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Page1 of 10 93 Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology What is Psychology the study of how people think the study of mind brain and behavior mind thoughts feelings perceptions brain nerve cells chemical reactions behavior observable physical actions What makes Psychology as a field great psychologists get to ask questions everyone has theories about why people act the way they do psychologists can ask scientific questions to help determine validity of theories research informs us about how people exist in the world and could potentially affect the lives of others Basic Principles in Psychology psychological phenomena can be approached by multiple levels of analysis biological social cognitive cultural individual differences humans are influenced by subtle factors in their environment even when they largely are unaware of those influences some factors influence our thoughts feelings and behaviors at an unconscious level History of Psychology little over 100 yrs old outgrowth of philosophy and physiology questions asked by philosophers since early greek times early philosophers proposed theories of behavior socrates pay attention to mind and soul not bodily appetites plato humans come with predetermined knowledge that will emerge with development aristotle all knowledge is gained through experience blank slate descartes dualism mind and body are distinct amp separate entities but can interact with eachother seat of the soul in pineal gland gall phrenology head feeling localization of function in the brain darwin origin of the species natural selectionevolution Early Psychologists Hermann von Helmholtz observation developed reaction time studies neural responses visual perception Page20f 10 Wilhelm Wundt founder of psych theory of structuralism conscious behavior can be composed into smaller parts introspection asking people whats in their mind Edward Titchener student of Wudt made structuarlism famous William James first american psychologist breaking down consciousness didn t matter need to focus more on what the function of consciousness is author of principles of psychology Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis unconscious motivation sex and aggression unconscious drives to conscious free association and dream interpretation entirely subjective first to propose that unconscious thoughts influence behavior Structuralism based on periodic table small components make up bigger things introspection highly subjective must have reliability we don t always know what we re thinking behaviorism psych should study the relationship between observable actions behavior and environment stimulus response psych rewards and punishments James Watson s r psychology classical conditioning BF Skinner all behavior can be broken down into consequences of actions positive and negative reinforcement denied existence of mental states scheduled reinforcement Cognitive Revolution behavior is complex cannot be explained by sr psych not just responding observational learning thought influences behavior intelligence thinking language memory began to be studied cognitive neuroscience Page30f 10 how the brain works basically social neuroscience brain gives rise to social processesinteractionsbehaviors 98 Current Psychology psychological science is cumulative the foundations of current theories and research can be found throughout the historical roots of other disciplines philosophy biology neuroscience genetics contemporary psych heavily influenced by biology mapping of the human genome knowledge of neurochemistry and its relation to mental illness brain evolution many times psychologists approach research from different angles not creating new fields basic generation of new knowledge upon which later applications can be built physiologicalneuroscience sensationperception behavioral cognitive developmental social applied apply the basic knowledge to solve human problems clinical counseling schooleducational industrialorganizational forensic sport Chapter 2 Methods of Psychology Goals of Psychological Research describe the state of the world make predictions identify causal relationships how and why people do what they do create change psychology scientific study of mind and behavior stay away from pseudoscience horoscopes etc Page4of 10 we look for patterns and see patterns when they don t exist expectations hindsight bias oh i knew that after it happens confirmation bias preferring information that confirms our own hypothesis because of biases we need the scientific method what makes a good theory logical precise predictions unambiguously tested falsifiable simple parsimonious how to test a theory 1 descriptive studies seeks to observe and describe phenomena rather than manipulate variables case studies natural observation survey case studies in depth study of the behavior of one person or a small group clinical researchunusual cases patient HM disadvantages limited sample size researcher bias naturalistic observation in depth study of a phenomena in its natural setting Piaget generalizability disadvantages changes in behavior when the organism knows its being observed we know how it happens not why urvey asks questions of large numbers of persons to gain information on attitudes and behavior disadvantages sampling issues non accurate responses strengths may be the only way to investigate phenomena may suggest hypothesis that we can later test weaknesses cannot determine cause of behavior observer biases 2 correlational research measures two variables and determines how they are related correlation i causation aim is to determine the degree to which 2 or more variables are related correlation coefficient values range from 1 to 1 negative coefficients high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other 8 