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by: Anastacio Ritchie


Anastacio Ritchie
GPA 3.81

Zhi Pan

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Zhi Pan
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This 104 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastacio Ritchie on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOOL 2403 at Texas Tech University taught by Zhi Pan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/226381/zool-2403-texas-tech-university in Animal Science at Texas Tech University.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
Brain Major Regions of Brain 0 Cerebrum conscious thought processes intellectual functions memory storage and processing conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions 0 Brain Stem consists of the mid brain pons and medulla o Cerebellum Coordinates complex somatic motor patterns adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord Cerebrum Largest part of CNS 0 Associated with conscious thoughts and behaviors 0 Also controls other higher mental functions intelligence memory learning emotions Gray and White Matter of the cerebrum 0 Gray Matter composed of neuron cell bodies outer surface of the brain called the cerebral cortex 0 White Matter composed of axons deep to the cerebral cortex The Cerebral Cortex 0 Longitudinal fissure seperates cerebral cortex into right R and left L hemispheres the lateral cerebral cortex of each hemisphere is divided into frontal lobe somatomotor muscles parietal lobe somatosensory temporal lobe audition occipital lobe vision gyrus bulge sulcus invagination o lateral sulcus seperates frontal and parietal lobes from temporal lobe 0 Central sulcus seperates frontal and parietal lobes O O o Primary Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex o Precentral gyrus anterior to central sulcus part of the frontal lobe called the primary somatomotor region associated with simple movements flexextend a limb o Postcentral gyrus posterior to central sulcus part of parietal lobe is the primary somatosensroy region associated with basic sensations pain temperature o Primary Special Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex 0 Primary visual cortex basic info from visual receptors light vs dark part of occipital lobe 0 Primary auditory cortex basic info from auditory receptors a tone part of temporal lobe 0 Primary olfactory cortex basic info from olfactory receptors simple odor part of temporal lobe insidedeep 0 Association Cortex o The rest MOST of the cerebral cortex 0 For higher order info Sensory associated cortex interprets sensory info Motor association cortex plans coordinates complex motor info o Examples of Association Areas Prefrontal Cortex important for associations between actions and their consequences moral judgments appropriate behavior o White Matter of the Cerebrum 0 Internal Capsule axons that connect neuron cell bodies between the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord 0 Association Fibers axons that connect neuron cell bodies that is cortical regions within one hemisphere 0 Corpus Callosum axons that connect neuron cell bodies between the hemispheres o Principle functions of the Cerebrum 1 Each cerebral hemisphere receives sensory information from and sends motor commands to the opposite contralateral side of body 2 The 2 hemispheres have some different functions although their structures are alike ex speech is primarily associated with the left hemisphere o The Limbic System consists of cell bodies and axon tracts along the medial cerebral cortex that are associated with emotions and memory o Thalamus A group of neuron cell bodies that process sensory information from the spinal cord send it to the cerebral cortex consciousness o Hypothalamus Has 3 roles 1 As nervous tissue controls the autonomic nervous system 2 As the Integrator between the nervous and endocrine systems secretes regulatory hormones 3 As an Endocrine organ secretes the hormones ADH and oxytocin o Pituitary Gland 0 Major endocrine gland hormone producer 0 Connects nervous and endocrine system 0 Connected to hypothalamus via infundibulum stalk o The Basal Ganglia o Involved with planning movements before they occur 0 Pathology associated with Parkinson s disease 0 Cerebellum involved with coordination and balance of movements as they occur o The Cranial Meninges o 3 layers dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater 0 Function Protection of the brain from trauma of cerebral blood vessels o Ventricles of the Brain 0 Series of fluidfilled chambers deep in the brain 0 Function to synthesize and secrete CSF o CSF o Surrounds the entire CNS 0 Functions of CSF cushions the brain provides nutrients to the brain removes waste from the brain 0 The Brain Stem 0 Location between spinal cord and cerebrum 0 Components midbrain pons medulla o Composed of axons carrying information between the spinal cord and cerebral cortex 0 Composed of the 12 cranial nerves control head and neck sensory and motor functions CN X is also associated with function of the thorax and abdomen 0 Via a number of these Cranial Nerves the brainstem controls your body s most basic functions necessary for survival including breathing heartrate and digestion Cranial Nerves o The Olfactory Nerves l sensory olfaction from nasal mucosa cribiform plate o The Optic Nerves ll sensory vision from retina optic canal o The Oculomotor Nerves Ill motor to most eye muscles superior orbital fissure o The Trochlear Nerves IV motor to 1 eye muscle superior orbital fissure allows you to look up and down o The Trigeminal Nerves V Both motor to muscles of mastication and sensory from face oral and nasal cavities V1 superior orbital fissure V2 foramen rotundum infraorbital foramen V3 foramen ovale mental foramen o The Abducens Nerves VI motorto 1 eye muscle superior orbital fissure allows eyes to go back and forth o The Facial Nerves VII Both motor to muscles of facial expression and sensory from part of tongue internal acoustic foramen stylomastoid foramen o The Vestivulochochlear Nerves VIII sensory hearing and balance internal acoustic foramen o The Glossopharyngeal Nerves IX Both motorto pharyngeal muscles and sensory from part of tongue jugular foramen o The Vagus Nerves X Both motorto most of visceral organs muscles larynx heart lungs and most of gut and sensory from same regions iugular foramen o The Spinal Accessory Nerves XI motor to 2 neck muscles jugular foramen o The Hypoglossal Nerves XII motorto tongue muscles hypoglossal canal o Pneumonic forthe cranial nerve names Qn gld QIympus towering tops aEinn and german iewed some hops o Pneumonic for cranial nerve functions Some say marry money but my brother says bad boys marry money Reflexes and Autonomic Nervous System o Sensory and motor neurons can also be directly linked in the spinal cord and produce a spinal reflex That is sensory axons can also synapse on motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord 0 A spinal reflex is o A motor response muscle contraction produced when a sensory neuron synapse on a spinal cord motor neuron 0 Very fast occurs before the information has reached the brain 0 Unconscious and therefore involuntary occurs before the information has reached the brain o Skin receptors pain temperature touch pressure vibration o Muscles also contain receptors What do you think