Sociology 4325 Criminology
Sociology 4325 Criminology SOC 4325
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Everardo Terry on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 4325 at Texas Tech University taught by Martha Smithey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see /class/226402/soc-4325-texas-tech-university in Sociology at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Introduction to Criminology What is Criminology a Criminology is the study of the making of laws the breaking of laws and society s reaction to the breaking of laws b The objective of criminology is the development of a body of general and verified principles and other types of knowledge regarding the process of law crime and treatment or prevention This involves i Data treated as quotfactsquot ii Theory 1 Frameworks 2 Assumptions iii Paradigms or school of thought Fact v Theory a Fact Dr Smithey has a flat tire b Theory Why would Dr Smithey have a flat tire c Theory leads to causation Theoretical Frameworks a Facts never interpret themselves b Facts must be placed in a theoretical framework to attempt to understand them c Each theory interprets reality in a distinct way cl A theory is a general statement about how and why different parts of the world fit together IV The Progress and Theory of Socialization a We learn the goals and ways of achieving the goals of our society through socialization i We internalize the goals and ways means ii We judge others by the goals and means ii We devote all our time energy and resources to achieving the goals iv Socialization begins at or before birth and never ends V US Culture Goals a Get an education i At least high school degree but a college degree has become required for jobs that pay higher than minimum wage ii Graduate degrees are now required for better paying specialized jobs b Get and keep a job c Take care of your family the people you love VI Basic Concepts of Socialization a Status a label of who you are in a given context Ascribe given at birth Achieved earned iquot Status Set iv Androgynous b Norm a rule of conduct for a given status c Normative Expectation a moral judgment about what kind of person you are based on how well you follow the norms or meet societal expectations cl Role a set of rules or norms e Definition ofthe Situation Your understanding of the context in which you are acting r 7 Introduction to Criminology You determine the label of yourself and others according to context or your definition of the situation It is crucial for knowing how to act and what is expected of you Culture goals values beliefs Social Structure repeated behavior or patterned behavior Social Institution categories of repeated behaviors or social behaviors iv V Family Education Economics Government Religion Institutionalized Behavior an action that has been repeated to the point that its automatically and mindlessly expected or done like stopping at a stop sign Chapter 2 Classical Criminology The Historical Context 1700s a No criminal Justice System Arbitrary Judgments Many criminal laws were unwritten More than 200 offenses carried the Death Penalty People were tortured into confession The Enlightment people began questioning the church and the monarchy Industrialization exploitation and deception The French Revolution A monarchy was overthrown the power of the mass became visible remquot5195 i Two basic tenets assumptions i The social contract is balanced and reciprocal ii People are intelligent and rational Thomas Hobbes and the Social Contract 1 Human nature consists of each against all People agree to a social contract in which they sacrifice part of their freedom to the state to maintain peace and security for the common good iquot Social enforcement mechanisms are required BeccariaBentham 1700s a Fathers of modern criminal Justice philosophy 39 llPunishment should be based n the act notion the actor llPunishment should be determined by the crime iii llPunishment should be prompt and effective iv llAll people should be treated equally v llCapital Punishment should be abolished vi llThe use of torture to gain confessions should be abolished vii llOnly legislators should create lawsquot viii llJudges should impose punishment only in accordance with the lawquot ix llJudges should not interpret the lawsquot x llPunishment should be based on the Utilitarian principle I Deterrence Theory a Utilitarian Principle individuals choose their behavior to avoid pain and to gain pleasure b Deterrence Theory the punishment for a crime should outweigh or exceed the reward of a crime i General v Specific deterrence ii Punishment should be certain sever and swift 1 Certain consistently applied 2 Severe pain is sufficient to outweigh reward 3 Swift should happen very soon after the behavior IV Rational Choice Theory a Individuals are rational actors who are capable of calculating the reward and costs of their actions i Assumes we know the consequences of our actions ii Assumes the consequences will be implemented V Morality a There is a difference between what is legal and what is moral b What the law reflects is the morality of the people f g h i j 53 Chapter 2 Classical Criminology How