and 8 have the same strength positive negative 1 or 1 exact line rare correlation 2 causation because of directionality problems and third variables a might cause b b might cause a they might confluence each other 3 experimental research highly controlled investigations of a variable interest can make causal claims experiment manipulates one independent variable to measure the effects of the manipulation on the dependent variable all aspects of the experiment are highly controlled to isolate the effects of the independent variable everything is identical except for the independent variable population group you re studyingp Page50f 10 ample individuals taken randomly from the population ontrol group a group that is similar to the experimental group but not exposed to the treatment same procedure random assignment removes 3rd variables experiments must be replicated demand characteristics participants may guess the focus of the study and act in a way to confirm or negate the hypothesis 910 Ethical Issues all research myst be reviewed and accepted by an institutional review board IRB informed consent human subjects must be told of all foreseeable risks animals must be protected from unnecessary suffering risk the standards of acceptable risk must be very stringent because potential benefits are low as opposed to other fields cancer curing drug high risk amp high reward children may have difficulty giving informed consent due to a desire to obey and please adults and a lack of possible understanding of risks Stanley Milgram 1963 teacher gives learner electric shocks when they make a mistake on a test how far will people go in the name of science Methods of measuring brain function single cell recordings microelectrode implanted near axon detects action potential benefits direct observation excellent temporal resolution speed limits hole in the brain limited of cells at once limited to animal research EEGERP electroencephalography scalp electrodes measure electrical activity of large populations of neurons measuring EEG changes that are time locked to an event excellent temporal resolution poor spatial resolution 39 m functional magnetic resonance imaging relative amounts of oxygenated v deoxygenated blood benefits good spatial resolution combine with MRI to show structure limits poor temporal resolution expensive Chapter 3 The Brain neurons are about 4100 microns 11000 of a millimeter about 100 billion neurons in the brain 1 10A12 synapses 1 OO0000000000 neurons structure basic units of the nervous system receive integrate and transmit info electrical impulses operation chemical signals communication dendrites receive info from other neurons Page60f 10 cell body creates transmitter molecules axon sends information to other cells myelin sheath glial cells form scar tissue remove waste produce myelin sheath that surrounds neurons schwann cells and oligodendrocytes exposed spots of the myelin sheath nodes of ranvier 915 sensory neurons conduct impulses from receptors to sense organs in the CNS motor neurons output cells that activate muscles in the body interneurons relay stations between sensory and motor neurons MS autoimmune disorder myelin in CNS is lost reduces conduction of action potentials a neuron at rest is polarized negative charge inside compared to the outside due to large anions that cannot cross the border each neuron has its own resting potential activity state are measured with voltage maintained by chemical diffusion electrostatic force selectively permeable membrane electrostatic force opposites attract chemical diffusion areas of high concentration seek to even itself out to an area of low concentration selectively permeable membrane some things can cross the membrane some cannot goes both ways at rest the membrane potential is primarily affected by potassium K sodium is highly concentrated outside the cell potassium is highly concentrated inside the cell potassium electrostatic force and concentration gradient drives it in diffusion drives it out will eventually balance out no movement equilibrium potential sodium electrostatic force drives it in diffusion drives it in the absolute refractory period causes the action potential to flow in one direction a neuron at rest has about 60 miivot resting potential if a negative charge is applied to the neuron the neuron will become hyperpolarized if a positive charge is applied to the neuron the neuron will become depolarized each neuron had a unique threshold for activation if a force is sufficient to depolarize a neuron past threshold activation potential will occur activation potential is all or none refractory period sodium potassium pump transports 3 Na out of the cell and 2 K in maintains the resting potential neurotransmitters are released with depolarization bind to specialized recptors reputake via transporters degradation via enzymes destroy extra neurotransmitters autoreceptors signal the stop of release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine memory and motor control monoamines involved in affect arousal and motivation norepinephrine dopamine serotonin Page7of 10 amino acids general inhibitory and excitatory transmitters in the brain GABA Glutomote 917 excitatory postsynaptic neurons are more likely to fire EPSP inhibitory postsynaptic neurons are less likely to fire IPSP reuptake primary regulator of monoamines SSRls depression degredation of monoamines by monoamine oxidase MAOls block enzymatic degredation depression degredation breaks down ACh ACh inhibitors block breakdown ofACh Alzheimer s Chapter 3 The Brain Part 2 CNS and PNS central and peripheral nervous systems CNS brain and spinal cord PNS sense organs peripheral nerves autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic sympathetic emergency system fi ht or fli ht blood pressure increases heart rate increases digestion