TEXAS PREHISTORY ANTH 3347
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Toyah ANTH HITTum Eggmm nchl 1mm Cam1 Lamr Ia Torah Cu wre U d xtinctivu rd mulugiul culturn U11 Ermagar zmund kn BED HEB I variousty knnm39n 13 39mTayah phase hviaon inter11 Dr tulturc I last widespread prehistoric pattern prior to the aIT39nai D39IIELII39EFEHHS U ltrungly link l to the remm uf himI hard Distin c ve Traits I Tuolkjt 39 Frrdiz arraw paint I bevelzd knives I and impersmd U drill made an akes I rthlzrrwan pamry Tamara mom Blade Technnlogy 39l Nut all Tayl39n groups adopted Had techInlay bu many did i Ferd z points False tools and small and sauces were all made rm black5 Lean Plain Ceramics bonemmde peavery tndiu an U SOLu unit s were decanted with a red uchrc 5quot cp simple cisud dncumrjonx Why Toyah Intrigues Us l l is divinrmm w39dnspreudJn well preserved 39 Torah Cd39uh ll dnpasiu were Himum GI39 its undiz rJ ami I Tart cdtune i nor cry wnll undzntmd Rush Site I The Rush sin HITGM J in wusmm Turn Green County wax he sun of very success rul mmml bison hunt by large group ax l39nynh hunter in ifquot kite l rh ternary Elm11mm mums mud Martha 139s WIE JIh 11mm Irzs IT h zwmxl 1m hwy hrnnljtd bum bunwand warnsqu indium inqlurln quotrtm paints mMLho k39 mm him 150 1 and v1me FactAT Age and Season 395 about AD I575 in 39E39u til I Tm unsaniljzyddw k2 uwmzwa detnrrnined mm a pair of Elisun mm hl l which ruprnmncn sing indiviiunl 15 m 115 years old U bisan an hum in pril Buckholiuw I The Euckhdlaw sit 4 WIS in western Kimble County is 1 small campsite repeatedly used byTayah Talk between All 300 and I500 I Small family gruup nrricd nut a valEm all talk tenured on hurm39rg atd lil amp alum the bank Di Capperas trunk about 2 mile mt oi junc m Activities at Buckholllnw U Tcth hunters were kill39ng one ur cm bulhla in the vicinizyo ltlie s39te l the hide md men were bruLjlt back to the Eurasian fur processing 391 the 2391 was uncup cli It a period ur mason lm hu alu were no mud in large nunbur n frquot immadiuu vicinity H inojosa Toyah as Seen at Hinojosa I Campin lrmluvutml by laid pump wk hurry day an anr opn much more aim than him 1 I dun ml lack i all Mu hcy mar mwagugr m lg quotKim I winging lmnturti Mlmng bison hank Artihrn mery 1139 lexu39 n39laxeridt Adopzncd 2h rapping shared b1 people In magi4y 3 57 u um Kim irua u Trlm Tram Hinnq on ca AD 5 0 11 Lalrxw mun w 3 mu m m munu m h1 E 2 quot mm re 11 u Wu 1 ma m1 391 gm 1 pm hunhml whim0 I ma U quotI Lithic Artifact Assemblage I Tm rgs are inmrusrjnz than it w trey date to a narrcw period Didirm 39 A3 I305 13 I430 39 and Bicy single1 o1 Li39nm Ina brmgh39 In 3911 sit urum elaL wf39L39re 39 karts nrw mate i sources are 20 Tile rway urdiz Ar39cm39 Faint 21 22 I 45 Lin Fepr enun 1 lmtsl d39Vc39ent 53cm lituklpui kahuna mam nl Iq mm I ll nlnn me Fuua dpn Ilr d131an 57quotth 1m mad if hr Em mm arm1113 and chm Ingamm mast tnmman led deer mnsuammun bang1 Bnl39 lkpei s d Mun nhhns39 hbrzkFl i39d pik b f ans damquot cuunnujla r13 min 14 33904 1 squ amt mum Ll rm imp hm w an nisjcnu rd y39all I Munch 31 Steve Black39s Botmm Line on Torah 39I Tar 39l cu39tun is 1 hired set af chamrueriyjc artifatts and tnchndagiea perhips rmer thought u as 1 cultJral horiam I I i obvious that this pattern was Shara by dimer gruups will i urc39lt nrnes hinnriuanngmgaJnd mudI mam 32 Archaeological Regions and Chronolngy ANTH J43 Team Frtimrry huh I Emua Inncannu Ccurw Luz 3 Outline I Backgruund 39rlfarrnau39un I Tm ard39IInnlngical ruginms anutal IIi General ch running 1me3 pnahismry Pop Quiz 9 Fill in the name of ifquot irrhamlcg39ml periads on the left uf we than This Has Been ATest I uf 39l Pup Qu z iystnm U IF this had been an 1m pup miaynu wuuld inquot been asked Ln writ yuurnan39v an the papnr I 111i gonrludcs the in niche Pup Quiz Sym You