Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes Chapter
Popular in Intro to Commun Disorders
Popular in Human Development
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Klinger on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chapter at Northern Illinois University taught by Kim,In-Sop in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Commun Disorders in Human Development at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for Chapter 4 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/22/15
Childhood Language Impairments Chapter 4 4 CHAPTER FOUR CHILDHOOD LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENTS 0 Language impairment 0 Language deveIOpment through the lifespan 0 Associated disorders and related causes 0 Assessment Intervention 42 Heterogeneous group Developmental andor acquired disorders andfor delays 0 Affects spoken andfor written language in comprehension andor production Involves one or more aspects of language 0 NOT a language difference 43 LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN o Caregivers talk to infants as if they understand a Reciprocal relationship begins early Eye gaze rituals and game playing by 34 months Caregiverchild interaction can be disrupted Phonede coltsth is learning language is strongly related to cognition Representation Symbolization LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN Have 50 single words and combine them at 18 mos I Use a May use a single word for various purposes a Content and Form 0 By 2 have an expressive vocabulary of 150300 words 0 Lexicon Personal dictionary o Early word combinations follow predictable worthorder patterns L5 LANGUAGE DEVELOPbENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN o Expanded conversational skills 0 Children form hypotheses about language rules Children with mm or LD may have dif culty 0 Use Topic maintenance for 23 turns 0 Begin to consider listener Tell simple sequential stories 46 39quotEDHDHGMVi39L 39 InQO WW so Common Cadre LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN 0 Content Byrs 900words 50b 390 4yrs 1500 words o Dramatic change in syntax LL complexity Negative interrogative and iniperative smtences Compound sentences some complex Use several bound morphemes 47 LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN MLUI Mm U h Us C WW I School Age and Adolescent Language Means of communication changes with reading and writing development 0 Metalinguistie skills 0 Semantic and pragmatic development blossoms LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN 0 US Wigs ne conversational skills 0 Nonstich gain essential elements tions become more dictionarylike Understand and use gurative language 0 Form ms 5 use most verb tenses possessive pronouns and conjunctions Morphology Derivational suf xes and pre xes Syntax Passive sentences re exive ptonouns compoundcomplex sentemes 49 LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE LIFESPAN Adult language Development continues but at slower pace 0 Should continue to deveIOp if no neuropathologies o Specialized vocabulary Re ects work environment religion hobbies etc 410 ASSOCIATED DISORDERS AND RELATED CAUSES WWimellectual disability Learning disabilities o Speci c language impairment Autism Spectrum disorder amp PDD 0 Brain injury 0 Neglect and abuse Fetal alcohol syndrome and drugexposed children 4H MENTAL RETARDATION INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY 0 Now called hitellectual Disability ID 0 Characterized by Substantial limitations in intellectual mctioning 0 Signi cant limitations in adaptive behavior Originates before age 18 Severity based on IQ ranges from mild to profound 12 MENTAL RETARDATION INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY Causes can be biological or socioenvironmental 0 Organization of information is challenging 0 Memory and retrieval of information is poor and slow 4l3 MENTAL RETARDATION INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY Lifespan Issues Early intervention 0 Educational placement depends on severity Inclusion selfcontained classroom special semces o Adulthood a Living and working arrangements vary widely 414 MENTAL RETARDATION INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY Language Characteristics 0 Language abilities can be below cognitive abilities Slower rate of development Later begin to deviate from typical developmental patterns Use shorter more immature forms 0 All areas of language can exhibit de cits 615 ea 10 Child ml eiiiwon beasts AsM CEMIB memeHm LEARNING DISABILITIES Heterogeneous o Dif culties in acquisition and use of listening speaking reading writing reasoning or mathematics 0 3 of all individuals have LD but severity varies widely O 39 dif culty learning and using bols gquot o Affects males more than females bk 16 LEARNING DISABILITIES Six categories of characteristics 0 Motor