inhibited parasympathetic vegetative functions digestion blood pressure decreases heart rate decreases digestion stimulated often act in opposition can act in concert CNS organization of the spinal cord efferent signals out sent via the anterior horn of the spinal cord and project to the muscle fibers afferent signals in relay sensory infer into the posterior horn of the spinal cord the brain we have a more developed frontal lobe than other animals phrenology Gall bumps on the head were reflective of function forebrain largest part of brain coordinates higher functions sensation perception cortex basal ganglia limbic system imbic system above brainstem surrounded by cortex in forebrain but subcortical under cortex thalamus receives almost all incoming sensory info and organizes it except for olfactory hypothalamus regulates vital functions body temp hunger hormone release sexual functioning amygdala processes emotional info fear and aggression and associates emotional responses hippocampus formation of declarative memory and formation of spatial memories smart hippo went to coHege amnesia retrograde same memories intact but temporally graded anything 210 years prior to surgery lost anterograde cannot form new memories cortex outside surface cerebral cortex 2 cerebral hemispheres connected by corpus callosum gyrus bumps outfolding bumpy sulcus valley infolding foldy Page80f 10 purpose is to maximize surface area cram as much brain as possible into the skull midbrain coordinates simple movements targets stimuli for further processing helps regulate body temperature pain perception sleepwake cycle hindbrain brainstem basic life functions regulates important reflexes respiratory functions arousal basic movement medulla controls heart rate respiration pons links to cerebellum motor control involved in respiration arousal and control of REM sleep reticular formation involved in respiration heart rate maintaining wakefulness cerebellum coordinates smooth movements balance and posture midbrain and hindbrain are specialized for basic life functions homeostasis 922 cerebral lateralization each hemisphere has specific functions information is transferred between hemispheres by corpus callosum partially specialized in functions in humans left more often controls language dominant for language logic and complex motor behaviors right somewhat better at spatial processing dominant for non linguistic functions including mental imagery and spatial relationships contralateral control right hemisphere receives input from and controls left side of the body left hemisphere revives input from and controls right side of the body Broca s area speech disturbance with broca s area broken speech lol aphasia loss of ability to understand or express speech caused by brain damage Broca s area involved in language production affects ability to speak and find words can usually understand the speech of others Wernicke s area involved in language understanding can speak long sentences usually don t make sense difficulty in understanding other people Why is our brain lateralized speed of processing speech transcortical integration takes time different forms of representation multiple strategies redundancy in case of damage split brain studies information in the left visual field goes to the right hemisphere and vise versa you move your left hand with your right hemisphere and vise versa the corpus callosum serves to integrate the two hemispheres cutting the corpus callosum can result in info only going to one hemisphere cortical representation of the body homunculus dominant gene expressed whenever present recessive gene expressed only when matched with similar gene from both parents genotype genetic constitution of an organism phenotype observable physical characteristics affected by both genes amp environment Page90f 10 P1 dominant P2 dominant W2 W1 W2 white monozygotic identical twins dizygotic fraternal twins heritability estimate of the extent to which variation in a given trait is due to genetic factors Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception sensation the capture of the info automatic perception the interpretation of the stimuli giving them meaning changeable 5 senses vision auction somatosensation gustation olfcation optic nerve 1 million fibers auditory nevre about 30000 13 to 12 of the brain for vision the rest for everything else bottom up vs top down processing bottom up based on the sensory signals relayed from lower sensory to higher interpretive systems top down processes based on prior knowledge or expectation information from higher systems can bias lower systems 924 light sensitive photoreceptors rods and cones are at the back of the eye facing backward Cells in the retina photoreceptors capture light cones daylight color fine detail rods evening dark light grayscale less detail motion sensitivity bipolar cells transfer info from photoreceptors to RGC retinal ganglion cells retinal ganglion cells communicate info to several nuclei in thalamus and hypothalamus only cells that fire action potential form optic nerve horizontal and amacrine cells lateral projections info sideways not out receptive field area within the visual field that a neuron or a retinal cell sees through contrast affects perception color perception short wavelengths bue long wavelengths middle green yellow orange 3 types of cones each has a different pigment that absorbs a different wavelength S M and L cones short medium long 5 firing you see greenorange all or none Area V1 first stop in cortex for visual info PagefOoffO Hubel and Wiesel 1959 all area v1 cells detect are linesedges simple cells 2 processing streams ventral whatmiddlebottom and dorsal wheretop Depth Perception 3D world projected onto a 2D retina we cannot see depth brains interpret depth cues binocular depth cures which requires both