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Child Psychology

by: Dr. Ephraim Wisoky

Child Psychology PSY 2301

Dr. Ephraim Wisoky
GPA 3.73

Natalie Scanlon

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About this Document

Natalie Scanlon
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Ephraim Wisoky on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2301 at Texas Tech University taught by Natalie Scanlon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/226419/psy-2301-texas-tech-university in Psychlogy at Texas Tech University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
CHILD PSYCH Chapter Ten Nature 0 Facial expressions are natural 0 Blind children smile even though they ve never seen a smile o All cultures smile when they re happy 0 Nervous system is linked to emotions Nurture 0 We have rules of emotionhow when where why what is it appropriate to express emotions this is culturally and environmentally dependent o Caregivers reaction ifyour parents yell at you for crying you probably aren t gonna cry in public anymore 0 Fuctionalist view of emotionsemotions and environement go hand in hand We use emotions to relate to other people Emotion regulation 0 Effectively managing arousal to adapt and reach a goal Developmental trend or emotion regulation 0 External and internal resources rocking them is external sucking thumbs is internal 0 Cognitive strategies thinking about happier things 0 Selfregulation of arousal anger management 0 Situations and relationshipshelping by choosing friends or what you do Bad friends bad decisions Emotional Competence 0 Development ofa number of social skills in social contexts Understanding the different emotions and detecting them in yourself and others Selfconscious emotions 6 to 12 months 0 Require selfawareness Guilt jealousy and embarrassment are examples of this Primary emotions o emerge in 1St 6 months of life These are present in humans and animals types of cries o basicconsists of cry followed by a briefer silence then a shorter whistle that is somewhat higher in pitch than the main cry then another brief rest before the next cry 0 angera variation of the basic cry in which more excess air is forced through the vocal cords o paina sudden long initial cry followed by breath holding types of smiles o re exive smile a smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month afte birth usually while sleeping 0 social smile a smile that occurs in response to an external stimulus typically a face in the case of the young infant as early as 4 to 6 weeks 0 Chess classification of temprement 0 Easy adapt well to change They are active and happy 0 Difficult bad at change Fussy crying angry 0 Slow to warm up bland and shy kids 0 Rothbart amp Bates classification 0 EXtraversionsurgency high activity level and sensation seeking 0 Negative affectivety fear frustration sadness and discomfort Easily distressed o Effortful control able to keep self control 0 Harlow study 0 Monkeys o Erikson 0 Trust vs Mistrust the first year oflife the child will gain either a sense of trust from the parents parents provide care or mistrust parents don t provide adequate care 0 Strange situation 0 An observational measure ofinfant attachment in which the infant experiences a series ofintroductions seperations and reunions with the caregiver and and adult stranger I Securely attached wander around the room while parent is in there and when stranger is in there is more timid I Insecure avoidant avoids caregiver and is not disressed when caregiver leaves the room I Insecure disorganized dazed confused and fearful when everyone is around CHAPTER ELEVEN o SelfUnderstanding in middlelate childhood 0 More self descriptions than in early childhood 0 Children describe themselves in groups children might call themselves girl scouts or someone who has two close friends 0 Children start socially comparing themselves to others Children begin to distinguish between their real self and their ideal self and their self evaluations become more realistic o SelfUnderstanding in adolescence O 0 Abstract and idealistic their descriptions of themselves are very detailed o Selfconsciousness start to become self conscious about themselves 0 Constradctions with ones self 0 The uctuating self the adolescents selfunderstanding uctuates across situations and across times 0 Real and ideal selves possible selves is what they know they could possibly be Ideal self is what they wish they could be and real selfis who they are CHAPTER TWELVE 0 Female hormones are estrogens 0 Male hormones are androgens 0 Three problems due to unusual levels ofsex hormones o CogenitalAdrenal Hyperplasia CAH girls have this Adrenal glands are enlarged resulting in abnormal amounts of androgens o Androgeninsensitive males don t have androgen cells in their bodies Their bodies look female 0 Pelvic field defect in boys this involves missing a penis Most parents rear them as girls 0 Women has twice the body fat as men females have longer life expectancy mens hypothalamus sexual behavior parietal lobe men spatial skills metabolic activity women emotional expression 0 Androgyny presence of masculine and feminine characteristics in same person CHAPTER THIRTEEN 0 Four domains of moral development 0 How do individuals reason or think about moral decisions 0 How do individuals actually behave in moral circumstance o How do individuals feel about moral matters 0 What characterizes an individuals moral personality 0 Piagets Theory of Moal Though o Heteronomous theory I 4 to 7 years I justice and rules of unchangeable properties of the world I immanent justice punishment will happen 0 transition period 7 to 10 years 0 autonomous morality I 10 and up I rules and laws created by people I consider intentions and consequences 0 Kohlbergs 3 levels ofmoral thinking 0 Precoventional reasoning good and bad interpreted in terms of external rewards and punishments I Heteronomous morality moral thinking tied to punishment 0 Conventional reasoning people apply certain standards other people set these standards I Mutual interpersonal expectations relationships and interpersonal conformity trust I Social systems morality we base our moral judgements on law and order 0 Postconventional reasoning recognize alternative moral courses explore options decide on personal moral code I Social contractutility and individual rights values rights and principals transend the law I Universal ethical principles 0 Conduct disorder refers to ageinappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations society s norms and the personal or property rights of others really bad temper tantrums worse among boys cussing CHAPTER FOURTEEN 0 Parental Discipline 0 Love withdrawal tell kids they don t like them when they do something 0 Power assertion spanking 0 Induction reason with their kids and explain the consequences of their behaviors o Proactive strategies things you can do to prevent child from misbehaving o Conversational dialogue talk to them about what they are doing is wrong 0 There are pros and cons for spanking and not spanking 0 Types of child abuse and maltreatment 0 Physical abuse is characterized by the in iction of physical injury as result of punching beating kicking biting burning shaking or otherwise harming a child Child neglect is characterized by failure to provide for the childs basic needs Neglect can be physical educational or emotional Sexual abuse includes fondling a childs genitals intercourse incest rape Emotional abuse includes acts or ommisions by parents or other caregivers that have caused or could cause serious behavioral cognitive or emotional problems Only children are often achivement oriented and display a desirable personality Working Parents 0 Work can produce positive and negative effects on parenting o The development of the child is based on nature ofparents work If parents are stressed and angry it will have negative effects on child Divorced Parents 0 Most children are worse at adjusting when they have divorced parents 0 They find its better for parents to stay together ifparents can stay civil and work it out Worse for kid if the parents are just going to fight all the time Gay parents 0 Kids are made fun ofa little more but not significantly to where it will effect the outcome ofwho they are 0 They are just as popular as other kids 0 O O SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Securely attached babies use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment When a caregiver is present they will explore things When parent leaves the mildly protest When parents return they will go back to exploring Insecure avoidant babies show insecurity by avoiding the mother In strange situation these babies engage in little interaction with caregiver are not distressed when she leaves the room usually do not reestablish contact with her return Insecure resistant babies often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by fighting against the closeness perhaps by kicking or pushing away Don t explore playroom in strange situation they cry when caregiver leaves Insecure disorganized babies are disorganized and disoriented There babies might appear dazed confused and fearful Babies show strong patterns of avoidance and resistance or display certain specified behaviors such as extreme fearfulness around caregiver Securely attached babies have the best outcome


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