research Methods Biological Research Scientific study of the brain and other parts of the nervous system Lesions DNA expression Cell protein labeling Electrical recording Electrical stimulation Microdialysis Drug administration PET scan MRI scan FMRI Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Biological Functions Neural Bases of Psychology Neuroscience interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes 0 The nervous system consists of neurons receive and transmit electrochemical information and neuroglia which serve a supporting role Primary Brain Cells comes from the glial cells cancer that starts in the brain Very rare but always fatal 0 Glial Cells in the periphery nerves can regenerate The Structure of a Typical Neuron Dendrites receive information from other neurons and sensory receptors Cell Body receives information from dendrites and if enough stimulation is received the message is passed to the axon 0 Cell body is covered in synapses and also received information Axon carries neuron s message to other body cells 0 Axon Hillock initial segment at the beginning of the axon region closest to the soma Different in that the ion channels here are voltage gated they open in response to a voltage increase on the inside of the hillock I Each axon hillock has a threshold for opening the ion channels 0 Connections closer to the hillock are stronger o Na and K ion channels are located along the axon Myelin Sheath covers the axon of some neurons to insulate and help speed neural impulses Terminal buttons of axon form junctions with other cells and release chemicals called neurotransmitters 0 Some neurotransmitters are formed at the cell body others formed at the axon terminal Typical ow of information is from dendrites soma to axon to terminals The neuronal membrane is a bilayer of two sheets of amphiphilic molecules The cholinephosphate head group is hydrophilic but the cholesterol tail is hydrophobic They arrange themselves accordingly such that the head groups are facing both the aqueous interior and exterior of the neuron o Membranes are semipermeable some things can cross and others cannot 0 Uses ion channels to allow electrical communication 0 Ions are unevenly distributed across membrane and can cross membrane only when stimulated There is some leak sodium potassium pump I Ion channels allow two forces to redistribute ions when channels are open Concentration gradient more Na outside and more K inside Electrostatic pressure inside negative while outside positive Used in graded and action potentials Graded potentials occur on dendrites and soma What happens when a neurotransmitter binds a receptor 0 Relative weaker or stronger 0 Result from receptors opening or closing ion channels on the dendrites and soma ligand gated 0 Fast but strength decreases with distance 0 Can be excitatory Na increase rate of action potentials or inhibitory Cl decrease rate of action potentials 0 Will summate I Spatial Summation synapse 1 2 or 3 alone did not reach threshold but because of location when they fired together it summated to reach threshold I Temporal Summation synapse 1 fired with longer time breaks will not reach threshold Synapse 1 fired repeatedly will reach threshold Action potential occurs on an axon 0 Not relative full strength or not at all I All or none law I Larger diameter axons have faster potentials I Action potential reaches the axon terminals which causes neurotransmitters release Neural Communication Within along a neuron communication occurs through graded and action potentials Graded and action potentials work together to get information along the neuron Synapse Between neurons communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters chemicals released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons Axon terminals send neurons to almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron Types of Synapses Excitatory synapses depolarize Inhibitory synapses hyperpolarize Ionotropic synapses act fast but abruptly while metabotropic synapses act slower for longer Spatial and Temporal Summation make it all quite complex Enrichment Experiments Rats raised in enriched environments show increased dendritic branching when compared to rats raised in impoverished environments Neurotransmitters have multiple receptor subtypes Major Neurotransmitters Serotonin 5HT depression sensory experiences 0 Acetylcholine ACh movement learning memory 0 Dopamine DA mood movement reward pathway 0 Norepinephrine NE emotion arousal Glutamate excitatory memory 0 GABA gamma amino butyric acid inhibitory movement anxiety 0 Most prevalent neurotransmitter in the brain The synapse is a place of action The nervous system often uses an increase or decrease in neurotransmitter release or receptor number to affect behavior And all neurotransmitter systems have a quick method for deactivation within the synapse Receptor Sites Normal message proper shape lock and key hypothesis Blocked message wrong shape but blocks any neurotransmitters from getting in the receptor Agonistic drugs mimic shape and