eyes eyes are 3 in apart we receive slightly different info from each eye monocular depth cues that can be extracted from the image in either eye occlusion if one thing blocks your view it has to be closer to you relative size if 2 things are the same size and one appears to be larger it has to be closer linear perspective lines that converge are moving into the distance texture gradient any texture gradient that gets progressively smaller is getting farther away motion parallax objects at varying distances will appear to move at different rates relative to their position and distance Monday October 6 2014 PSY 101 Chapter 6 Learning What is learning learning is a relatively enduring change in the way an organism responds to the environment assumptions of learning theories 39 responses are learned rather than innate learning is adaptive Simple Learning habituation with repeated exposure to a stimulus response becomes weakened or habituated 39 example street noise outside of your dorm room cat smell sensitization with repeated exposure to a stimulus response becomes strengthened or exaggerated example an allergic reaction annoying habits Classical Conditioning Pavlov Russian psychologist interested in digestion 39 won nobel prize in 1904 for his digestion work noticed psychic reflex in his experiments on dogs unconditioned stimulus elicits response without conditioning food unconditioned response natural response salivation conditioned stimulus neutral stimulus that triggers a conditioned response bell conditioned response desired response after conditioning salivation Fear Conditioning fear can be explained through reward and punishment can be learned Little Albert 39 white rat neutral stimulus loud noise unconditioned stimulus gt fear unconditioned response white rat then conditioned stimulus 2 fear conditioned response Monday October 6 2014 Classical Conditioning Concepts acquisition forming an association extinction losing an association spontaneous recovery suddenly showing the conditioned response after it has been extinguished What does an animal learn in classical conditioning 39 Association between an unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus involuntary The Garcia Effect Garcia and Koelling 1966 showed that poisoned food leads to one trial learning conditional taste aversion learning exceptionally strong learning effects 39 temporal contiguity not essential 39 strongest form of leaning known if something makes you sick you stay away from it 39 exception alcohol Operant Conditioning focus of behaviorist movement Law of Effect 39 Edward Thorndike 39 the likelihood that a given behavior will be repeated depends on the outcome of the behavior positive outcome increased likelihood of occurrence adverse outcome decrease BF Skinner 39 skinner box 39 consequences of actions principles of reinforcement 39 reinforcer any event that strengthens the behavior it follows positive present pleasurable stimulus after response Monday October 6 2014 negative removal of aversive stimulus 39 escape conditioning organism emits behavior to remove adverse stimulus shock on one side of cage runs through door no more shock reinforcement schedules 39 continuous reinforcement every response 39 ratio reinforce after a certain number of trials fixed ratio every xtrails variable ratio after yrandom trials 39 interval reinforce after a certain amount of time fixed interval after a set time variable interval after a random period 39 respond more for ratio than interval more for variable than fixed 39 easier to learn fixed schedules 39 harder to extinguish variable schedules 39 responses are higher for ratio than interval 39 partial reinforcement extinction effect Extinction intermittent reinforcement lasts longer than continuous 39 variable ratio and interval slowest extinction extinction bursts 39 lot of behavior occurring when first placed on extinction Punishment an aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows can be positive or negative to be effective punishment must be immediate consistent sufficiently strong problems with punishment 39 punished behavior is not forgotten its suppressed behavior returns when punishment is no longer consistent 39 creates anxiety Wednesday October 29 2014 39 models aggressive behavior 39 positive 2 something added negative 2 something taken away 39 reinforcement behavior more likely punishment behavior less likely 39 Shaping teaching behavior not currently in their repertoire reinforcement of successive approximations ex dressage service animals drug dogs 39 Observational Learning social learning ex fashion trends Mineka s study of fear learning 39 wild rhesus monkeys fear snakes 39 laboratory reared monkeys do not acquired fear of snakes observationally from wild monkeys who wouldn t reach over the snakes to get the food reward Bandura 39 studied aggression in children Bobo Doll experiment children watch adults play aggressively with bobo doll 39 adult punished less aggressive than no consequences 39 adult rewarded more aggressive than no consequences 39 no consequences 39 control did not watch aggressive adult 39 Not all learning requires consequences observational learning latent learning 39 learning occurs without reinforcement but is only visible with reinforcement 39 Tolman 3 groups of rats 39 reinforced regularly Wednesday October 29 2014 39 never reinforced 39 reinforced beginning day 11 39 Operant conditioning is interesting but what about classroom learning one factor that has been found to greatly enhance learning memory is testing Karpicke and Roediger 2006 study on swahilienglish word pairs 4 conditions 39 ST study and test in all material 4x 39 SnT continue to test on all items 4x do not study any correct items STn continue to study all items 4x do not test any correct items 39 SnTn study everything once do not study or