New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Introduction to Sociology

by: Everardo Terry

Introduction to Sociology SOC 1301

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > Sociology > SOC 1301 > Introduction to Sociology
Everardo Terry
GPA 3.79


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Sociology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Everardo Terry on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1301 at Texas Tech University taught by Roberts in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/226401/soc-1301-texas-tech-university in Sociology at Texas Tech University.


Reviews for Introduction to Sociology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
N V39 5 0 gt1 9 Control Theory 7 the idea that two control systems 7 inner controls and outer controls 7 work against our tendencies to deviate inner controls are our conscience religious principles ideas of right and wrong outer controls consist of family friends and the police Who in uence us not to deviate Differential Association Edwin Sutherlands term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn and excess of de nitions of deviance and increase the likelihood that they will become deviant 0 From the different groups w associate with we learn to deviate from our conform of society s norms Stigma blemishes that discredit a persons claim to normal identity Deviance the violation of social norms whether the infraction is as minor as driving over the speed limit or serious as murder Labeling theory the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others perceptions of them thus channeling their behavior into either deviance of conformity Strain theory Robert mertons term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal such as success but withholds from some the approved means of reaching the goal One adaptation to the strain is crime the choice of innovative means one outside the approved system to attain the cultural goal 0 Strain is the frustrations that people feel when they want success but find their way to it is blocked Social Strati cation the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property power and prestige applies to people within a nation society or other group Caste System status determined by brith and is lifelong A social stratification Someone who is born into lowstatus group will always have a low status Brahmins 7 priest teacher scholar Kshatrivas 7 nobles warriors Vishyas 7 merchants and skilled artists Shudras 7 common laborers Outcast Harijan 7 those who have done something wrong and married outside their caste Bourgeoisie Marx s term for capitalist who own the means of production Proletariat Marx s term for exploited class the mass of workers who do not own the means of productions Bourgeoisie Marx s term for capitalists those who own the means of production Lumpenproletariat farmers and peasants beggars and criminals Social Mobility movement up or down a social class ladder Major factor that improves peoples lives and pushes them to go to school and work hard Matriarch a society in which women as a group dominate men Sex 39 39 39 I39I that J39 quot primary and secondary sex characteristics 39 39 females and males consisting of 16 Gender the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females Masculinity or feminity Ethnicity having distinctive cultural characteristics Race a group whose inherited physical characteristics distinguish it from other groups Genocide the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity Prejudice an attitude or prejudging usually in a negative way Age cohort people born at roughly the same time who pass through a life course together Glass ceiling the mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the lop levels at work 23 Merton s Strain Theory the strain theory that states social structures within society may pressure citizens to commit a crime While goals are the same for all the ability to obtain these goals is class dependant Consequently lower classes feel anger frustration and resentment which is referred to as strain These people can either accept their condition and live out their days as socially responsible but unrewarded citizens or they can choose an alternative means of achieving success such as theft violence or drug trafficking gt gt ool gt0 N NN N 0 Cultural Institutional Goals Means I Conformity II Innovation III Ritualism IV Retreatism V Rebellion o The conformist is the one whose experience in society leads to the acceptance of culturally prescribed goals and socially legitimate means for reaching those goals 0 The least common adaptation to society is retreatism in which an individual rejects both the goals and means of society 24 Social Class 0 MaX weber was a critic of Marx Weber argued that social class has three components property power and prestige i Property wealth ii Power is the ablilty to control others even over their objectives Property is a major source of power iii Prestige is derived from property and power Davis and Moore The Functionalist Perspective 25 Kingsley Davis amp Wilbert Moore believed that strati cation serves an important function in society In any society a number of tasks must be accomplished Some tasks such as cleaning streets or serving coffee in a restaurant are relatively simple Other tasks such as performing brain surgery or designing skyscrapers are complicated and require more intelligence and training than the simple tasks 0 Those who perform the dif cult tasks are therefore entitled to more power prestige and money Davis and Moore believed that an unequal distribution of society s rewards is necessary to encourage people to take on the more complicated and important work that required many years of training They believed that the rewards attached to a particular job re ect its importance to society 26 Crime most reported to police is homicide and most cleared by arrest is homicide to commited 29 192 27 Theories of Crime Causation o Lombroso 7 biological theory of crime is the strong desire to commit crime Replaced the notion of free will and rationality with the notion of determinism Lombroso believed in the quotcriminal bornquot man and woman He believed they had physical features of ape like creatures that were not fully developed as humans were Lombroso measured thousands of live and dead prisoners to prove his theory He noted that criminals lacked moral sense had an absence of remorse and used much slang Lombroso later added social and economic factors to his list of crime causation but said they were second in nature to biological predetermined factors 28 Sheldon and Glueck o Endomorph fat roundPsych luxury sloth consumption 0 Ectomorph frail skinny ganglyPsych introverts cunning stealth o Mesomorph large strong hardPsych active dynamic assertive forceful gt more 117er to commit a crime 29 Hirschi c contol theory Everyone has the potential to become a criminal but most people are controlled by their bond to society Crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken What stops people from commiting a crime 0 He primarily looked at juveniles Social bonds Attachments moral link to other people and encompasses such concepts as conscience superego and intemalization of norms It re ects one s interest in others Commitments individual s investment in conventional lines of action Involvements 7 school Beliefs 30 Freuds Theory ofCrime o Ego yourself 0 Id when you are born your subconscious o Superego calms your subconscious If your id is stronger than your superego you are more likely to commit a crimes 31 Lemerts Theory of Crime 32 34 35 U 6 Primary deviance occurs when an actor engages in normviolating behavior without the individual viewing himself or herself as engaging in a deviant role The deviations quotare rationalized or otherwise dealt with as functions of a socially acceptable rolequot During secondary deviance the selfconcept of the individual changes so that the self becomes consistent with the deviant role The effect of this change in selfconcept is that the deviant selfconceptions are reinforced by the negative labels which in turn result from the continued engagement in deviant behavior Trends of Social Class In America social mobility has decreased substantially IQ amp Crime typically people with lower id commit crimes Marx s Terminology for ruling class Bourgeoises 7 those who own and control the means of production Wealth 40 of all wealth is owned by top 1 of Americans 68 of wealth is controlled by top 10 Smallest Social Class in America


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.