enhance neurotransmitter Antagonistic drugs fill the site and block neurotransmitter 0 Don t bind well enough to induce biological action Endocrine System Collection of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones Hormones often travel great distances thru the bloodstream to reach a target area Have both rapid and longer lasting effects Nervous System Organization Central Nervous System includes the brain and spinal cord everything encased in bone 0 Drives mental and basic life processes Peripheral Nervous System includes all nerves and neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body 0 Carries information to and from the central nervous system 0 Subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems I Both systems are equally as important I Somatic innovates the muscles Conveys sensory information to the CNS and sends motor messages to muscles I Autonomic regulates internal organs in homeostasis sweating and digestion Controls involuntary basic life functions such as heartbeat and response to stress Sympathetic Nervous System Arouses body to expend energy and respond to threat 0 Operates at a time of acute stress 0 Parasympathetic Nervous System Calms body to conserve energy and restore the status quo 0 Designed for ongoing normal regulation I Opposites Both CNS and PNS work together Spinal Cord transmits information into and out of the brain 0 Injuries often involve both 0 Dorsal back vs Ventral front I Motor stimulus through the ventral Causes us to move Spinal cord is responsible for involuntary automatic behaviors called re exes Some re exes are controlled by medulla and midbrain o Medulla vs Midbrain Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System connects to sensory receptors The Brain Grouped into 0 Forebrain quality of life thinking I Collection of upperlevel brain structures including the thalamus hypothalamus and limbic system Thalamus relays incoming sensory messages to the cerebral cortex Hypothalamus responsible for emotions drives hormone interactions and homeostasis 0 Located below the thalamus Limbic System associated with emotional expressions learning and memory 0 Midbrain collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain that coordinates movement patterns sleep arousal and re exes I Reticular formation runs through the hindbrain midbrain and brainstem and screens incoming information and controls arousal o Hindbrain I Medulla life survival functions I Pons respiration movement waking sleeping and dreaming Bridging the left and right sides of the cerebellum I Cerebellum little brainquot coordination of fine muscular movements balance and some aspects of perception and cognition Coordinated movements Affected by alcohol If someone is brain dead in a hospital their cerebral cortex is not working 0 Lose the quality of life that you associate with being human Cerebral Cortex makes up most of the brain 6 cell layers on the surface of left and right cerebral hemispheres o Regulates most complex behaviors including sensations motor control and higher mental processes Lobes of Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobe largest lobe receives and coordinates messages from other lobes motor control speech production and higher functions 0 The greatest difference between humans and other animals is the complexity of the frontal lobe What separates the human brain from other animals individual personality is located Frontal Lobe Personality changes when frontal lobes are damaged Parietal Lobe receives information from the skin about pressure pain touch and temperature position of limbs in space 0 Located on top of the brain directly behind frontal lobes Temporal Lobe hearing language comprehension memory and some emotional control Occipital lobe vision and visual perception Body proportion to how much cortex connections brain power they each get Why is the face so sensitive Very close to brain and major sensory organs Gives us the ability to display emotions Lateralization of function SplitBrain Research Severing the corpus callosum provides data regarding the functions of the brain s two hemispheres Connects the left and right sides of the brain 0 Left side Language L L 0 Right side Mathematic emotions Genetic Inheritance To answer questions about the in uence of nature versus nurture psychologists use behavioral genetics research Behavioral Genetics studies the relative effects of nature heredity genes and chromosomes and nurture environment on behavior and mental processes The nucleus of every cell in our body contains genes which carry the code for hereditary transmission These genes are arranged along chromosomes strands of paired DNA Reciprocal relationship between genes and environment Concordance Rate the percent of twins showing the same characteristic Many psychological variables have a greater concordance rate for monozygotic twins as opposed to dizygotic twins Evolutionary Psychology studies how natural selection and adaptation help explain behavior and mental processes 0 Sex differences in Iateralization I Activation is