muscles receptors sense Stretch tension All these sensations travel to the spinal cord on spinal nerves and can also be involved in spinal reflexes o Steps in a Stretch Reflex 1 Stretching of muscle stimulates muscle spindles stretch receptors 2 Activation of sensory neuron 3 Sensory neuron synapses on motor neuron 4 Activation of motor neuron 5 Contraction of muscle o The patellartendon stretch reflex AKA kneejerk reflex o Lesions o Damage to dorsal root sensory nerve ex disk herniation loss of incoming info NO reflex motor OK NO sensation o Damage to ventral root motor nerve ex polio loss of outgoing info NO reflex Sensory OK NO motor o Monosynaptic Reflexes the stretch reflex is an example of a monosynaptic reflex a sensory neuron synapses directly on a spinal cord motor neuron cell body that is only synapse has occurred o Polysynaptic Reflexes the withdrawal reflex is an example of a polysynaptic reflex This is an unconscious reaction to a painful stimulus A sensory neuron synapse on interneuron which synapse on motor neurons more than 1 synapse occurs 0 The Autonomic Nervous System ANS o AKA the visceral motor system 0 Coordinates the functions of the cardiovascular system respiratory system digestive system urinary system reproductive system c Similarities between the Somatomotor and Autonomic Nervous Systems Both are motor systems and innervate muscle o Differences between the Somatomotor and Autonomic Nervous Systems 0 Somatic Nervous System innervates skeletal muscles is a voluntary system conscious initiates skeletal muscle contraction is a 1neuron system 0 Autonomic Nervous System innervates smooth and cardiac muscle is involuntary unconscious coordinates smooth or cardiac muscle contraction it does NOT initiate itl is a 2neuron system c The Somatomotor System a 1neuron system 0 Somatomotor neuron cell bodies are located in the CNS 0 Their axons synapse directly on skeletal muscles in the periphery o The ANS a 2neuron system 0 Neuron 1 is called the preganglionic neuron o Neuron 2 is called the postganglionic neuron o Preganglionic cell bodies are in the CNS 0 Postganglionic cell bodies are located in ganglia in the PNS o Preganglionic neurons synapse on postganglionic neurons 0 Postganglionic neurons synapse on smooth or cardiac muscles in the periphery o 2 Divisions of the ANS o Sympathetic division has a stimulating effect on the body Fight or flight heart rate increased digestion decreased 0 Parasympathetic division has a relaxing effect on the body Rest and digest heart rate decreased digestion increased 0 Sympathetics innvervate mainly vascular smooth muscle that is of blood vessels so sympathetics are everywhere 0 Parasympathetic innvervate only visceral smooth muscle that is of the gut for example so parasympathetics are more localized o The Sympathetic Nervous System 0 Preganglionic cell bodies in the spinal cord 0 Postganglionic cell bodies are located in ganlia Located mainly in the sympathetic trunk a chain of ganglia 0 Many sympathetic axons travel with spinal nerves to reach their targets o Sympathetics Fight or Flight 0 The sympathetic division readies the body for crisis 0 An increase in sympathetic activity increased respiratory rate increased heart rate and blood pressure increased metabolism increased alertness increased sweating decreased digestive and urinary functions o The Parasympathetic Nervous System 0 Preganglionic cell bodies are located in the brain stem and in the spinal cord 0 Postganglionic cell bodies are located in ganglia in the head or in the walls of the viscera o The Parasympathetic Nervous System parasympathetic axons from the brain stem travel with cranial nerves to reach their targets in the head thorax and abdomen from the spinal cord travel by themselves to reach their targets in the pelvis o Parasympathetics Rest and Digest o The parasympathetic division stimulates visceral activity conserves energy 0 An increase in parasympathetic activity decreased heart rate and blood pressure decreased metabolic rate increased glandular secretions increased digestive tract motility decreased the urge to urinate and defecate CNS somatomotr and autonomic nervous system use the PNS to work with skeletal muscle Sympathetic division uses the preganglionic and postganglionic to work with smooth and cardiac muscle Parasympathetic division uses the preganglionic and postganglionic to work with smooth and cardiac muscle Special Senses 5 Special Senses olfaction smell taste vision hearing equilibrium and balance Olfactory Nerve ON I g Axons of CN l traverse cribiform plate of ethmoid bone 3 Synapse on neurons in the olfactory bulbs 3 Info travels along the olfactory track to the olfactory cortex that is consciousness in the temporal lobe g Considerable turnover there are neuron stem cells that replace these cells periodically 3 Can distinguish thousands of chemical stimuli Taste Buds and Taste Receptors 3 Taste buds you have 3 types on the dorsal surface top of tongue 3 Taste receptors clustered deep in the grooves of taste buds Taste there are 6 primary taste sensations in humans sweet salty sour bitter umami back of tongue beefchicken broths and parmesan cheese water 3 The Layers of the Eyeball 3 Outer layer dense connective tissue layer contains the sclera and cornea 3 Middle layer loose connective tissue layer both the vascular and muscular layer contains choroid ciliary body and iris 3 Inner layer nervous tissue layer contains the retina g The sclera white dense connective tissue sheath that protects the eyeball g The cornea transparent anterior continuation of the sclera that protects the lens avascular g Chorid loose connective tissue contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of eye 3 Ciliary body anterior continuation of the choroid contains smooth muscle called ciliary muscles Function controls the shape of the lens Essential for focusing on an object 3 Iris gives the eye color ls composed of smooth muscle Regulates the amount of light entering the eye Changes the size of the pupil center opening 3 Posterior Cavity contains vitreous humor 3 The Retina This is the neural portion of the eyeball It contains photoreceptors Associated with CN ll Rods receptors activated by dim light Used for night vision Black and white vision Used for peripheral vision 3 Cones receptors active by bright light Used for daylight vision Color vision Used for central vision 3 The visual pathway to consciousness information OIOIOIO travels from the optic nerves via the optic chiasm to the optic tract via the thalamus to the visual cortex that is consciousness in the occipital lobe 3 Eye muscles these are skeletal muscles superior rectus lateral rectus inferior oblique superior oblique inferior rectus medial rectus levator palpebrae superioris g 6 Eye Muscles o Inferior rectus action eye looks down Innervation oculomotor nerve II o Medial rectus eye looks medially that is IN Innervation as above 0 Superior rectus eye looks up Innervation as above 0 Lateral rectus eye looks laterally that is OUT Innervation abcucens nerve VI o The Ear external ear middle ear inner ear vestibulochochlear nerve VIII o The Hearing Process 0 Shape of auricle helps us hear human voices 0 Sound wave travels along the external ear canal 0 Sound waves arrive at tympanic membrane ear drum 0 The tympanic membrane vibrates 0 When the tympanic membrane vibrates the