All Kn saw the Answe rs Right Archaeulngica l Research I Hun lmhaeclugiuJ minim hm been Mani1 H12 p15 1ch decades than in the pmccdhg T5 year I Due to thlD C presurvztcn laws NewToals 5 mt uzwh m I I 11 in m Rage3 39 GS Hm urnu r Frnnl 1 1 I mum 123 mm u lnar wax1m La phra nunquotmug Tu rannu Archaeo agical Literature 39 CHM reports I Bikini 1wa Tuna Ambg cal Emir ETAst II uid Amhuupmagm U Amcnmn Anh39quiy Syntheses I m n wwwm in From hr E F 5406 I915 l Int I39dWTGI39y FaHhrpnl dTmlAfth39niljmrquot H39i39clu39ne I 1 he 1751 914 Er BEGAN Enuhm lldn L1 K lquot and Frbrm v Fi irkn I Us hwy Cams 4 L gnmm haumwes Biwis ran l EIALWumc 5 I995 Th Frv ukrr r39TemL quot1 quot3d hyTImurar K Fvnrl quotmil Archaeulogical agions Emmi 391 x l Tum V Physiographi c Zones Can Plain 1 3 Pririe 39rI Narth Yam 1 4 Tum H l unmancxuntnf Trans 1 5 TransFEEDS 1 6 Sun Tan Brim Country Scuth Texas WaudaJvds J Physiogmphi c Zones 21 22 23 24 Smmmcd F miectile Points Wilson Points Va uusmc inn f Hmd nishcltnr 3 fquot a a in 25 Earhr 5Wquot stemmed Poinu Cnsacvill 28 Early Archaic HurthNV39llsanLuanard gt1 Gaoph y ms Eari rArthai bulb frurn Wilsumknnard Madam bulbs Burned Flt Middlzns Hidden at 5391 Flnal Hem County Trends in the Archaic I Bopulauan apparently increased few Eric I Than wen quotairly dry1111 clmm chanza thnough time I Alum vuh mes climate changes the hlsnn populmn inTIncas Flucauamd I In gaunt 13quot Archie hqu was submbused on a mated ccmnmy ar39 hunting and menng 29 30 31 32 Pupulauon Growth Th mintshm hm L1quot Immui mix 1 Iplaquot Wong39hnhm39 m 1 mm Flaw ow a Imrud Run 1 I rxqoinnr d m L111 Prchuwm period alrer Ax 95 Mumqr rsran ban pm I rm 1 9 Mrs Ink rruze ans If he 10 be IT 35quot I mug n p n has Hem slur P413 nih mfarln in at hunchm ml the sad no UINquot New Now an rum new new gun and am mu m m m kinEnr W MawI and war manna none 10 MN J huIkun h fmdlquot Ham 5 V 3 Climate jamm 1rd Gone Iquot 33 34 Climate Co in 1595 35 36 on E 35 Bug im Em 055 mm En nw ENE than hn EU hmu um Lun nuu nuU Introduction to TransPecos Archaeolp 7 ANTH HITTeam garment quot mhl leu3nm C nu Luau5 Lecture Outline I Hmonr D39f Rescindl I W is jnrraldl Huguilan I Erwirnnrnurrt I Chmnalugr I Falea ndian through Earigr AmiIain Periud Its Own Litt leWarid I Ramam U Regiments an impelant transi ami pairt bztwuen several gaugrzqini and cultu rlqaian I Has dltl that can address variety olissuu Regiun Has Issues Th mum ufhunmguhrnr WHEY and urgmintinn in a smu39arid nnvimnmura chamm zn 7 spliially and tempai39llly variable 3amp1th and annual magmas M The ecological arm sacral aspum Lndcflpng a high degree olsmtlernem moth1y among horndmral and agrkuitural gmups in tin mainquot 3 Canal czors leading an ab adaption cf agriculture 39n the Southwest Early Research I Dmald Lehman l94E de ned disjurmda bunch chiu Magnian 39 J Charis Kelley worked in mam Tm 39 Lia wurk until Hm in genen jarred Megalan f 139quot Mogullon Traits 39 Shift fmm hunting and EndAenan Lu agriculture ml frurn huhlr mobile 9 increasingly dentaly Ii I RENO MD nd i1 smle Fi muse vilhgu and hamlets I Alarm EDD ar sq llrgnr pi mum village as agriculture beam more impurmnt rm llilbegan building adobe pucblm Spring Fed Paul Purim uf Increased RainfrJl AD SOBTUB AD 0354330 AD 5554950 Tran d s I Sadanan mub iq and landscape use U Cl39rmgus in subsimncc acunumiu as re zcted in dependent upen dramatith marlus nan darnextimaed plains and minn 39 How changes in m lnalogyaetdmun Itruttumind mcial organization re ect the mludun of hE Mamaquot and luhsixmnm systems m H mm MW sm Cataha u my 3 mu IJ EEK lit a M Pendeio Cave Claims of human otmpazian fmm 50003 Lo 2310 EC Pamaim mm m mm Bf F0313 59mph Phan Catnvhu ELK 33 Ki 3 1 3 Chirp Creek Chispa Creek Sibes I Chispn Cl39BEk m dixmnred brine Bun What I This name Gisp a Crank rekrs tn swim uf Bl