does a person reconcile moral issues with utilitarian principles Irreducibility of Moral Behavior Individuals who seek to live up to their moral commitments behave in a manner that is systematically and significantly different from those who act to enhance your pleasure Morality and Social Change 39 Unusually high resistance to social change is caused by moral commitments Because the more individuals act under the influence of moral commitment the more they are expected to persevere when change occurs iquot Conversely the more individuals head or seek pleasure and self interest the less likely they are to persevere From where does the moral authority of formal social control come from the law From where does the moral authority of informal social control come from beliefs and values Criminal law serves the greater good or common good Criminal is someone who breaks the law A Crime is and act in violation of the law VI Consensus Theory 75 rhme The primary assumption of the classical school is that there are universal morals Everyone agrees on what is right or wrong that members of society are in consensus on what is right or wrong That the law reflects the universal agreement on what is right or wrong or moral To try and understand why someone would break the law Society is uniform Social control is necessary Formal Social Control consists of legally sanctioned agents who are legitimized and authorized by the state or government to question arrest and detain individuals exhibiting criminal behavior 1 Ex police CIA FBI Informal Social Control persons who lack power and authority endowed upon formal social control agents 1 Ex family friends coworkers 2 Most effective way in society Chapter 6 Durkheim Anomie and Modernization Emile Durkheim 18731917 a Viewed inequality as a natural and inevitable human condition that is not associated with social maladies such as crime unless there is also a breakdown of social norms or rules 57 He says no two people are alike Squot Anomie society will be in a state of i A state of normlessness ii This results in a lack of social regulation iii Usually due to rapid social change Durkheim39s Social Solidarity a Mechanical Solidarity each social group or society is relatively isolated from all other social groups and is basically selfsufficient i Homogeneity identical lifestyles labor and values causes a strong quotcollective consciencequot ii Little or no division of labor iii Solidarity is based on uniformity b Organic Solidarity the different social groups of a society depend on each other in a highly organized division of labor i Heterogeneity diverse lifestyles specialized labor and diverse values ii Solidarity is based on diversity c The Law i All societies are evolving from mechanical to organic ii Law plays an essential role in maintain the social solidarity of each of the two types of societies 1 Mechanical law functions to enforce the uniformity of the members and represses deviation from the norms of the time 2 Organic law functions to regulate the interactions of the various parts of society and provides restitution Crime as Normal a To the extent a society remains mechanical crime is quotnormalquot b Society cannot be formed without our being required to make perpetual and costly sacrifices demanded by the collective conscience c But these demands are construed so a certain number of people will not fulfill then This allows the rest to feel morally superior which quotfeedsquot the collective conscience Crime as Normal and Functional Criminals play an important role in social solidarity Crime Serves Functions for Society 51 s i Boundary definitions and maintenance ii Signal of impending or needed social change iii Warning of impending social disequilibrium some level of crisis iv Increases social cohesion f Punishment i The repressive act of punishing enhances and increases social solidarity ii Punishment maintains allegiance from both the punished and nonpunished iii It is a visible societal expression of the inferiority and blameworthiness of criminals g There will always be deviance and crime it is relative to conformity V Societal Pathology Chapter 6 Durkheim Anomie and Modernization a A society that had no crime would be one in which the constraints of the collective conscience were so rigid that no one could oppose them b Society would stagnate c There would be no progressive social change d Thus llcrime is the price for progress V Organic Society a Anomic the state of inadequate regulation b Happiness is affected by i Instability not knowing when you have enough ii Social Control which regulates in satiability iii Self Control needed in times of negative and positive disruption c United States i An integrated society maintains a balance between social structure socially approved means and culture socially approved goals ii Modern US society doesn t have this balance because 1 There is a strong cultural emphasis on success goals not matched by an equally strong emphasis on socially approved means 2 There is a discrepancy between means and ends perpetuated by the class system V Social Organization a A social system such as a society is socially organized and integrated if i There