test any correct additional studying did not benefit performance but additional testing did 39 The Biology of Learning dopamine signals reward 39 released by the nucleus accumbens dopamine release is involved in both natural and learned pleasurable experiences Hebb s Theory 39 cells that fire together wire together 39 implies that the brain is plastic and neural connections form with learning longterm potentiation 39 the strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated Chapter 7 Consciousness 39 subjective experience of the world and one s mind 39 many animals share aspects of consciousness with humans similar behavior similar structure of nervous system 39 consciousness does not require behavior or emotion Wednesday October 29 2014 39 there s a lot we don t know about consciousness minimal brain size for consciousness whether or not it requires a body no theory of which types of systems biological or synthetic have awareness how the brain gives rise to consciousness 39 Attention and Consciousness these two processes are often closely linked but are not the same is paying attention necessary and sufficient for consciousness can consciousness occur outside the spotlight of attention 39 Do we have control over our conscious thoughts thought suppression does not work we cannot entirely control the contents of consciousness can information affect us if we are not consciously aware of it 39 information can affect our behavior even if we are not consciously aware that it is having an effect 39 unconscious priming can occur even when information is presented with awareness ex weather give participants word pairs oceanmoon and then free associate other words such as detergent 39 participants are unaware of the association 39 States of Consciousness M 39 patients unable to respond to surroundings maintained sleepwake cycle 39 Terry Schiavo coma after heart attack lived in vegetative state for 15 years legal battle kept alive because her parents believed she would recover 39 ethical 39 Jan Grzebski Wednesday October 29 2014 entered coma in 1988 spent 19 years in minimally conscious state 39 can move eyes reported some awareness of relatives 39 advanced neuroimaging techniques have allowed researches to communicate with some patients 39 fMRl machine patients are instructed to imagine playing tennis or walking through a neighborhood motor areas light up allows patients to communicate playing tennis 2 yes walking in a neighborhood no meditation exerciseinduced euphoria sleep altered state of consciousness via drug use 39 Sleep people often compared sleep to death What is sleep 39 reduced physical activity 39 stereotypic posture 39 reduced response to stimulation 39 reversible state 39 biological necessity rats typically live between 2 and 3 years deprive them of REM sleep die after about 8 sddjx total sleep deprivation die in 1132 days Fatal Familial Insomnia geneticallybased disease affecting only about 40 families world wide patients lose the ability to sleep 39 slowly lose motor and cognitive function 39 all die within a year of disease onset Wednesday October 29 2014 39 affects the thalamus Who sleeps 39 all mammals 39 birds 39 some fish 39 reptiles possible no slow wake sleep 39 fruit flies sleep like rest stages Variations in various aspects of sleep 39 timing of sleep humans and many other animals diurnal mice rats bats nocturnal deer rabbits moose skunks crepuscular 39 stereotypic posture bats sleep upside down horses sleep standing up leopard sleep in tree limbs sealshippos can sleep underwater migratory birds 39 sleep while flying across the ocean unihemispheric sleep sleep with only one half of the brain at a time 39 dolphinsporpoises sealswhales lets them breathe while sleepingswimming 39 ducks lets them keep one eye open for predators hibernation in animals 39 state of inactivity and metabolic depression energy conservation 39 different than sleep Wednesday October 29 2014 39 cool their bodies to the surrounding temperatures 39 hibernating animals awaken several times during the winter to sleep 39 Sleep Stages stagef 39 light transitional sleep 39 subjectively may feel as if you re floating or drifting 39 somewhat aware of surroundings 39 awaken easily 39 EEG activity Theta frequency 47 Hz stage 2 39 usually enter about 10 minutes after sleep onset 39 more relaxed 39 EEG activity marked by K complexes and sleep spindles K complex sharp high amplitude positivenegative wave sleep spindles high frequency bursts 1116 Hz typically 1214 Hz 12 night spent in stage two stage 3 39 deep sleep low frequency high amplitude WWG waveforms muscles more relaxed heart rate slows respiration slows 39 difficult to awaken sleeper 39 Delta sleep or Slow wave sleep 39 EEG activity delta frequency 052 Hz 39 sleep apnea effects stage 3 REM 39 rapid eye movements 39 most dreaming occurs 39 Paradoxical sleep Wednesday October 29 2014 brain is highly active EEG looks myst like awake brain complete muscle atonia paralysis brain activity varies based on wake or sleep cycle 39 Napping usually contain slow wave sleep 39 amount of SWS increased when naps taken later in the day 39 do not normally contain REM timingduration of naps matters if late in the day may affect ability to fall asleep and sleep hygiene less SWS more stage 2 normal in many mammalian species 39 Theories of Sleep Function sleep is restorative 39 animals sleep so that biochemical and physiological repairs can take place 39 sleep revitalizes and restores physiological processes that keep the mind an body healthy and functioning properly 39 no single physiological process have been found to be restored by sleep sleep is adaptive 39 sleep is an adaptive behavior favored by evolution 39 main goal conserve energy 39 determined by food requirements and energy requirements smaller animals higher metabolism 39 predator avoidance