ossicles little bones in the middle ear move 0 A sound wave travels from tympanic membrane to the malleus incus and stapes to the oval window 0 Movement of stapes at oval window generates pressure waves in the fluidfilled cochlea of the inner ear 0 Pressure waves in the inner ear travel through the cochlea to the round window 0 The floor of the middle chamber is called the basilar membrane 0 Hair cells receptor cells in embedded in it 0 When the basilar membrane moves the hair cells move 0 However the tops of the hair cells are embedded in the tectorial membrane which does not move 0 This end the hair cells 0 Bending the hair cells opens ion channels in hair cell membranes this causes ions to rush into hair cells This activates hair cells this stimulates CNVlll 0 Information now travels via the thalamus to the auditory canal in the temporal lobe where it reaches consciousness The Cochlea o The cochlea contains 3 circular canals o This creates vibrations along the membrane of a smaller middle chamber which contains the receptors for hearing The Vestibular apparatus is also in the inner ear and inner ear are also connected to CM Vlll Associated with semicircular canals It is composed of the semicircular canals and sassule and utricle The Vestibular Apparatus o semicircular canals contain receptors stimulated by head rotation o Saccule and utricle contain receptors called hair cells stimulated by gravity startingstopping in an elevator linear accelerationdeceleration starting and stopping in a car Semicircular canals 0 Each fluidfilled canal contains a structure called a cupula It is filled with a gelatinous substance Receptors called hair cells are embedded in it 0 When you rotate your head the canals rotate o This bends the hair cells which opens ion channels in hair cell membranes ions rush into hair cells this activates the hair cells this stimulates CN VIII this helps you maintain your balance during head rotation o Saccule and Utricle 0 When your body moves due to gravity or accelerationdeceleration otolith moves this bends the hair cells this opens ion channels in hair cell membranes ions rush into hair cells this activates the hair cells stimulates CN VIII The Endocrine System o Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Adrenal Gland Parathyroid Gland Pancreatic lslets o The Endocrine System 0 Regulates longterm processes development growth reproduction o Regulated by negative feedback 0 Goal to preserve homeostasis o Endocrine Glands Secretory units composed of epithelial cells 1 Begin as invaginations of surface epithelium lose their duct 2 Release secretory products into the bloodstream for distribution o Endocrine and Nervous Systems 0 Are similar both nervous and endocrine systems release chemicals 0 However the nervous system releases neurotransmitters at a synapse very close to its target the action is fast and short The endocrine system releases hormones into connective tissue far from its target cells relies on the bloodstream to distribute its secretions the action is slower but lasts longer 0 These 2 systems are linked through the hypothalamus o Hormones Chemicals that are released from endocrine organs are distributed by the blood change the rate of an activity performed y the body 0 Homeostatis 0 Defined as a stable internal environment 0 Body systems must function within a normal range body temperature fluid balance 0 Failure to function within a normal range results in disease or death 0 Homeostasis is necessary for your SURVIVAL o How your body maintains Homeostasis o It has receptors that sense a stimulus change 0 It has control center that receives and processes this information from receptors 0 It has effectors that respond to commands by the control center o This is called Negative Feedback note that the response of the effector negates the stimulus and restores normal function o Hypothalamus Has 3 roles 0 As nervous tissue controls the ANS 0 As the integrator between the nervous and endocrine system secretes regulatory hormones 0 As an endocrine organ secretes the hormones ADH and oxytocin o Pituitary Gland 0 Major endocrine gland hormone producer 0 Connects nervous and endocrine systems 0 Connected to hypothalamus via infundibulum stalk o Anterior lobe glandular developed from epithelium composed of endocrine cells o Posterior lobe developed from nervous tissue part of the CNS composed of axons whose cell bodies are in the hypothalamus o How the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland o Releasing and inhibiting hormones from neurons in the hypothalamus enter blood vessels called a portal system are released onto endocrine cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland o Releasing hormones stimulates secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary o Inhibiting hormones prevent secretion of hormones form the anterior pituitary o The Pituitary Portal System This portal system is composed of capillaries in the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland connected by veins called portal veins in the infundibulum stalk o The Advantage of the Portal System The portal system allows cells in the hypothalamus to secrete very small amounts of hormones into the 1St set of capillaries Allows these hormones to reach their target cells in the anterior pituitary via the 2nd set of capillaries very rapidly without being diluted in the general circulation o FLAT PIG the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases 6 hormones These hormones in turn stimulate other endocrine gland in the body FSH follicle stimulating hormone LH luteinizing hormone ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone TSH thyroidstimulating hormone PRL prolactin GH growth hormone o Anterior Pituitary Homrones o The gonadotropins FSH stimulates follicle development in female ovaries stimulates maturation of sperm in male testes LH stimulates progesterone production in females stimulates testosterone production in males Stimulated by GnRH gonadotropinreleasing hormone from the hypothalamus Regulate activities of gonads testes ovaries o ACTH stimulates the release of steroid hormone by the adrenal cortex Stimulated by CRH corticotrophin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus o TSH also called thyrotropin Stimulates the release of thyroid hormones from thyroid gland Stimulated by TRH thyrotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus o Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones for FLAT Hypothalamus secretes only releasing hormones for these 4 pituitary hormones RH GnRH CRH TRH Secretion is controlled by negative feedback o Anterior Pituitary Hormones PG o PRL stimulates mammary gland development in females will in males as well May regulate androgen production in males Production regulated by the hypothalamic hormones prolactinreleasing hormone PRH prolactininhibiting hormone PIH 0 GH stimulates growth Production regulated by the hypothalamic hormones growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH growth hormone inhibiting hormone GHIH o Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones for PG Hypothalamus secretes both releasing and inhibiting hormones for these 2 pituitary hormones PIH PRF GHIH GHRH o Posterior Pituitary Hormones o Posterior lobe of pituitary gland contains 2 hormones that are synthesized in nerved cell bodies located in the