confined to only one hemisphere in the male brain occurs on both hemispheres on the female brain 0 Neuroplasticity brain s lifelong ability to reorganize and change its structure and function 0 Neurogenesis the division and differentiation of nonneuronal cells to produce neurons 0 Stem Cells Precursor immature cells that have yet to differentiate into a particular cell type Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Sensation process of receiving converting and transmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain Raw data is processed by sensory receptors eyes ears nose skin tongue Perception process of selecting organizing and interpreting sensory information Sensations are processed in the brain Interpret that you are hearing a song seeing a bug touching something sharp etc Represents a continuum from the biological to the psychological Sensation is to biology as perception is to psychology Selective attention determines which sensations get further processed Importance of Sensory receptor Processing sensory organs contain receptors that receive sensory information from the environment often responds to only a limited range of the stimulus no receptor no perception 0 You can t hear high pitch dog whistles Three Types of Processing Transduction converts energy in the environment into neural impulses Sensory Reduction filters and analyzes incoming sensations before sending on to the brain selective attention Coding routes particular sensory input to different parts of the brain Transduction sensory reduction and coding all occur simultaneously as messages are sent to the brain johannes Muller Doctrine of specific nerve endings 0 Messages are the same different experiences occur because message is routed to different brain areas I Experiments with frog retina Thresholds Psychophysics testing limits and ability to detect changes 0 Absolute Threshold smallest amount of a stimulus we can detect single stimulus presented I Method of Limits Ascending and descending trials Simplest but predictable procedure I Method of Constant Stimuli Randomized order no prediction of procedure Subject cannot predict the pattern I Staircase Method Subjects response determines next stimulus value Best for testing changes in sensitivity 0 Difference Threshold minimal difference needed to detect a stimulus change also called the just noticeable d erence IND two stimuli presented I Musician doesn t have better overall hearing but can determine the difference between notes better than an average person I Weber s Law Change in Intensity Original Intensity K The larger the initial stimulus values require larger changes in intensity to make a noticeable difference IND Relationship between psychical stimulus magnitude and psychological magnitude varies for the sensory modalities 0 Large changes in the output of a light are associated with relatively small changes in brightness while small changes in the output of a shock generator will result in a relatively large change in the perception of pain Understanding Sensation Thresholds Sensory Adaptation decreased response to continuous stimulation sometimes at receptor sometimes due to attention 0 Smell adapts the quickest 0 Pain adapts the slowest Vision how we see Light is a form of electromagnetic energy that moves in waves Many lengths of electromagnetic waves form the electromagnetic spectrum Light waves vary in 0 Length wavelength which determines frequency hue objective or color subjective 0 Height amplitude which determines strength intensity objective or brightness subjective Anatomy of the Eye 0 Cornea and Lens capture light waves and focus them on receptors in the retina o Receptors for vision are the rods and cones located in the retina I Cones High degree of visual acuity Wired to brain in onetoone fashion Located in the center of the retina Dominant in normal viewing conditions Associated with color vision High degree of visual sensitivity Wired to brain in severaltoone fashion Located in periphery of retina Dominant in low light viewing conditions Associated with blackwhite vision 0 Normal vision image is focused on the retina o Nearsightedness myopia image is focused in the front of the retina o Farsightedness hyperopia image is focused behind the retina How We Hear Audition Sound results from a movement of air molecules in a wave pattern 0 Compression and rarefaction Sound waves vary in 0 Length wavelength which determines pitch highness or lowness frequency 0 Height amplitude which loudness intensity of the sound I The loudness of a sound is measured in decibels logarithmic scale Prolonged exposure above 90 decibels can cause permanent nerve damage to the ear Anatomy of the Ear o Receptors for hearing are hair cells located in the cochlea Olfaction Sense of Smell Our sense of smell is called olfaction Receptors for smell are embedded in a nasal membrane the olfactory epithelium Gustation Sense of Taste Receptors for gustation are taste buds located in the papillae bumps on the surface of the tongue The Body Senses Skin senses involve three basic sensations