Notes the week of 10/19-10/21
Notes the week of 10/19-10/21 SOCI 1101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Notetaker on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Cooney in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Sociology 1019 introduction the largest organizations are states many many types of states one simple classification 3 types of states 1 Democracies rule by many 2 Oligarchies rule by a few 3 Autocracies rule by 1 centralization of power increases from 1 to 3 organizational superiority as centralization increases the status of officials over civilians organizational superiority OS increases more OS means more power for state officials and greater immunity for their offenses against civilians democracies moderate OS organizationay downward killings policecitizens are relatively rare poice subject to internal review but little or no criminal punishment downward vs upward poice rarely get convicted of killing citizens downward homicide poice get the benefit of the doubt in ambiguous cases citizens who kill cops upward homicide are usually punished severely exceptional cases sti occasional murder conviction for cops eg Sidney Dorsey exsheriff of DeKalb County convicted in 2002 of murdering the man who beat him in his reelection bid Oligarchies greater OS many industrializing countries are oligarchic eg Brazil police often kill in large s and with premeditation poice often blatantly manipulate the law by planting weapons disposing of the corpse intimidating witnesses and officials delaying the case consequently police in oligarchic states who kill citizens are extremely difficult to convict but convictions are sometimes possible if high status supporters eg human rights group the media take up a case Autocracies autocratic state eg dictatorships vast 08 state controls virtually everything downward killings attract virtually no penalties state can kill huge number of people without any punishment examples Mao Tse Tung 194976 40 million Joseph Stalin 192853 20 million Pol Pot 197679 2 million but upward killings unleash the most severe sanctions eg attempted assassination of Hitler movie Valkyrie assassination of Prague Reinhard Heydrich 190442 beyond homicide getting away with murder is just one part of autocratic OS torture and starvation persecution of minorities no free expression bribery corruption war nondemocratic states also more violent externally against other states wars 18161991 worldwide 353 pairs of nations engaged in war nondemocracy vs nondemocracy 198 democracy vs nondemocracy 155 democracy vs democracy 0 Several reasons democratic leaders must answer to the people including soldiers we can vote them out so the war had better be worth fighting eg have a repressive enemy autocracies are simply more violent they fight more readily summary government matters the less democratic the state the more repressive and violent it is internally and externally an important question is are states becoming more or less democratic Sociology 1021 ntroduction we saw that democracy means Iess war between democracies Iess mass killing of citizens but is democracy increasing or decreasing around the world the long term the history of government is not linear instead it is broadly curvilinear democracy nondemocracy democracy in the beginning we cannot talk of government but we can look at polities independent political systems chiefdoms states etc huntergathering the earliest polities huntergatherers were highly democratic no rulers everybody has a say agriculture then came autonomous villages headmen who consulted but had greater influence then multivillage entities rules by chiefs could order people around political inequality emerged agrarian societies then came larger entities ruled by kings power centralized big gap between leaders and the people with kingship came the state a hierarchal and centralized political structure states had armies and civil servants a small elite ruled overtime then the people became less powerful and rulers more powerful industrial societies states have become more democratic the ordinary decision has a greater say in decisions eg voting rights first for wealthy men gradually extended to more and more of the population women minorities etc eites don t give up privilege easy often a result of prolonged struggle liberal democracy modern democracy is a liberal democracy citizens have individual rights civil rights eg private property fair trail religious rights eg freedom of religion political rights eg free press the globe ibera democracy is spreading of liberal democracies 17903 1900 13 1940 25 1960 39 1990 61 2014 91 qualifications trend is not always continuous sometimes there are shortterm reversals some lslamists reject democracy want theocracy but lslamic rule has no appeal outside the Islamic world and within the Islamic world many want democracy the trend by contrast democracy appeals to people across the globe people have overthrown authoritarian governments eg fewer dictators Gadaffi Hussein Mubarak in this sense the world is returning to its original state democracy differences but liberal democracy differs from huntergatherer democracy it guaranteed certain individual rights in involves vastly more people it has political leaders it has large institutions of state legislature civil service military etc imperfections ibera democracy is not perfect democracy corporations and wealthy individuals have greater influence on decisionmaking lawmakers may try to restrict rights eg right to vote some even question whether the US is a democracy despite imperfections many people agree with Churchill Democracy is the worst form of governments except all the others that have been tried technology communications technology can help increase democracy governments can t hide their nasty deeds as easily people can come together technology can give us more say in government itself eg instant votes but it can also reduce democracy governments and corporations can track and trace our movements and messages this gives them great control over us we can t assume the future will be democratic summary overtime democracy has returned to the world but with important differences if the current trend continues more and more people will live in liberal democracies they will experience less government violence and fewer wars
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