hypothalamus and released from axon terminals in the posterior pituitary taken up by the bloodstream so hormones 0 Include ADH Antidiuretic Hormone restricts H20 loss from the kidneys and promotes thirst Oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle contractions in the mammary glands uterus and prostate gland o The Thyroid Gland lies inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx and superficial to the trachea consists of2 lobes o Thyroid follicles and thyroid hormones the thyroid gland is composed of follicles hollow balls line by epithelial cellssynthesize the hormones T3 triiodothyronine T4 thyroxine The hormones are stored in the cavities of the follicles until needed o Thyroid Gland Functions 0 Thyroid hormones increase your basal metabolic rate BMR by increasing oxygen and energy consumption which increases temperature Increasing heart rate and contraction strength which increases blood pressure BP 0 Remember TRH release from the hypothalamus stimulates TSH release from the pituitary which stimulates thyroxin release from the thyroid gland o The thyroid gland also contains C Clear Cells C cells produce calcitonin causes a decrease in blood calcium levels o The Parathyroid Glands its cells produce parathyroid hormone causes an increase in blood calcium level o Adrenal Glands located along the superior border of each kidney Are subdivided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla o Adrenal Cortex o Synthesizes cortico steroid homron mineralocorticoids for the kidneys which increase sodium and water retention glucocorticoids ex cortisol which increase blood glucose sex steroids which stimulate the onset of puberty o ORH release from the hypothalamus stimulates ACTH release from the pituitary which stimulates release of these steroids from the adrenal gland o Adrenal medulla 0 Its secretory activities are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system 0 Its cells produce epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine just like the postganglionic sympathetic which cause increased heart rate and increases blood pressure 0 Unlike the immediate changes produced by these chemicals when released by nerves these metabolic changes persist for several minutes 0 The Pancreas o Lies between the spleen and the small intestine 0 Contains exocrine and endocrine cells 0 The endocrine cells form clusters called islets of langerhans or pancreatic islets o The 2 major types of endocrine cells in the Pancreatic Islets 0 Alpha cells secrete glucasen which increases blood glucose increase the rates of glycogen breakdown and glucose manufactured by the liver 0 Beta cells secret insulin which decreases blood glucose increase the rate of glucose uptake and utilization Heart 0 The heart begins as a tube with only one chamber o The hear then curves back upon itself and forms an s o And then walls grow to separate the 2 atria and the 2 ventricles o Organization of the Cardiovascular System 0 The systemic circuit carries blood between the heart and the body 0 The pulmonary circuit carries blood between the heart and the lungs o Gross Anatomy of the Heart 0 Located deep to the sternum and slightly to the left 0 Great veins and arteries are at the heart s base 0 Pointed tip to the left is the apex o Surrounded by pericardial sac o The Pericardial Sac this is a serous membrane that prevents friction between the heart and surrounding structures ribs lungs esophagus as the heart moves with each hear beat o The 4 chambers of the Heart and the Great Vessels 0 Right atrium collects low 02 blood from the body via superior and inferior vena cavae 0 Right ventricle pumps low 02 blood to the lungs via the right and left pulmonary arteries 0 Left atrium collects high 02 blood from the lungs via the right and left pulmonary veins 0 Left Ventricle pumps high 02 blood to the body via the aorta o Rightpulmonary o Leftsystemic o The Vascular Supply for the Heart 0 The aorta high 02 blood gives rise to the left coronary artery it branches into anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery it supplies the anterior and left regions of the heart 0 The aorta also gives rise to the right coronary artery it branches into posterior interventricular artery and marginal artery it supplies the posterior and right regions of the heart 0 Low 02 blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus which receives blood from the great cardiac vein and middle cardiac vein Internal Heart Anatomy 0 Atrioventricular AV Valves between the atria and the ventricles right AV valve tricuspid left AV valve bicuspid Their free edges attach via chordate tendinae connective tissue to papillary muscles fingerlike projections of cardiac muscle in the ventricles Papillary muscles contract when the ventricles contract this prevents valves from prolapsing collapsing that is opening backwards causing backflow of blood into atria instead of out the aorta or pulmonary trunk only Papillary muscles are extensions of trabeculae carneae bumply ridges of cardiac muscle in the ventricles Although you cannot see them these figures the internal walls of the atria also contain bumpy ridges of muscle called pectinate muscles 0 Semilunar Valve each has 3 cusps Pulmonic valve between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk Aortic valve between left ventricle and aorta Open when the ventricles contract Close when the ventricles relax pressure of blood closes them to prevent backflow of blood from the pulmonary trunk or aorta into the ventricles Veins vessels that bring blood to the heart Arteries bring blood away from the heart Placental Blood supply foramen ovale open Ductus arteriosis open arteriosus closed ductus patent Heart and Hear Defects foramen ovale closed The Neonatal foramen ovale patent ductus arteriosus The Fibrous Skeleton o Bands of connective tissue around the heart valves 0 Attachment site for the valves and cardiac muscle cells 0 Electrical insulation between the ventricular muscle cells and the atrial muscle cells Cardiac Muscle Cell Types 2 types of cardiac muscle cells 0 Conducting system cells a system of specialized cardiac muscle cells Generate action potential at regular intervals 0 Contractile cells those cells that contract to pump the blood out of the heart Components of the Conducting System 0 Sinoatrial SA Node 0 Atrioventricular AV Node 0 Conducting cells carry action potential through chambers in the atrium intermodal branches in the ventricles AV bundle of His and Purkinje fibers Impulse Conduction through the Heart 0 Cells in SA node are called the pacemaker cells initiate action potentials electrical impulses leading to muscle contraction spontaneously and faster than cells in the AV node 0 The stimulus spreads via the intermodal branches in the atrial myocardium to the AV node located where the right atrium meets the right ventricle 0 Meanwhile the atria contract the intermodal branches stimulated the contractile muscle fibers blood flows from the atria to the ventricles 0 Then the stimulus travels from the AV node through the fibrous skeleton via the AV bundle to the apex of the heart 0 At the heart s apex the stimulus is carried to the Purkinje fibers in contact with the ventricular myocardium The Purkinje fibers transfer the impulse to the contractile muscle cells 0 Now the ventricles contract beginning at the apex 0 Blood flowers