sleep promotes learning and memory 39 memory is strengthened across a period of sleep 39 you can learn information without sleeping 39 sleep may improve memory but memory formation is not the primary function of sleep sleep is less essential according to adaptive theory than restoration theory 39 adaptive theory accounts for short sleepers 1O 11 Wednesday October 29 2014 Case study Miss M 1973 claimed to only sleep 1 hour per night in lab slept 67 minnight cheery disposition positive approach to life 39 restoration theory cannot account for these cases Dreaming unique state of consciousness in which we are asleep but experience a variety of astonishing sensory image often connected in strange ways and often contain emotional content can occur in story form but often connections between different parts of a dream are illogical and bizarre first recorded dreams 2700 BC dreams are believed to be meaningful 39 dreams about physical health and illness thought to reflect illness in the dreamer by Hippocrates Aristotle and Galen all humans dream REM 39 70 o90 o of dreams SWS 39 10 o15 o Stage 1 and 2 39 evidence that dreams occur but not as frequent and rarely studied 95 of dreams are forgotten dreams during REM are better remembered visual area and amygdala highly active during dreams frontal lobe deactivated Drugs drug dependence physical dependence produces tolerance increasingly greater amounts of the drug are necessary for some effect 12 Wednesday October 29 2014 withdrawal symptoms confusion seizures hallucinations increase heart rate andor blood pressure sweating tremors psychological dependence psychological withdrawal symptoms craving irritability insomnia depression alcohol 39 depressant 39 acts on GABA receptors initial response euphoria reduced anxiety with increased consumption 39 slurred speech 39 slowed motor and cognitive function 39 impaired memory prolonged use can lead to Korsakoft s syndrome and liver damage physical withdrawal symptoms delirium tremens hallucinations hypertension seizures insomnia psychological withdrawal symptoms Wednesday October 29 2014 depression anxiety irritability confusion panic attacks cocaine 13 39 stimulant 39 effects dilated pupils increased body temperature increased heart rate increased blood pressure 39 affects reward pathways in the brain blocks reuptake of dopamine gt increase dopamine in the synapse highly addictive addiction can occur after only one use withdrawal symptoms depression fatigue lack of pleasure anxiety irritability not associated with physical symptoms of withdrawal with prolonged use down regulation of DA receptors receptors become less sensitive meth stimulant subjective effects increased wakefulness increased focusalertness believed to bind to monoamine transporters increasing levels of dopamine norepinephrine and serotonin in high doses can also inhibit monoamine oxidase side effects 14 insomnia anxiety heart problems skin teeth risk of increase BP 39 stroke 39 heart attack 39 death MDMA ecstacy molly 39 began as a therapeutic agent dirivative of amphetamine 39 subjective experience euphona intimacy with others diminished anxietydepression 39 acts on monoamine neurotransmitters strongest effect on serotonin side effects jaw clenchingteeth grinding loss of appetite withdrawal symptoms depression anxiety paranoia irritabilityfatigue insomnia dizziness risks memory impairments reduced ability to preform complex tasks Wednesday October 29 2014 15 Wednesday October 29 2014 interaction with various other drugs ex MAOls can lead to toxicity or death can lead to depression due to lack of serotonin 39 permanent damage to CNS LSD 39 hallucinogens 39 psychological effects extreme distortion of perception thought and consciousness subjective experiences are often compared to dreams or meditation physical effects pupil dilation increased wakefulness 39 affects serotonin and dopamine 39 believed to increase Glutamate activity in cortex Marijuana 39 not easily classified can have effects similar to depressants stimuluants and hallucinogens 39 how THC effects the brain is unknown 39 subjective effects altered cognition reduced pain effects increased heart rate increased appetite impaired short term memory while high 39 large concentration of cannabinoid receptors in hippocampus long term effect addiciton cognitive impairment altered brain development Wednesday October 29 2014 Chapter 8 Language and Thinking and Intelligence 39 What is language arbitrary system symbolic communication 39 so systematic relationship between sound of word and meaning deep structure vs surface structure 39 deep 2 meaning 39 surface 2 wording language is abstract 39 permits abstract thought can speak of things we ve never seen san speak of things that haven t happened yet can speak of things as they might be should be or could be language is generative 39 key aspect of all human languages able to combine elements to create new words phrases and sentences never before uttered language is inherently ambiguous 39 you can never truly know if you re comprehending the exact message your interlocutor intends critical properties of language 39 Clark amp Clark communicative arbitrary 39 exception sign language structured at multiple levels 39 pattern is not arbitrary words can end with rk but cannot start with rk the can lead but not follow cat generative 16 Wednesday October 29 2014 39 built together in new limitless ways dynamic 39 changing new words new rules 39 ls language unique to humans Choasky believes yes animal language examples 39 Honey Bees waggle dance indicates proximity of food 39 similar to language abstract representation of information 39 spontaneously produced 39 communication not language Project Nim 39 Min was raised in a family 39 goal of project provide evidence that nonhuman primates were capable of language 39 learned about 125 