is an internal consensus on its norms and values ii A strong social cohesion exists among its members iii Social Interaction proceeds in an orderly way V Durkheim39s Theory of Crime 3 In primitive mechanical societies Durkheim argued that the punishment of crime would remain fairly stable independent of increases or decreases in the volume of criminal behavior b As societies modernize make the transition from mechanical to organic a greater variety of behaviors would be tolerated c Punishments would become less violent as their purpose changed from repression to restitution d There would be a vast expansion of quotfunctionalquot law to regulate the interactions of the emerging organic society e In modern organic societies the volume of criminal behavior would increase during periods of rapid social change V Summary a Social order stability and integration are conductive to conformity while disorder and mal integration are conductive to crime and deviance b Anomie is a form that societal mal integration takes when there is a dissociation between valued cultural ends and legitimate societal means to those ends c These premises are the foundation for quotConsensus Theories of Crimequot That everyone agrees on what is right or wrong because we all hold the same values and beliefs That everyone has approximately the same socialization experience A criminal is someone who breaks the rules because they were poorly socialized by their parents iv The law reflects the common interests of society as a whole Chapter 8 Strain Theory Robert Merton s Strain Theory a The pressure or effort exerted to procure and implement the means necessary to achieve stroneg held goals i Rooted in Durkheim s quotMalintegrationquot ii USA usually economic goals of the economic requirements to achieve goals iii Lack of economic means is an obstacle to goal fulfillment or llliving up to one s culture in the USA b Everyone experiences strain c There is a severe strain on the cultural values because i The culture places a disproportionate emphasis on the achievement of the goal of accumulated wealth and maintains that this goal is applicable to all persons ii The social structure effectively limits the possibilities of individuals within these groups to achieve this goal through the use of institutionalized means d Adaption to Strain Theory i Conformity accepts the goals and means ii Innovation accepts the goals but rejects the means iii Ritualism rejects or gives up on the goals but accepts the means Going through the Motions iv Retreatism rejects the goals and the means v Rebellion rejects the goals and the means but replaces them with their own goals and means 1 Omish cults gangs Gender and Crime a Gender Differences in types of strain and reaction to strain help us understand the gender gap in crime i Strain Theory must be broader to explain female ii Males goals are economic for money iii Females goals are personal freedom and interpersonal ties Why are Males more criminal than Females 3 Classical Strain Theory i Males are more subject to strain ii Males are subject to different strains than females iii Male strain is more conductive to crime iv Males have different emotional responses to strain especially anger b Females experience as much or more strain than males i Loss of positive stimuli 1 Friends 2 Romantic Partners ii Presentation of negative stimuli 1 Excessive demands by work and family 2 Verbalsexualphysicalabuse 3 Restrictions on behavior c Females subjectively rate these events as more stressful and undesirable than males d Males and females have distinctive goals and conceptions of fairness i Males distribute justice 1 The fairness of outcomes ii Females procedural justice Chapter 8 Strain Theory 1 The allocation of outcomes IV Characteristics of Relationships a Males conflict competition jealousy imbalance b Females warmer less competitive c Males and females have differences in opportunity to commit crime i Males more opportunity ii Female excessive social control leads to restriction of criminal opportunity 1 Spend less time in public Responsible for children and other family Burdened with the demands of others PP Restrictions on use of aggression 3 Women historically have not had the quotright to provocation V Recent Research on Women39s Response to Anger a Males use aggression b Females cannot as easily use aggression perceive greater cost i Guilt shame sad selfhostility c Females are more likely to use depression d Criminal Adaption s to Strain i Males Innovation rebellion 1 More likely to use aggressive behavior 2 More likely to associate with other deviants ii Females Retreatism 1 Selfdestructive behavior Drug use and other addictions Eating disorders Shoplifting 9159quot Other escapeavoidance tactics VI Sources of Strain 3 Sources of Females Strain i Females are said to be increasingly concerned with financial successsecurity 1 Is this the same or different for males ii Strain from Girlhood adolescent females are more subject to certain types of abuse by family members than males especially sexual abuse 1 This results in runaway rates that are equal to males b Inequality at Home i Females are often treated in an inequitable