WILDLIFE TECHNIQUES NRM 4407
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ursula Waters on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NRM 4407 at Texas Tech University taught by Matthew Butler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/226424/nrm-4407-texas-tech-university in Natural Resource Ecology And Mgmt at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
WILDLIFE TECHNIQUES NRM 4407 Spring 2008 AGING AND SEXING GAME BIRDS Be able to identify the following 1 SeX and species of dabbling ducks a black duck Arias rubri39pes mallard Arias plaiyrhyrichos gadwall Arias strepera northern pintail Arias acuta American wigeon Arias ameri39caria northern shoveler Arias clypeata greenwinged teal Arias crecca bluewinged or cinnamon teal Arias discors orArias cyarioptera wood duck Ai39x sporisa rzrqorupapcr 2 Species ofmost diving ducks a canvasback Aythya valisi39rieri39a b redhead Aythya ameri39caria ringnecked duck Aythya collari39s lesser or greater scaup Aythya a irii39s or Aythya marila common or Barrow s goldeneye Bucephala clarigula or Bucephala i39slaridi39ca bu lehead Bucephala albeola ruddy duck Oxyurajamai39cerisi39s hooded merganser Lophodytes cucullatus redbreasted or common merganser M ergus serrator or M ergus merganser rumiorm 99 3 Species of coots geese and cranes a American coot F uli39ca ameri39caria Canada goose Brarita cariaderisi39s snow goose Cheri caerulesceris 7 both colorphases whitefronted goose Ariser albifroris Ross goose Cheri rossi39i39 sandhill crane Grus cariaderisi39s 7 How do you age sandhill crane Wag0U 4 Species age and sex ofthese galliform game birds a northern bobwhite Colirius virgirii39arius b wild turkey M eleagri39s gallopavo 5 Species and sex of these galliform game birds a ringnecked pheasant Phasiarius colchicus b lesser prairiechicken Tympamichus pallidi39cirictus c blue grouse Dedragapus obscurus 7 online only 6 Age of mourning dove Zenaz39da macroura 7 Species age and sex of these Galliform game birds online only a 0305 ruffed grouse Bonasa umbellus gray partridge Perdix perdix aka Hungarian partridge sharptail grouse Tympanuchus phasianellus sage grouse Centrocercus urophasianus What characteristics are useful for aging Galliforms 8 Species of additional game birds a 9 0quot scaled quail Callipepla squamata whitewinged dove Zenaz39da asiatz39ca American woodcock Scolopax minor common snipe Gallinago gallinago WILDLIFE TECHNIQUES NRM 4407 Spring 2008 MEASURING SPECIES DIVERSITY Background Wildlife ecologists often see measures of species diversity as indicators of ecological health and stability Because diversity is fundamental to many ecological questions conservation biologists and wildlife ecologists often focus their research and management efforts on understanding and maintaining species diversity Applied or management questions are often focused on understanding the relationships between community stability or resilience and species diversity ie are communities with greater diversity more resistance to catastrophes Species diversity is also important to environmental monitoring programs because it is often assumed that stressed or polluted ecosystems have lower diversity In addition it is often assumed greater species diversity in the vegetative community results in greater species diversity in the wildlife community However species diversity is not the only component of biodiversity important to wildlife ecology For example structural diversity of the vegetative community may be important to the diversity of the wildlife community This lab is intended to provide an understanding of the techniques used to sample species and their relative abundance for estimating species diversity We will also expand this concept to include the structural diversity of vegetative communities You will sample trees from 2 stands at Dunbar Historical Lake Lubbock Texas Assignment Split up into 6 groups Each group should randomly select 3 50 x 10 m plots in each stand In each plot identify all trees and measure their DBH Estimate species richness Simpson s diversity index and Shannon s diversity index for each stand Also categorize DBH according to Table l and estimate the structural diversity of each stand using Simpson s diversity index and Shannon s diversity index Based on your measures of tree diversity and structural diversity which stand of trees do you think has the greatest diversity of wildlife species and why Compile your data and analyses into a lab report This assignment is due on 23 April 2008 be sure to attach your datasheets Table 1 Categorization of tree DBH to estimate 5 structural diversity EM quot1 1 DBH Class Tree DBH cm D 1 W 1 l lt10 2 10720 i H39 NlogN logn 5 40750 6 50760 7 60770 where 8 70780 D5 Simpson s Diversity Index for radom sample 9 80 90 H 39 Shannon Diversity Index for radom sample 10 gt90 n number of idividuals in species 139 N total number of individuals 3 number of species observed Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 WILDLIFE TECHNIQUES NRM 4407 Spring 2008 ANALYSIS OF DATA GRAPH YOUR DATA Start by graphing your data Bar chart 7 for categorical data Pie chart Histogram 7 for numerical data Line graph 7 X y graph E O E E 30 25 20 No of mortalities a x Ce Q00 4 49 Qg 9 Cause of mortality HISTOGRAM Winter No of ock detections coo oooooooooo Nqomowqom vamovamo NNqucommmq lt 9 F F F F N Distancem quot22 6 In of ocks u Lg th m ila aquotuuquotvzvzquote 4 eequot a x 5 v we No of turkey In flock LINE GRAPH 100 90 r2 0312 m quot9 P 0006 saw oo Nun coo quotA juvenile females captured 0 0 a a 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TTU poultslhen estimate STATISTICS What is a statistic Statistic 7 a number that summarizes information contained in a sample of observations collected from a larger population 0 Statistics are needed because it is too cumbersome to report the entire list of data MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY Mean 7 average sum of all values divided by the sample size n 0 Median 7 for odd sample sizes it is the middle number for even sample sizes it is the average of the 2 middle numbers 0 Mode 7 the most frequent value in the data set rarely used MEASURES OF VARIABILITY Range 7 minimum and maximum values Variance 7 the average squared deviation of observations about the mean 0 What if all you observations are the same 0 Can you have a negative variance 2 x 2 s l 11 MEASURES OF VARIABILITY Standard deviation SD 7 an index of how closely the individual data points cluster ar e variance from square uni s 0 Standard error SE 7 index of the accuracy of our estimate of the mean 0 SD re ects the variability of the individual data points 0 SE re ects the variability of the mean Sszs Z SEE CONFIDENCE INTERVALS 95 C17 95 of100 trials would fall in the confidence interval 95CI E i 196 x SE GRAPHING CONFIDENCE INTERVALS 1 000 0 800 0 600 i 0 400 i 0 200 Detection Probability 0000 Winter Autumn Spring Summer
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