from the left ventricle to the aorta to be distributed to the body and from the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk and on to the lungs o Autonomic Regulation 0 Autonomic innervations influence the rate of contraction by innervating the SA node Parasympathetic stimulation reduces heart rate Sympathetic stimulation increases heart rate 0 Autonomic innervations influence the force of contraction by innervations the contractile cardiac muscle cells Parasympathetic stimulation affects atrial contraction only decrease for of contraction Sympathetic stimulation affects atrial and ventricular contraction increases force of contraction Circulatory System o The Cardiovascular System is a circulating transport system that includes a pump the heart a conducting system the blood vessels and a fluid medium the blood o Function of the Cardiovascular System To transport materials to and from all the cells in the body 02 and 002 nutrients hormones immune system components waste products o 5 Classes of Blood Vessels o Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart 0 Arterioles the smallest branches of arteries site of vasoconstriction o Capillaries the smallest blood vessels site of nutrient and waste exchange 0 Venules the smallest branches of veins collect deoxygenated blood from capillaries o Veins return the low oxygen blood to the heart Structure of Blood Vessel Walls Walls of arteries and veins have 3 layers turnica intimia inner layer endothelial cells connective tissue turnica media middle layer smooth muscle turnica externa outer layer connective tissue Arteries vs Veins o Arteries have thick wall and small lumen to withstand high blood pressure carries oxygenated blood 0 Veins have thin wall large lumen and valves to prevent backflow of blood Vasoconstriction o The contraction of the smooth muscle in the turnica media 0 This causes a decrease in the diameter of the lumen especially of arterioles o This is caused by stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system Vasodilation o The relaxation of arterial and anteriolar smooth muscle 0 This causes the increase in the diameter of the lumen o This is caused by inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system Capillaries lts wall must be thin for diffusion of nutrients out of and wastes into the capillary The Three Types of Blood Cells 0 Red blood cells to transport oxygen 0 White blood cells to fight infection 0 Platelets to clot blood o RBC s Red Blood Cells 0 Contain hemoglobin therefore red 0 Function carry 02 to and CO2 from all the cells of the body 0 Most numerous cells in the blood make up 99 of blood s formed elements o WBC s White Blood Cells Function Defense defend against pathogens remove toxins and wastes attack abnormal cells o 5 Types of WBC s o Lymphocytes 2030 of circulating WBC s Associated with the immune response Mostly in connective tissues and lymphatic organs 0 Neutrophils 5070 of circulating WBC s First to attack bacteria Form pus o Monocytes 28 of circulating WBC s Enter peripheral tissues and become macrophages phagocytose large particles and pathogens 0 Eosinophils 24 of circulating WBC s Attack parasites Associated with allergic reactions 0 Basophils less than 1 of circulating WBC s Release histamine dilates blood vessels Release heparin prevents blood clotting o Classes of Lymphocytes o B Cells provide antibodymediated immunity Synthesize and release antibodies that destroy antigens o T Cells provide cellmediated immunity Attack antigens directly o Platelets cell fragments from megakaryocytes giant cells Involved in blood clotting Release important clotting chemicals o Collateral Circulation blood can reach most regions of the body via more than 1 route o The Aorta and its major branches right subclavian right common carotid left common carotid brachiocephalic trunk left subclavian aortic arch ascending aorta descending thoracic aorta o Arteries that Supply the Thorax Both the descending aorta and the internal thoracic a branch off the subclavian artery give rise to the intercostals arteries o Arteries that supply the Neck and Head The common carotid artery branches into the internal carotid which supplies the brain and the external carotid which supplies the neck and face The subclavian artery also has branches that supply the brain and neck o Arteries that supply the Brain Circle of Willis Cerebral arterial circle anterior communicating anterior cerebral posterior communicating posterior cerebral internal carotid o The Blood Supply for the Upper Limbs o Subclavian deep to the clavicle continues as the o Axillary in the axilla continues as the o Brachial in the arm 0 The brachial artery supplies the arm Has branches that provide collateral circulation around the elbow Divides into the ulnar and radial which supply the forearm and join as arterial arches in the hand that send branches to the fingers o Collateral Circulation at the Shoulder Joint the subclavian and axillary arteries have numerous branches that anastomose to ensure blood flow around the highly moveable joint o Unpaired Arteries of the Abdominal Aorta o Celiac trunk supplies foregut organs stomach first part of duodenum livergall bladder pancreas spleen 0 Superior mesenteric supplies midgut organs rest of duodenum through transverse colon 0 Interior mesenteric supplies hindgut organs rest of large intestine o Paired Arteries of the Abdominal Arteries o The renal arteries supply the kidneys o The gonadal arteries supply the testes and ovaries o The Aorta divides into the Common lliacs each common iliac artery divides into an external iliac continues onto the thigh and an internal iliac supplies the pelvic organs o Blood Supply for the Lower Limbs the external iliac continues on the thigh as the femoral artery which supplies the anterior thighhip and gives off the deep femoral which supplies the posterior thighhip o Collateral Circulation around the Hip and Knee Joints the femoral and deep femoral arteries give rise to numerous branches which ensure collateral circulation around these 2 joints o The femoral artery continues as the popliteal which supplies the leg and foot via its branches Anterior tibial supplies the anterior leg ankle and foot Posterior tibial supplies the posterior leg ankle and foot Fibular supplies the lateral leg o Veins that drain the Head and Neck The internal jugular vein drains the brain and most of the head and neck into the brachiocephalic vein which drains into the superior vena cava o Veins that drain the brain are called sinuses they form the jugular vein o The Vein that drains the chest azygos drains the chest wall o Superficial Veins that drain the Upper Limbs o Cephalic drains the lateral portion of upper limbs o Basilic drains the medial portion of upper limbs o The Hepatic Portal System All veins from the gut drain into the hepatic portal vein coming out of the bottom of the liver o Vein the drains the abdomen and lower limbs all veins below the diaphragm drain into the inferior vena cava which drains into the right atrium o The Superficial Vein that drains the lower limbs is the great saphenous Respiratory System 0 The Respiratory System 0 Consists of a conducting portion from nasal cavity through the bronchioles o Consists of a respiratory portion alveoli in the lungs where 02CO2 exchange occurs o The Pleural Sacs and Gross Anatomy 0 Each lung