signs ASL 39 did not show any ability to use grammar 39 use of language was strictly pragmatic as a means of obtaining outcome such as food parrots 39 vocal learning species can learn english words and sometimes produce them can answer questions animals can communicate can perceive language can learn to produce language in various forms but their language processing abilities are limited SapirWhorf hypothesis 39 thought determined by language has been abandoned language does appear to influence some aspects of cognition 39 speakers of different languages think different 39 categorization 17 Wednesday October 29 2014 list of features that define a category category membership is determined based on number of features an item has Prototype model 39 some category members are more representative than others Kosslyn s size experiments 39 findings the amount of time it takes you to respond about a detail of an imagined picture depends on the size of that image 39 conclusion you re examining a visually based representation 39 Judgement and Decision Making deductive reasoning using logic to draw specific conclusions 39 syllogism two statements premises third statement conclusion 39 categorial syllogism describe relation between two categories using all no or some syllogism is valid if conclusion follows logically from its two premises 39 valid argument is logically consistent can be untrue inductive reasoning drawing a conclusion about the probability of an event or condition based on available but incomplete evidence of the past 39 heuristic cognitive strategies or rules of thumb used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks can cause biases 39 conjunction fallacy when the probability of two events happening together are assessed as greater than the odds of either happening alone 39 can thoughtthinking be affected by cultural stereotypes the consequences of selfrelevant stereotype activation for academic performance fear of being reduced to the stereotype can lead to underperformance 39 most likely to affect those highly identified being primed with questions of race can effect performance stereotype between men and women is extremely prevalent and effects performance 39 Intelligence Charles Spearman 39 twofactor intelligence 18 Wednesday October 29 2014 g 2 general factor 3 2 specific ability 39 score on any given test depends on a combination of these 2 factors Catell 39 fluid intelligence information processing without previous specific experience 39 reasoning verbal analogies peaks in early adulthood 39 crystalized intelligence mental abilityknowledge derived from experiences 39 word meanings increases gradually with age until late adulthood Chapter 7 Memory Part II 39 Longterm Memory 19 LTM refers to the representations of facts images actions and skills that may persist over a lifetime LTM involves retrieval of info LTM is theoretically limitless in capacity Primacy effect remember first items in a list better than the last Recency effect we remember last items in a list better than the first declarative memory memory of facts info and events semantic memory generic knowledge of facts 39 episodic memories of specific events procedural memory memory for skills habits and conditioning depth of processing 39 focus on meaning of information as opposed to physical characteristics results in better storage picture superiority effect Wednesday October 29 2014 memory retention is far superior id a word is accompanied by a picture massed vs distributed practice the spacing effect if we review material repeatedly over time we are more likely to remember it later than if we review material repeatedly in a short time highly emotional material is remembered better than nonemotional material memory for images was better when participants listened to the emotional story state dependent learning internal context dependent learning external memory is effected by both encoding and retrieval conditions 39 memory is best if context at encoding and retrieval are the same memory is a combination of recollection of information and our world knowledgeexpectations Memory Distortion memory is prone to distortion wrongful eyewitness testimonies are the number one cause of wrongful convictions Factors that affect eyewitness memory 39 passage of time familiarity of suspect race weapons focus 39 Forgetting and failure of LTM 20 we forget most of what we learn in the first hour and the rate drops off over time failure to encode failing to put material into LTM 39 forgetting people s names decay fading of memory through disuse 39 impossible to distinguish from permanent retrieval failure retrieval failure inability to find the necessary memory cue for retrieval 39 can be temporary interference confusion or entanglement of similar memories 21 Wednesday October 29 2014 39 proactive interference old memories interfere with the recall of new information 39 retroactive interference new memories interfere with recall of old information amnesia 39 retrograde memory loss for events prior to amnesia short period not very common 39 anterograde memory loss for events after amnesia inability to form new memories alzheimer s korsakoff s syndrome trauma to hippocampus Chapter 9 Development Developmental Psychology study of systematic changes that occur over the lifespan changes reflect both maturation and learning cognitive social moral one of the most important things that happens while maturing is brain development extra synapses can slow down system Cognitive Development Piaget primary contribution to development psych development occurs in stages differing on how the world is understood method have children solve problems and question them about reasoning behind their solutions children think in radically different ways than adults Sensorimotor 02 information gained through sensed and motor actions child