attention perception symbol memory emotion osmWWWAmmt As many as 80 ofthosc with LD have some form of reading problem a OW onis inef cient so memory is less accurate an retrieval is slow 4 17 LEARNING DISABILITIES Lifespan Issues Little interest in language or books in preschool 0 Slow oral language development May require special education services 0 Can be successful with accommodations in the classroom Some children seem to outgrow their disability Some require lifelong adaptations LEARNING DISABILITIES Language Characteristics 0 All aspects of language may be affected 419 SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT a Signi cant impairment in language functioning o Characterized by the absence of all other possible disorders Language performance signi cantly lower than intellectual performance like LD Exhibit some information processing and memory problems 0 Different neuroanatomical structure and function More males than females have SL1 43 SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT Lifespan Issues Preschoolers with SLI are viewed negatively by peers 0 Poor social skills 0 Many are later identi ed as having LD 0 Many adolescents with SLI view themselves negatively and are less independent 421 ll SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT Language Characteristics Di iculty with Extracting regularities from hostage 0 Registering dif erem contexts for language 0 Constructing word reform associations Inappropriate use of language forms cause pragmatic problems De cits in recognizing the impact of and expressing emotion Dif culty with grammatical markers 0 May speak slowly with equent disruptions Less ef cient use of syntax Dif culty using context for vocabulary development 22 AUTISM SPECTRUM AND PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS o Autism Spectrum Disorder A813 0 Disturbances in Developmental rates and sequence of motor socialadaptive and cognitive skills 0 ReSponses to sensory stimuli Speechlanguage cognition nonverbal communication Capacity to appropriately relate to people objects and events 0 At severe end of PDD continuum o ype rlex ia o Semanticpragmatic disorder I Asperger39s syndrome 423 AUTISM SPECTRUM AND PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS 0 Cause of ASD is probably biological e Neurological differences 0 Differences in processing incoming information 0 Incidence is higher in those with a family history o Males are affected more often than females 424 AUTISM SPECTRUM AND PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Lifespan Issues 0 Usually identi ed by 23 years a Failure to meet developmental milestones may indicate need for evaluation Educational placement depends on severity Regular education a Special education May live independently and hold a job a Some live similarly to those with IBM 15 Dm t MW 603 Seeds 3054i SQWS Me sommooos niceth quot L038 Nowell Ol s k7 is mes me 9693 1381 people home W55 AUTISM SPECTRUM AND PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Language Characteristics 0 Communication problems are one of the rst indicators 0 Might Be nonverbal Lack typical prosody quotW 39sinterpret subtleties of conversation 426 BRAIN INJURY 0 Includes traumatic brain injury TBI stroke congenital malformation convulsive disorders and encephalopathy TB 0 Diffuse braindamageduetoextemalforce o 1 million children and adolescents in US Site and extent of lesion age at onset and age of injury impacts recoverypost accident mction Range of cognitive physical behavioral academic and BRAIN INJURY Lifespan Issues Immediately after accident Possible unconsciousness and amnesia o Physical and personality changes o Recovery may take years Spontaneous recovery in the rst months Neural recovery is unpredictable and irregular 0 Young children often recover quickly Noedtoreceverlansuage AND continuetoleamlanguage o Often subtle cognitive and social de cits persist 428 BRAIN INJURY Language Characteristics Evident even after mild injuries 0 Some de cits remain long after injury pragmatics Language com rehension and higher level language are 0 en affected but not form 0 Word retrieval naming 8149me 39 are dif cult 39 Narration is o tcult t 1 429 NEGLECT AND ABUSE 1 million children per year in the US 0 Childmother attachment more signi cant in language development than maltreatment o Lifespan Issues 9 Possible recun39ing physical psychological and emotional problems Language Characteristics Pragmatics ismostaffectedlanguagearea 0 Less talkative with fewer conversational skills Less likely to volume information o Shorter and less complex amnesia 430 10 AND DRUGEXPOSED CHILDREN 0 FAS Exposure to alcohol during embryonic development a Low birth weight CNS dysfunction growth de ciency dysmorphic features Demonstrate hyperactivity motor problems attention de cits cognitive disabilities Mean IQ is in borderline IDMR range Drugexpend