becomes surrounded by a pleural sac 0 Each lung extends from the diaphragm to the clavicle o Functions of the Respiratory System 1 Move airto and from alveoli in the lungs 2 Provide a gas exchange surface between air and blood 3 Produce sound 4 Contribute to olfaction o Respiratory Tract Lining composed of a surface layer ofepithelium and a deeper layer of connective tissue which is loose and dense connective tissue called lamina propria which also contains cartilage and smooth muscle 0 Respiratory Epithelium composed of goblet mucus cells ciliated cells and stem cells o Functions of the Respiratory Epithelium o Mucus from goblet cells catches inhaled debris o Cilia of ciliated cells moves mucus towards oropharynx 0 Stem cells divide and replace old goblet and ciliated cells 0 The Nasal Cavity o Conchae produce airturbulence and warm the air 0 Nasal hairs filter the air 0 Muscous glands moisten the air with mucus secretions o The pharynx is a chamber shared by the digestive and respiratory systems o Divisions of the pharynx o Nasopharynx posterior to the nasal cavity 0 Oropharynx posterior to the oral cavity 0 Laryngopharynx posterior to the larynx o The Larynx AKA voice box 0 Thyroid cartilage for protection and attachment site for the vocal cords o Cricoid cartilage for protection 0 Arytenoid cartilage attachment site for the vocal cords o Epiglottis prevents entry of good and liquids into respiratory o The Glottis composition the vocal cords must be open to breathe must be closed to speak 0 The Trachea o Extends from the cricoids cartilage to the 10 bronchi 0 Contains 1520 cartilage rings hyaline cartilage o The Bronchi a series of tubes of decreasing diamenter o 10 bronchi right and left each 10 bronchus supplies 1 lung 0 1O bronchi branch into 2 bronchi each 2 bronchus supplies 1 lobe of a lung 0 2O bronchi branch into 30 bronchi o The walls of 10 20 3O bronchi contain progressively less cartilage and more smooth muscle 0 Bronchodilation reduces resistance of airflow o Bronchoconstriction increases resistance of airflow o The Bronchioles have no cartilage in the lamina propria they only have smooth muscle and elastic fibers o Gross Anatomy of the Lungs o The right lung has 3 lobes superior middle and inferior separated by 2 fissures horizontal and oblique o The left lung has 2 lobes superior and inferior separated by 1 fissure oblique o Alveoli is where gas exchange takes place o The Aveolus its epithelial lining simple squamous epithelium 0 Type Cells 02C02 exchange 0 Type II Cells produce surfactant 0 Its connective tissue layer contains capillaries and elastic fibers no more smooth muscle 0 Surfactant reduces surface tension 0 3 Components of the Respiratory Membrane 1 Epithelial cell Type cell lining the alveoulus 2 Thin layer of connective tissue in between 3 Endothelial cell lining a capillary o Pneumonia o Alveolar walls become inflamed o Alveoli become full of fluid 0 02 from the air cannot reach the bloodstream o Pneumothorax air in the pleural sac Digestive System 0 The Abdominal Cavity o Bordered superiorly by the diaphragm o Bordered inferiorly by the pelvic cavity 0 Lined by the peritoneum 0 Functions of the Digestive System Ingestion Mechanical processing Secretion Digestion Absorption Excretion o General Organization of the Digestive Tract the 4 major layers of the digestive tract from inside to outside mucosa submucosa muscularis serosa o Mucosa the inner lining of the digestive tract Consists of its own 3 layers epithelium lamina propria muscularis mucosae o Lamina Propria deep to the epithelial layer Loose connective tissue Contains small blood vessels small lymphatic vessels and lymphoid tissue small sensory and motor nerves o Submucosa deep sub to the mucosa Dense irregular connective tissue Contains large blood vessels large lymphatic vessels large nerves o Submucosal Nervous Plexus innervates the muscularis mucosae o Muscularis 2 thick layers of smooth muscle Involved in peristalsis o Peristalsis waves of muscular contractions o Serosa the outer lining of the digestive tract Composed of simple squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue mwewwe 0 Functions of the Oral Cavity 0 Mechanical processing 0 Lubrication 0 Some digestion saliva contains amylase enzyme that breaks down starches and lipase enzyme that breaks down lipids o The Pharynx a common passageway for solid food liquids and air o The Esophagus transports solid food and liquids to the stomach 0 Functions of the Stomach Storage of ingested food Sterilization of ingested food Some digestion Some absorption alcohol and aspirin 0 Regions and Structures of the Stomach cardia body phylorus phyloric sphincter lesser curvature greater curvature rugae o The Lining of the Stomach invaginates to form gastric glands o Epithelial cells lining the Stomach epithelial cells of the gastric glands Mucous cells secrete mucus for protection Parietal cells secrete HCI and gastric acid Chief cells secrete pepsinogenconverted to pepsin that breaks down proteins Endocrine cells G cells release the hormone gastrin Stem cells o Functions of the Small Intestine Plays a key role in digestion and absorption of nutrients 90 of nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestines o Regions of the Small Intestine o The duodenum the first segment of small intestine Begins at the pyloric sphincter About 1 foot long It receives chime from stomach digestive enzyme and buffers from the pancreas and liver OOOO o The jejunum the middle segment of small intestine About8 feet long Site of most digestion and absorption 0 The ileum the last segment of small intestine About 12 feet long Ends at the ileocecal valve o Epithelial Cells lining the Small Intestine o Absorptive cells contain microvilli to increase surface area for absorption 0 Goblet cells secrete mucus for protection 0 Endocrine cells GIP cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide which inhibits gastric secretions 0 Stem cells 0 Functions of the Large Intestine 0 Absorption of water vitamins produced by bacteria and bile o Compaction of feces 0 Storage of feces prior to defecation o Regions of the Large Intestine 1 Cecum the expanded pouchlike first portion Receives material arriving from the ileum 2 Colon the largest portion Its wall forms a series of pouches 3 Rectum the last 6 inches of digestive tract o The Appendix attached to the posterior surface of the cecum A slender hollow vestigial appendage A lymphoid organ 0 Regions of the Colon o Ascending colon beings at the cecum Ascends along the right side of the abdomen 0 Transverse colon crosses the abdomen from the right to left 0 Descending colon descends along the left side of the abdomen 0 Sigmoid colon Sshaped segment about 6 inches long Empties into the rectum o Epithelial cell lining the colon o The main cell type of its simple columnar epithelial lining is the goblet cells produces vast amounts of mucus for lubrication of the feces o It also contains absorptive cells absorb water vitamins and bile o The Anus inferior to the rectum Lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium o The location of the pancreas inferior and posterior to stomach Extends from the duodenum to the spleen o The Exocrine Pancreas Exocrine cells 99 of the pancreatic cells Secrete pancreatic enzymes into ducts Secretions reach duodenum via the pancreatic duct enter the duodenum at the