touch pressure temperature and pain Receptors for these sensations occur in dermatomes and in various concentrations and depths in the skin Other Senses Vestibular sense sense of balance involves the vestibular sacs and semicircular canals located in the inner ear Kinesthesia provides the brain with information about bodily posture and bodily movement 0 Receptors found throughout the muscles joints and tendons of the body Understanding Perception Illusions false or misleading perceptions help scientists study the processes of perception Horizontal V vertical line illusion Public event we all see it Re ects normal brain processes Many illusions trick the brain into thinking that the stimulus is farther away gt perceptual enlargement I Ames Room 0000 Perception s three basic processes 1 2 3 Selection Organization Interpretation Selection choosing where to direct attention 0 Selective Attention filtering out and attending only to important sensory images 0 Feature Detectors specialized neurons respond only to certain sensory information o Habituation brain s tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant I Kittens raised with only vertical visual stimuli fail to develop the ability to detect horizontal lines They are missing neurons Organization assembling of information into patterns that help us understand the world 0 Sensory information is organized by I Form I Constancy I Depth I Color 0 Form Perception The whole is greater than the sum of the partsquot I Figure and ground I Proximity location of objects in comparison to each other I Continuity I Closure I Similarity o Perceptual Constance Tendency to perceive the environment as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input Brings stability to the world around us I Best known constancies Size Shape Color 0 Brightness 0 Depth Perception ability to perceive three dimensional space and accurately judge distance I Involves both binocular two eyes and monocular one eye cues I Two binocular cues for depth Retinal disparity separation of the eyes causes different images to fall on each retina 0 Convergence The closer the object the more the eyes turn inward I Monocular Depth Cues Linear perspective Interposition Relative Size Texture Gradient Aerial Perspective Light and Shadow Theories of Color Vision Color Perception a combination of two theories 0 Trichromatic color perception results from mixing three distinct color systems red green and blue I Occurs at the level of the eye I Cones in the eye distinguish color 0 Opponentprocess color perception results from three systems of color opposites blueyellow redgreen and blackwhite occurs in brain I Flag example Factors in Interpretation Interpretation how we explain sensations Four Major Factors 1 Perceptual Adaptation brain adapts to changed environments 2 Perceptual Set readiness to perceive in a particular manner based on expectations 3 Frame of Reference based on the context of the situation 4 Bottomup or topdown processing information either starts with raw sensory data or with thoughts expectations and knowledge Subliminal Perception may occur but there is little or no evidence of subliminal perception Extrasensory Perception ESP supposed ability to perceive things that go beyond the five normal sense 0 Research is criticized due to lack of experimental control and replicability Chapter 5 States of Consciousness Understanding Consciousness Consciousness an organism s awareness of its own self and surroundings o Re ects a continuum that is most readily associated with activity of the cerebral cortex Alternate States of Consciousness ASCs mental states other than ordinary waking consciousness found during sleep dreaming psychoactive drug use hypnosis etc Circadian Rhythms Circadian Rhythms are biological changes occurring on a 24hour cycle 0 Energy level mood learning and alertness all vary throughout the day 0 Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN and the pineal gland regulate these changes Disrupted circadian rhythms through shift work jet lag and sleep deprivation may also cause mood alterations reduced concentration and motivation increased irritability lapses in attention and reduced motor skills Sleep and Dreams Scientists study sleep with a EEG measuring device that measures net output of nervous system not individual neurons Stages of sleep are characterized by patterns of brain activity and internal physiological conditions 0 NREM NonRapidEyeMovement Sleep I Slower more coordinated brain waves lowerfrequency greater amplitude decreased pulse and breathing occasional simple dreams I Serves a biological need NREM needs to be met before REM needs 1 lightest sleep Stage 2 deeper sleep Stage 3 deeper sleep Stage 4 deepest sleep 0 REM RapidEyeMovement Sleep I Highfrequency brain waves increased pulse and breathing paralysis of the large muscles and dreaming I Serves a biological need and may help with learning and consolidating new memories REM Rebound effect Dreaming 0 We typically have 45 dreams per night with each successive one lasting longer 0 Everyone