Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology SOC 1301
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Everardo Terry on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1301 at Texas Tech University taught by Cristina Bradatan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/226400/soc-1301-texas-tech-university in Sociology at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Social strati cation The existence of structured inequalities between groups in society in terms oftheir access to material or symbolic rewards While all societies involve some forms of stratification only with the development of statebased systems did wide differences in wealth and power arise The most distinctive form of strati cation in modern societies is class divisions Caste system A social system in which ones social status is given for life Born with Apartheid S Africa Class system Mobility is low Hard to change things their born with both ascribed and achieved characteristics Based on both birthascription and meritocracy individual achievement Permits some social mobility based on individual achievement Class systems e common in modern industrial and postindustrial societies Meritocracy a system that in which rewards are distributed based on merit Achieved Characteristics matter Measures ofinequalityGINI 01 20 Social mobility 7 Movement ofindividuals or groups between different social positions 0 Intergenerational mobility is relative to your parents Parents are low class but you become a doctor and move to middle cl s 41 Intragenerational mobility you experience in your own lifetime When in school you39re working class when you graduate college you may enter the middle class Functionalist theory on social strati cation David Moore 39 39 39 39 tratifiratinn ha beneficial ioi iiie operation ofa society Assumptions Social inequality is unavoidable Social inequality serves as a useful function to bring society together I In any society a number oftasks must be accomplished Some tasks such as cleaning streets or serving coffee in a restaurant are relatively simple Other tasks such as performing brain surgery or designing skyscrapers are complicated and quire more intelligence and training than the simple tasks Those who perform the difficult tasks are therefore entitled to more power prestige and money quot39 39 39 sncial 39 39 39 Karl Marx quot quot39 Social conflict is because ofstruggles J r r between the classes Socioeconomic status a measure of an individual39s place within a social class system Max Weber Class Status and Power Inequality and technology A formula showing that inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development then declines and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level advanced by the economist Simon Kuznets Max WeberThree distinct dimension ofinequality Economic inequality class Social status Power WN Wealthy people tend to be more powerful than poor people are and power can come from an individual39s prestige in high standings among others Example Arnold Schwarzenegger enjoyed prestige as a bodybuilder and as an actor and he was enormously wealthy When was elected governor of California in 2004 he became powerful as well Income and wealth Income is money earned through paid work wealth includes all ofa person39s assets such as a home money in savings and checking accounts stock investments and a partnership in a business Health and socialstatus In general the higher the social class the greater the life expectancy The poor are subject to more infant deaths and disease than the upper classes Rates of mental illness also go up as social class goes down and the poor are less likely to receive treatment The higher level of stress is one explanation for higher rates of mental illness Poorer dying due to high cost and food and no health or medication Global inequality The systematic differences in wealth and power between countries High Above 10000 Dollars Highincome countries have less than 2 0 percent ofthe World39s population While they are responsible for over i757 percent of the World39s Wealth middle 100002500 low income Below 2500 Based on 2005 World Bank data a country is considered lowincome if its per person gross national income is under 905 I Most people in modern societies are more affluent today than several generations ago Yet the distribution ofwealth and income remains highly unequal Between the early 19705 and the late 19905 partly as a result of economic globalization the gap between rich and poor grew Incomes at the top increased sharply While many ordinary Workers and families saw their 39 A r 1 higherWage 39 job moved to 39 Death and poverty in poor countries Due to poor health and fond 39 39 J old is 39 39 39D39 quot r Modernization theory A version ofmarketoriented development theory that argues that lowincome societies develop economically only ifthey give up their traditional Ways and adopt modern economic institutions technologies and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment neoliberalism The economic belief that free market forces achieved by minimizing government restrictions on business provide the only route to economic growth Accordingto W W Rostow39s modernization theory how dotraditional cultural values and social institutions affect economic development in lowincome societies Modernization theorists claim that many lowincome societies limit their chances of success because people generally feel that hardship and suffering are inevitable and they don39t believe that hard Work can make a difference in economic outcomes Neoliberalism set of economic policies grounded in the notion that freemarket forces protected by eliminating government regulation provide the only path to economic grth World system theory a core country is one that obtains raw materials from core countries to make nished goods that it sells at a pro t This economy is made up ofcore countries semiperiphery and periphery Dependency theory Marxist theories of economic development arguing that the poverty of lowincome countries stems directly from their exploitation by Wealthy countries and the multinational corporations that are based in Wealthy countries State centered theories quot r 39 r r 39 quot 39 do not interfere with economic development but rather can play a key role in bringing it about Asian Countries Accept foreign investments market regulated strong state Movies Born into Brothels poverty and life chances Charlie Wilson s war power and wealth first part