duodenal papilla release is controlled by hormones from the duodenum o Pancreatic Enzymes o Pancreatic amylase breaks down carbohydrates into di and tri saccharides o Pancreatic lipase breaks down complex lipids into fatty acids 0 Pancreatic proteases break down proteins into peptides o The Liver the largest visceral organ Divided into 4 lobes right left caudate quadrate Performs many essential functions o Hepatic Blood Supply 13 of the blood supplied to the liver is Ozrich arterial blood from the hepatic artery 23 is nutrientrich but 02 poor venous blood from the hepatic portal vein 0 The Hepatic Portal System Blood travels from capillaries of the stomach and intestines via the hepatic portal vein to sinusoids capillarylike vessels that is a 2nd capillary bed in the liver then via the hepatic vein to the heart and general circulation o Liver Histology 0 Liver lobule the functional unit of the liver 0 Composition of lobule 1 Hepatocytes liver cells Forms walls of cells radiate out from central vein like spokes on a wheel 2 Sinusoids spaces between walls of hepatocytes Drain blood from the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery into the central vein 3 Bile canaliculi spaces between hepatocytes within a wall Drain bile synthesized by the hepatocytes into the bile duct o Liver Drainage 0 Brain drains out of the liver via the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava and on to the heart 0 Bile drains out of the liver via the hepatic ducts and on to the gall bladder o The Gallbladder and Bile Duct System 0 Bile travels from the hepatic duct via the cystic duct to the gallbladder 0 Where it is stored and concentrated H20 is removed 0 The gallbladder contracts releases bile via the common bile duct into the duodenum though the duodenal papilla Urinary System o The urinary system consists of the kidney ureter urinary bladder and urethra o The Position of the kidneys the kidneys are located on either side of the vertebral column partly protected by the rib cage o Function of the kidneys o Excretion removal of waste from body fluids in unne 0 Regulation of blood ions they control blood Na K and Cl39 levels pH they control blood H and H003 levels Pressure and volume they control blood fluid volume and therefore blood pressure 0 They accomplish this by filtration of water ions nutrients and waste products from the blood Reabsorption of most of the water ions and nutrients back into the blood Excretion of metabolic wastes into the urine Only the kidney can regulate water volume in our bodies because they can concentrate or dilute the urine The Gross Anatomy of the Kidney 0 Renal cortex outer portion of the kidney 0 Renal Columns separate the renal medulla into renal pyramids 0 Renal Pyramids deep to renal cortex Separated by renal columns 0 Minor Calyx collects urine from a renal pyramid 0 Major Calyx formed by joining of minor calyces Join to form the renal pelvis 0 Renal pelvis drains urine into the ureter o Ureter a muscular tube that empties into the urinary bladder 0 Urinary Bladder where urine is stored Blood Supply to the Kidneys each kidney receives blood from a renal artery Kidney Histology the kidney is composed of nephrons and a collecting system The Nephron o The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney 0 It is composed of renal corpuscle and renal tubule o Urine production begins in the nephron blood is filtered into the nephron Filtrate passes through the nephron its composition changes What is left empties into the collecting system c The Collecting System the filtrate passes through the conducting duct where its final composition is determined Collecting ducts converge to empty into a minor calyx o Overview of the functions of the components of the nephron and collecting duct 1 Renal corpuscle filtration 2 Proximal convoluted tubule bulk reabsorption 3 Loop of Henle concentration 4 Distal convoluted tubule fine tunning 5 Collecting duct fine tunning o Renal Corpuscle spherical structure composed of glomerulus Bowman s capsule urinary space Glomerus intertwining network of capillaries Bowman s Capsule first part of the nephron which surrounds the glomerus and encloses the urinary space 0 Filtration of fluid from blood into the nephron occurs in the renal corpuscle Blood pressure forces H20 and dissolved substances out of the glomerulus into the urinary space produces a proteinfree solution called filtrate 0 Renal Tubule o A long ushaped tube extending from the cortex into the medulla and back to the cortex 0 It begins at renal corpusae o It is composed of the proximal convoluted tubule PCT Loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule DCT o It ends at the collecting duct o Composition of the wall of the tubule the wall of the renal tubule is composed of epithelial cells 0 Return of filtrate from the nephron back to the blood Functions of renal tubule cells reabsorb nutrients from the filtrate and return them to the blood Reabsorb water 90 from the filtrate Return it to the blood o Peritubular Capillaries and Vasa Recta the reabsorbed H20 and solutes are returned To the blood via peritubular capiallaries and vasa recta o The PCT Proximal Convoluted Tubule The first segment of renal tubule Bulk reabsorption o The Loop of Henle Middle segment Composed of a descending limb and ascending limb o How the Loop of Henly concentrates urine 0 Na and Cl39 are actively pumped out of the ascending limb and back into the bloodstream 0 H20 follows out of the descending limb and back into the bloodstream o Tubular fluid becomes very concentrated urea is now the main soluble left in the tubular fluid hence urine o The DCT Distal Convoluted Tubule last segment of the renal tubule Further adjustments to the filtrate are made in the DCT very selective reabsorption occurs here in response to hormones o How the DCT regulates blood pH The DCT controls both pH by both H excretion into the forming urine and H003 bicarbonate production and reabsorption into the blood o How the DCT regulates blood pressure and volume by working with the JG cells aldosterone causes increase in Na reabsorption from the DCT cells H20 always follows Na This increase increases blood pressure and volume 0 The Collecting Ducts determine the final urine composition and volume Hypothalamic neurons are stimulated by blood pressure of increase blood NaCl39 concentration They release ADH antidiuretic hormone which causes an increase in H20 reabsorption at the collecting duct 0 Summary of how 2 important hormones increase blood pressure and volume Aldosterone binding here causes Na reabsorption ADH binding here causes H20 reabsorption o The Ureters prevent back flow of urine 0 The Urinary Bladder is a temporary reservoir for urine storage 0 Urotherlim lines the bladder and ureters o The male urethra begins at the inferior pole of the bladder and passes through the prostate gland and penis o The female urethra a female is more prone to more frequent bladder infections than is male o The External Urethral Sphincter in both sexes skeletal muscle voluntary muscle surrounds the urethra under conscious control relaxation permits micturition urination Female Reproductive System o Components of the Female Reproductive System ovaries uterine tubes uterus vagina external genitalia labia minora and majora o Structural Support Broad ligament mesentery that surround s the