children Low birth weight and small head circumference o Jittery and FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME Cmimd MQXUOUS 431 FE IIA L ALCOHOL SYNDROME UObl G Qt Vim O 0 O b l AND DRUG EQQSEEACHILDREN I Lifespan Issues o5 1 we 39 More likely to die and have developmental dif culties 0 Caregiverinfant bonding may be disrupted Behave like children with ID Language Characteristics FAS Delayed oral language echolalia comprehension problems a Drug exposure Few vocalizations inappropriate gesture language de cits 0 Behind peers in reading and academics 432 OTHER LAN G U AG E IMPAIRMEN I S 1115M Nonspeci c language impairment 5 I I Late talkers 53o Qo OW Childhood schizophrenia a Selective mutism Otitis media 0 Children who received cochlear implants 11 Assessment Distinguish between children who have a disorder and those who do not Should be suf ciently broad and deep so all areas of possible concern are identi ed and described as accurately as possible Assessment Bilingual Children English Language Learners and Dialectal Speakers 21 of US school age children speaks a language other than English at home ELLs and children with dialectal differences are more likely to be identi ed as needing special education services Diagnostic methods vary widely Includes published tests language samples and dynamic assessments Assessment Referral and Screening Referral may occur at any point in the iifespan Parents can be effective referral sources for children with more severe language problems o Screening tests are used to determine the presence or absence of a ianguage problem Surveys and parentai questionnaires are effective Referraiand subsequent evaluation may occur Within an interdisciplinary team 436 Siodem s oo Lupe 39i nriom Moe g fig 0mm ii sabl li ig WV 12 Assessment 0 Case History and Interview Language development language environment possible causes for language impairment Observation 0 As many contexts as possible Note interests caregiver communication style and method of behavior control Fully describe events preceding and following behaviors or language features 437 Assessment Testing Standardized tests Descriptive tests allow determination of strengths and weaknesses o Dynamicassessment Test scores should be interpreted cautiously and should not be the only factor in diagnosing language impairments 438 by WMi mnce 76o roienggu 903quot bie mtcome m re 1 QC i ii e that CHM assessmm Assessment Sampling 0 Engage child in challenging conversations to revea dif culties Variety of discourse types Collect samples with different artners locations and activities or top cs Narratives can be helpful with certain populations Peercon ict resolution problems Can be analyzed in several quantitative and qualitative ways Code switching May collect written samples 439 13 Multiple intervention methods Telepractice Should focus on stimulating language acquisition beyond the immediate target Can include other individuals who work with the child in training Intervention Target Selection and Sequence of Training Goal is the effective use of language to communicate in everyday interactions Child39s abilities determine method 0 Training should be in meaningful contexts EvidenceBased Intervention Principles Targets should not rows exciusiveiy on one de cit area Intervention Procedures Anticipate the types of support a child is likely to need and the types of errors they are likely to make HI Intervention Basic tenets of good teaching behavior Model the desired behavior Parallel sentence production Cue the client to respond Rated from least to most intrusive and supportive Respond to the client in the form of reinforcement andor corrective feedback Gentle reminder to instruction Reiy iess on direct forms as the feature is produced more correctly Plan for generaiization 442 14 Intervention Through the Lifespan Early intervention can be very bene cial Initial training might target presymbolic communication skills and cognitive abilities Parents might be trained Early symbolic training may focus on vocabulary semantic categories we combinations and early intentions Preschool children usually work on language form in conversation and narratives continued intervention communication de cits rt Intervention Through the L espan a Intervention with higher functioning children might focus on pragmatics and semantics Academic skills might be targeted Can supplement with computerized programs Adolescents may continue to need services Adults with ASD or ID will most likely require Individuals with LD may require additional support in postsecondaw education for language an M complex intervention Summary Language impairments are very Each child is unique SLP attempts to nd the most ef cient and effective method for teaching new skills via assessment and repeated assessment during 1
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'