manner by family 1 Perform lowskill monotonous tasks 2 Excessive demands for house care childcare and attending to the spousal needs 3 Do a disproportionate share of the quotcommunityquot work ii Family life is more stressful for females than males c Inequality in the Workforce i Females are often treated in an inequitable manner at work 1 Lower pay 2 Discrimination Chapter 8 Strain Theory 3 Tedious and repetitive tasks 4 Low authority and autonomy 5 Limited upward mobility 6 Their skills and talents are undersized V Assumptions of Strain Theory 3 Crime is a normal reaction to Abnormal Social Conditions such as mal integration b Crime is instrumental serves a purposes or is a means to an end c Individuals are goal oriented i Nature v Nurture what motivates our behaviors goals or biology Chapter 9 Learning Theories Learning Theories a What we call human nature in actuality is human habit b Theme of Learning Theories Ordinary human beings can become criminal offenders as a result of social processes through which they can learn harmful behaviors attitudes and rationalizations that excuse or justify harm to others c Habit doing something mindlessly Edwin H Sutherland39 5 Differential Assumption Theory a The specific casual process in the development of systematic criminal behavior is differential association with those who commit crime or those who are lawabiding b Who you hang out with will make you exhibit things or do things c Sutherland dated nine principles two are primary 2 and 6 S S viii 53 Criminal behavior is learned Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups When criminal behavior is learned the learning includes 1 Techniques of committing the crime which are very very simple 2 The specific direction of the motives drives rationalizations and attitudes The specific directions of the motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law Differential associations may vary in frequency duration priority and intensity The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values it is not explained by those general needs and values since noncriminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values The content of what is learned is important This includes the specific techniques for committing the crime motives rationalizations attitudes and most importantly evaluations by others of the meaningful significance of each of those elements 5 Have to go through the ropes taught by others how to do it The process by which learning takes place is important including the intimate informal groups and the collective and situational context in which it occurs Limitations of Differential Associations Theory a Is it all criminal behavior learned or is it invested b Does not explain irrational acts of violence or destruction c Does not explain how some individual crimes are committed without associates IV Burgess and Akers 1966 a Expanded the dimensions of Sutherland s theory to address the limitations Differential Association Definitions ones attitudes to meaning that one attaches to given behaviors orientations rationalizations and definitions of the situation Differential Reinforcement the balance of anticipated of actual rewards Chapter 9 Learning Theories iv Imitation the engagement in behavior after the observation of similar behavior in others b Akers i The balance of learned de nitions imitation of criminal models and the anticipated balance of reinforcement produces the initial criminal act 1 Imitation is the most crucial of these ii Continuation of the criminal behavior depends on the social reinforces c Limitations of Akers s Learning Theory i Acts in violation of the law can occur in the absence of any thought given to right or wrong ii De nitions may be applied retroactively to excuse or justify an act already committed V Social Structure and Social Learning The society community social class raceethnicity gender religion and other structures provide the a general learning contexts for individuals b The family peer groups schools churches and other groups provide the more immediate contexts that promote or discourage the criminal or conforming behavior of the individual c Social expectations change in these contexts according to age sex raceethnicity class and other characteristics of the individual i These characteristics affect to which behavioral models and normative patterns persons are exposed and the reinforcement experienced V Learning Rationalizations as Motive a Rationalizations affect how law violations can be defined as favorable or unfavorable b For Example Cressy 1953 1970 found 3 key elements that were necessary for embezzlement i A nonsharable financial problem ii The perception of the legitimate occupation as a solution iii Verbalizations or thoughts that make the behavior acceptable Ex Borrowing Sykes and Mata 1952 a Techniques of Neutralization 39 Denial of Responsibility quotIt s not my fault I was drunkquot V Denial of Injury quotNo one got hurtquot Denial ofVictim They deserved itquot iv Condemnation of Condemners Everybody does something illegal Everybody is a crook Appeal to Higher Loyalties I didn t do it for myself lt
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