ovaries uterine tubes and uterus Attaches these structures to the lateral pelvic wall Carries vasulature and nerves to the uterus and tubes 0 The Ovaries 0 Produce oocytes female gametes o Secrete estrogen and progesterone female sex hormones o Composed of an outer cortex containing the oocytes and an inner medulla containing the blood vessels o Meiosis is unique because of the crossing over 0 Oogenesis oogenesis is the oocyte production at birth Oogenia oocyte stem cells undergo mitosis to produce oocytes Mitosis complete before birth Oocytes undergo meiosis Meiosis II is completed only if fertilization occurs o Primordial follicle until puberty the ovary contains only primordial follicles Composition a simple squamous epithelium and oocyte 0 Primary follicle 0 At puberty and each month thereafter in response to FSHabout 12 primordial follicles mature into primary follicles o Epithelial cells of a primary follicle enlarge and divide to form a stratified epithelium around the oocyte and it begins to produce estrogen o Secondary Follice epithelial cells now begin to secrete fluid and it accumulates in many small cavities between the cells 0 Teritary follicle 0 Each month only 1 of the 12 maturing follicles matures to a 3 follicle o A single large cavity of fluid develops in this follicle called the antrum o The oocyte bulges into the antrum 0 Then the oocyte undergoes meiosis I separates from the follicle floats free in antrum o This leads to an estrogen surge o Ovulation the estrogen surge leads to an LH surge The LH surge leads to the release of the oocyte from this follicle o The Corpus Luteum its epithelial cells start to produce progesterone which prepares the uterine lining for pregnancy 0 FSH causes follicle maturation o LH causes ovulation and corpus luteum formation 0 The Corpus Albicans if fertilization does not occur the corpus luteum degenerates about 12 days after ovulation fills with scar tissue and becomes the corpus albicans o The Ovarian Cycle 0 The follicular phase primordial through tertiary follicles Estrogen is the primary hormone Associated with FSH o The Luteal Phase corpus luteum and albicans formation Progesterone is the primary hormone Associated with LH o The Uterine Tubes transport oocyte from ovary to uterus Fertilization occurs in the uterine tube 0 Components and Functions of the Uterus Body Cervix The uterus provides protection nutrition and waste removal o The Uterine Wall consists of the perimetrium myometrium and endometrium which supports the growing fetus Estrogen and progesterone cause the glands and blood vessels of the endometrium to develop and grow each month o The Uterine Cycle a repeating series of changes in the endometrium Responds to hormones of the ovarian cycle Consists of 3 phases 1 menstrual phase menses 2 proliferative phase both occur during the ovarian follicular phase 3 secretory phase occurs during the ovarian luteal phase o Menses the destruction of the superficial layer of the endometrium Results in release of blood and tissues Stimulated by decrease in progesterone o The Proliferative Phase follows menses Results in repair and regeneration of the endometrium Stimulated by estrogen secreted by the ovarian follicles o The Secretory Phase begins at ovulation Results in secretion by the glands and rapid growth of the arteries Stimulated by progesterone secreted by the ovarian corpus luteum o The Vagina 0 An elastic musculartube o Extends from the cervix to the vestibule 0 Between the urethra and rectum and anus 0 Function is as a passageway o The Clitoris erectile tissue a plexus of veins 0 The Female External Genitalia o Labia majora o Labia minora o Vestibule space between the 2 labia minor containing the openings for the urethra and vagina o The Mammary Glands o Composed of lobes which drain their secretory product milk into lactiferous ducts o Nipple contains the openings of the lactiferous ducts o Areola reddishbrown skin around each nipple Male Reproductive System o Components of the Male Reproductive System 0 Testes produce male gametes sperm and male sex hormonetestosterone o Ducts deliver semen to penis o Glands produce fluid components of semen 0 External genitalia penis and scrotum o The Scrotum a pouch lined by skin Associated with 2 muscle types 0 The Dartos Muscle a layer of smooth muscle within the skin of the scrotum causes the characteristic wrinkling of the scrotal surface 0 The Cremaster Muscle a layer of skeletal muscle deep to the skin of the scrotum Important for temperature regulation o Sperm production and the role of the Cremaster Muscle normal sperm development in testes requires temperature 200 lower than body temperature The cremaster muscle relaxes to move testes away from the body Contracts to move testes closerto the body 0 Descent of the Testes the testes from inside the body cavity against the posterior abdominal wall their caudal inferior pole is attached to a ligament called the gubernaculums This ligament extends from the testes to the skin of the future scrotum The rostral superior pole of the testis is connected to blood vessels and nerves and a duct the ductus deferens Each testis descends through the anterior body wall As the structures pass through the anterior body wall they become surrounded by each of the layers of the anterior body wall o The Spermatic Cord is the name for all of these components testis nerves blood vessels and ductus deferns The layers of the anterior body wall that surround these structures which include muscle and connective tissue o The lnguinal ligament this is the name of a ligament that extends from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle The inguinal ligament forms a canal through which the testis and the structures that follow it must pass o The lnguinal Canal this is the name of the passageway through the anterior abdominal wall This is a weak spot in the anterior abdominal wall o lnguinal Hernia is the name of the injury produced when visceral tissues like gut protrude into the inguinal canaL o Histology of the Testes the testes contain seminiferous tubules where sperm is produced o Contents of Seminiferous Tubules o Sertole cells extend from the outer capsule to the lumen o Spermatogonia sperm stem cells Next to the outer capsule o Sperm at various stages of development c Leydig Cells stimulated by LH to produce testosterone o Testosterone has many functions Stimulates spermatogensis maturation of spermatozoa Promotes libido sexual drive and related behaviors Establishes male 2 sex characteristics distribution of facial hair and increased muscle mass and body size Head Neck Trunk Muscles Masseter Temporalis External Oblique 1 I q 1 r 1 if 39 139 A H Z Em M 1m 39 Fielth mam a 0 wiaawg rwum v mu Internal Oblique Rectus abdominis Transversus abdominis Name the I groupcut an re ected on madel Rhomboid Group g arms the muscle Trapezius External interco sta10n the man only Internal intercostalon1y on the man j 39 A Pectoralis maj or S erratus anterior Depressor labii Frontalis L e Vator labii oZygomaticus major Orbicularis Oeuli Orbicularis oris Sternocleidomastoid Masseter N External intercostal Pectoralis group Serratus anterir Ventralis J l 39 Latissimus dorsieut and re ected Rhomboid group amze Trapezius group Y External obliquecut partially Internal oblique ame Sternomastoid


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