perceives and manipulates but doesn t understand object permanence acquired around 6 months of age ish Preoperational 27 emergence of language and pretend play egocentric processing can only see their own POV their eyes closed you can t see them still focus on sensory info rely on visual representations Concrete Operational 711 thought is logical but only in relation to objects that are present child understands conservation pass false belief tests improvement in logical reasoning not good at abstract or hypothetical thought Formal Operational 11 thought is logical and abstract reasoning becomes possible Critique underestimates children s abilities overestimates age differences in learning vagueness about the process of change modern theories believe he was pretty much right Social Development maturation of skills that allow you to operate in a social environment attachment theory humans are altricial species born at early stages in development and are incapable of surviving without conspecifics to care for them Harry Harlow believed infant attachment was more than just food and protection believed infants needed contact comfort avoidant secure and anxious attachment styles Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion Emotion Darwin emotional expressions are universal repression of outward signs of emotion softens the experience of the emotion JamesLange emotion is a physiological response CannonBard emotion is activation of the thalamus 6 basic emotions happiness surprise disgust sadness fear anger Motivation biological and psychological needs homeostasis biology of hunger insulin cases body to store glucose leptin signals satiety full lateral hypothalamus stimulates eating ventromedial hypothalamus restricts eating obesity has both biological and social factors Gender and Sexuality John Money argued that gender was learned there was a social definition of gender Guevedoces penis at 12 once girls hit puberty penis growth and male hormones kick in female is default gender Androgen lnsensitivity Syndrome genetic males who appear female Sexuality Nature or Nurture The brain suggests evidence of Nature not Nurture INAH3 is 3x larger in men than women anterior commissure connects the two hemispheres is larger in women than in men genetic component to homosexuality paternal birth order effect number of older male siblings with the same mother has a strong effect on sexual orientation in males Chapter 13 Personality 5 factors of personality openness to experience neuroticism agreeableness extraversion conscientiousness these 5 are necessary and sufficient for describing personality at the broadest level traits have a heritability component Phineas Gage Measuring personality rorschach inkblot trait approach big 5 listed above Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders DSM diagnose mental disorders Schizophrenia causes associated with many brain abnormalities enlarged ventricles reduction in brain tissue positive symptoms delusions hallucinations loosening of associations positive things that normal people don t have but those with schizophrenia do negative symptoms blunted affect anhedonia poverty of speech lack of motivation negative things that normal people do have but those with schizophrenia do not Depressive Disorders major depression severe symptoms that occur for at least 2 week without any precipitating event may be accompanied by a change in sleep and appetite motor symptoms difficulty without concentration persistent depressive disorder less severe symptoms that last at least 2 years up to 25 of the population will suffer from depression at some point more common in women than men seasonal affective disorder seasonal depression increased appetite and sleep genetic factors play a role in depression neurotransmitter levels may also be related to depressive symptoms Bipolar Disorder cycling of mood between periods of mania and depression may have normal periods between manic episodes elevated mood increased activity 4 of the population equally likely in men and women Phobias specific phobias and intense fear of some external stimulus Anxiety Disorders intense fear of some external stimulus generalized anxiety disorder anxiety not related to any object or event in particular 6 of population more common in women than men Obsessive Compulsive Disorder obsession recurrent intrusive worries compulsion specific acts that individual is drive to preform over and over to counteract obsessive worry 12 of the population more common in women Dissociative ldentity Disorder person creates multiple distinct personalities the different personalities are often unaware of the others one dominant personality the identities can vary substantially environmental factor Antisocial Personality Disorder very charming lack empathy crimes are almost always premeditated 14 of the population more common in men than in women Chapter 12 Social Psychology Conformity change in attitude or behavior in response to a group norm normative social influence need for approval or acceptance informational social influence when you don t know what to do look to others factors affecting conformity group size presence of dissenter Obedience Milgram shocking participants factors affecting obedience location of victim location of authority figure legitimacy of authority figure other people who continuerefuse Group roles Stanford Prison Study Zimbardo Bystander effect factors that affect behavior social loafing I don t matter diffusion of responsibility someone else will take care of it Attitudes and Behavior attitudes do not always predict behavior can involve implicit and explicit components stereotypes and prejudice ingroupoutgroup bias knowledge of cultural stereotypes may affect behavior even if individual does not endorse stereotypes
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