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Drugs, Alcohol, and Behavior

by: Dr. Ephraim Wisoky

Drugs, Alcohol, and Behavior PSY 4325

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > Psychlogy > PSY 4325 > Drugs Alcohol and Behavior
Dr. Ephraim Wisoky
GPA 3.73

Robert Watts

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Robert Watts
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Ephraim Wisoky on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 4325 at Texas Tech University taught by Robert Watts in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/226420/psy-4325-texas-tech-university in Psychlogy at Texas Tech University.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 1 Terms P PNE Equot 9 I I kDOOV N UJ I I I I P 9 1 N O Insiders people on the inside those who either approve of andor use drugs Outsiders people on the outside those who do not approve of andor use drugs Drug any substances that modify either by enhancing inhibiting or distorting mind andor body functioning Psychoactive drugs drug compounds substances that affect the central nervous system and alter consciousness andor perceptions Addiction generally refers to the psychological attachment to a drug addiction to quotharderquot drugs such as heroin results in both psychological and physical attachment to the chemical properties of the drug with the resulting satisfaction reward derived from using the drug in question Withdrawal symptoms psychological and physical symptoms that result when a drug is absent from the body physical symptoms are generally present in cases of drug dependence to more addictive drugs such as heroin physical and psychological symptoms of withdrawal include perspiration nausea boredom anxiety and muscle spasms Licit drugs legalized drugs such as coffee alcohol and tobacco Illicit drugs illegal drugs such as marijuana cocaine and LSD Overthecounter drugs sold without a prescription Gateway drugs alcohol tobacco and marijuana types of drugs that when used excessively may lead to using other and often more addictive drugs such as cocaine heroin or quotcrackquot Ethanol the pharmacological term for alcohol consumable type of alcohol that is the psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages often called grain alcohol Designer drugs synthetic drugs or synthetic opioids new drugs that are developed by people intending to circumvent the illegality of a drug by modifying a drug into a new compound ecstasy is an example Structural analogs modifying the basic molecular skeleton ofa compound to form a new molecular species structural analogs are structurally related to the parent compound MDMA a type of illicit drug known as quotecstasyquot or quotAdamquot and having stimulant and hallucinogenic properties Equal opportunity affliction refers to the use of drugs stressing that drug use cuts across all members of society regardless of income education occupation social class and age Relief phase satisfaction derived from escaping negative feelings in using the drug Increased use phase taking increasing quantities of the drug Preoccupation phase constant concern with the supply of the drug Dependency phase synonym for addiction Withdrawal phase physical andor psychological effects derived from not using the drug NIDA National Institute on Drug Abuse the principal federal agency responsible for directing drug use and abuserelated research DEA Drug Enforcement Administration the principal federal agency responsible for enforcing US drug laws N P N 0 N 59 Needleexchange programs publically funded programs that distribute new uncontaminated needles to drug addicts in exchange for used injection needles in order to prevent the spread of HIV and hepatitis B and C Drug testing urine blood and hair analysis used to identify those who may be using drugs Employee assistance programs EAPs drug assistance programs for drugdependent employees Holistic selfawareness approach emphasizes that nonmedical and often recreational drug use interferes with the healthy balance among the mind the body and the spirit Experimenters typified as being in the initial stages of drug use these people often use drugs for recreational purposes Compulsive users typified by an insatiable attraction followed by a psychological dependence to drugs Floaters or chippers these users vacillate between the need for pleasure seeking and the desire to relieve moderate to serious psychological problems This category of drug use has two major characteristics a A general focus mostly on using other people s drugs b Vacillation between the characteristics of chronic drug users and experimenter types Chapter 5 Terms PPN Equot wwwsn l l l Nl O39 l l l l H Noamgt04 5 N 53 MN WN NNN Nam N 00 W Placebo effect effects ca used by Side effects unintended drug responses Withdrawal unpleasant effects that occur when use of a drug is stopped Doseresponse correlation between the amount of a drug given and its effects Tolerance changes in the body that decrease response to a drug even though the dose remains the same Margin of safety range in dose between the amount of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect and that needed to create a toxic effect Potency amount of drug necessary to cause an effect Toxicity capacity of one drug to damage or cause adverse effects in the body Drug interaction presence of on drug alters the action of another drug Additive interactions effects created when drugs are similar and actions are added together Antagonistic interactions effects created when drugs cancel one another Synergism ability of one drug to enhance the effect of another also called potentiation Pharmacokinetics the study of factors that influence the distribution and concentration of drugs in the body Bloodbrain barrier selective filtering between the cerebral blood vessels and the brain Threshold dose minimum drug dose necessary to cause an effect Plateau effect maximum drug effect regardless of dose Acute immediate or shortterm effects after taking a single drug dose Chronic longterm effects usually after taking multiple drug doses Cumulative effect buildup of a drug in the body after multiple doses taken at short intervals Halflife time required for the body to eliminate andor metabolize half of a drug dose Biotransformation process of changing the chemical properties of a drug usually by metabolism Metabolism chemical alteration of drugs by body process Metabolites chemical products of metabolism Teratogenic something that causes physical defects in the fetus Dependence physiological and psychological changes or adaptions that occur in response to the frequent administration of a drug Reverse tolerance enhanced response to a given drug dose opposite of tolerance Crosstolerance development of tolerance to one drug causes tolerance to related drugs Rebound effect form of withdrawal paradoxical effects that occur when a drug has been eliminated from the body Crossdependence dependence on a drug can be relieved by other similar drugs quot 39 39 g I 39 that results because a drug produces pleasant mental effects Mental set the collection of psychological and environmental factors that influence an individual s response to drugs 39 factors 39 39 39 of the r r o I and uu pharmacological activity of a drug 32 Dysphoric characterized by unpleasant mental effects the opposite of euphoric 33 Intravenous IV injection into a vein 34 Intramuscular IM injection into a muscle 35 Subcutaneous SC injection beneath the skin


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