dreams o Dreaming increases during times of stress and is decreased by alcohol and barbiturates o Humans spend less average time in sleep as we age Why Do We Sleep Repair Restoration Theory sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities Evolutionary Circadian Theory sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators Cognitive Theory dreams are an important part of information processing of everyday experience Psychoanalytic Theory dreams are disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties manifest versus latent content Biological Theory activationsynthesis hypothesis dreams are simple biproducts of random stimulation of brain cells Sleep Disorders Dyssomnias problems in amount timing and quality of sleep 0 Insomnia persistent problems in falling asleep staying asleep or awakening too early 0 Sleep apnea repeated interruption of breathing during sleep 0 Narcolepsy sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours Parasomnias abnormal disturbances during sleep 0 Nightmares anxietyarousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep during REM sleep 0 Night terrors abrupt awakening from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic Psychoactive Drugs 1 Psychoactive Drugs chemicals that change conscious awareness mood or perception Drug Abuse drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others Addiction compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity Psychological Dependence desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug the person thinks that they need the drug ex LSD Physical Dependence bodily processes have been so modified by repeated drug use that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms your body actually needs the drug Withdrawal discomfort and distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs Tolerance decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use Psychoactive Drugs are broken into four categories 1 Depressants act on the CNS GABBA receptors to suppress bodily processes slowing down of brain activitythought process a Complete CNS alcohol you can die Incomplete CNS valium you can not overdose to die b All antianxiety drugs bind with GABBA receptors c EX Alcohol valium 2 Stimulants act on the CNS DA NE to increase bodily processes a EX Caffeine nicotine cocaine b Key ingredient is methamphetamine which destroys the teeth and gums of chronic users 3 Opiates act as an analgesic or pain reliever strong euphoric effects a EX Morphine heroin 4 Hallucinogens produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations a EX LSD marijuana How Psychoactive Drugs Work 1 Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters 2 Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters 3 Alter the reception of neurotransmitters 4 Change the deactivation block the reuptake or breakdown of excess neurotransmitters 5 Synapses can be either directly coupled to ion channels fast synapse inotropic or indirectly coupled to ion channels slow synapse 2nd messenger metabotropic How neurotransmitters Drug increases neural Drug decreases neural work activity activity ierve Step 1 Production impulse ii i l Neurotransmitter Drug serves as a prec ursor for Drug blocks production is produced neurotransmitter synthesis iie Llopa is used to make dopamine l resvnaptit39 neuron Step 392 Storage and release quotesit le 2 Neurotransmitter Drug increases the release of Drug blocks neurotransmitter is stored in vesicle neurotransmitter lee black storage antifor release When impulse arrives widow spider venom neurotransmitter is increases acetvlcholine released release Sviiaiist i Step 3 Reception 3i Neurotransmitter Drug attaches to receptors and Drug blocks neurotransmitter binds to postsvnaptic activates them leg nicotine bv filling receptor space but receptors and activates activates acetvlcholine doesn t activate the neuron them receptors and morphine reg drugs for st hiriphrenia activates endorphin rec eptorsl him it dopariiine p quot Step 4 Deactivation tisisvtmp it 39 itiir H I Hi lxr39es39s netirotransniitter Drug blocks the normal dear tiva is deactivated liv tion or neurotransnlitters thus reuptake of the em ess leaving more in the synapse to or envniatit stimulate receptors leg Klll39 liieakdown and nit otine llt k reuptake oi dopamine and niiiipinepliiinei l tislsquotiiiilii iietiriii Agonist Drug Mimics Neurotransmitter Antagonistic Drugs fill the space of the receptor but it is not a perfect fit so no reaction takes place Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Meditation group of techniques designed to refocus attention block out all distractions and produce an ASC Hypnosis trancelike stage of heightened suggestibility deep relaxation and intense focus you need an agreeable subject not everyone can be hypnotized 0 Therapeutic uses treatment of chronic pain severe burns dentistry childbirth and psychotherapy 0 Myths and Controversies I Forced hypnosis I Unethical behavior I Exceptional memory I Superhuman strength I Fakery


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