aim dixcmred brWhnt during an in bnmi survey fth Labia Valley manning the 940 and I950 21 23 Fullnrn Paints rum Chirp Crud I AL H1 and ufWhun39 imatigm39junxa ml 61 5 3 Fulsam prtiarh39l and prabrrnl47 channel aku akes Errand curing ah aring pracmarrd 313 Fullernag scrapers had been datun39oenmd I A snmmring Di ather Falcoindim diagnostics including 1 salitzary Clovis minim 115D recovered 26 Chispa Creek I lm ty m dadhr a fzrnrnd marina Fa Fulmrn my ma ng d39rrnugir the mm Trans ecm I Wheat cunsidemd the Chispn Creek Folsom site to have at least same arthedegical inbggrity U SHU hound I3 idd om Fullnrn r39ncrls in mm 27 Higltequaliry rw mazeriil mrtes near Chirp A Crack quot39 I gt a 28 Challenge to Faleoindian Mobility Model U The Fa snm an riILi lithi sources at Chispl Cneek challenge v39he lungsnndinz nation that F39 ens39ndan groups traveled long distances to pmre smne before In elng equally long distances before us ng and discarding d39u hauls made I Knuwledgec llun mm sources suggest intimacy with the Ewirun uf the Big Bend U IV is undoubtedly the use PJan even Early Palm39ndian gruqu had neurmlated 1 weath ul lcnowiedge about what l39EbDlJI39EEI were ta he found in the region 39 stnnes as well as uncentnltinns uf animals and plants es GdcncnnL Angmmrs Seen and Stanmmquot n V pain Transition to Archaic U Drying Ll t ld nnu39nued u Big game animals died OH or left ll 39Nuer became mare me I All resulted in large sale change in subsistence 5trategiesgreaer mus cm explaintfon uF plant resources 29 30 31 32 Archaic Period 6000 BC to AD 1110 U mzrthanalugiczd Evidence Ear gricu39tun I use dresidential pi muses Dr hut structure I widespread use Dimck qr with in thermal Feature lm ridw 33 Ea y Arrhalc m Al DZIIDD EC 39 Small hard1 and artifact scatters rst use of rack and diche in harms Greater reliance an p ams Gmund smnn l qp mm Inquot if I m Cramp 35 TELhMlagial Changes Earfr u39rhar FEM quotrun he nutquot Tm Fem Pa eoindian Archaeo qu in Texas ANTH HITTex liremm Pusz 1 Faemrvdnnl Cums Lucia 4 Lune Walf EreBk 39 Ale Hrdlickz l Harald Cuuk Th Antika of Man in Ame caWnu Nm e the 3 FirstAmerimns Whencn Came Theyquot l hhrue lanccalau paint WNW remain nadirquot Sim nz39qUus Cpl u M If N Sayings E39wn Baybcux up Ewen d Sz uk 13 fl qlar adlm Ilka1t 1 fray Hum SI11 Evans 11 Kincaid Shdter Se r Clad then Folsom then Hainview Types Kwr muml purnm 339 we m trancemgr nut be LD prom c an My 39ucvmz mat huh n1gmhl m mmgzmv m gram spacinan ma mam w w devov sr39mv hugrim mmnng sn berm t henna mum39s I ELIm andjdkv l i 2quot Atyp I I w IL1 a can Manger but must 39m CJLJ E 3 31 him in mum rug I in m m be amp aftd u trash 1 a ma anhzlsflkngxnl ime39weuumn Fluted Points Clunri I Fulsum Un uted Points n nu rumw fir 639 intr b Warm I Trzl U fig We huan killing IceAg elephan Bering Strait F39sibm Iand mat free urridnr and plush tuna mum tn NDrfJ39I Marin C avis First I handful of panihle FnzClm39is sinus I the conmrsial Kcnnlzwitk Man M105 fmmms are said tn mare lUsEly rummln ruin CuminI pupuh um 1171 am Na m mnn snm U a clan resemblance human Clovis tethnalny and u D39F Lam ledth Europa 45uluvmn3 Rec assi ca nn Results of Study U Paint dustm39cd inn twa baaad mnrphulugicnl magii5 CaribMIME stem and parallel stem Contracting Stern 39 Found Lhrel type that appear to raw cultunlhiswrfcal lig39i tmcc and ND group l39J39u39lf require Furd39uzr siun y I Angastum U Lubbock l Thrall Parallel Stem Shallow Basal Cnncavity I Flaimriew U St Mary39s Hall gt quot Scuttstiuff 393 Parallel Stem Deep Basal Euncavity Atypical 5 Phry39s Hall Gdcnd rinaBlrber U D len Stemmed Paleo Points 1 W39Ilscn I Berdair 3 San Patna I Big Sandy Where Palec Sites Are Faund l39quot su an Ln1rl1l39NH39J 39 HmrrrNn24wss 39 fquot quoti quotquot WB mmuallp quot m s39m monuwm 5n L39rd new I J j Nada Crrn39i39mliuz a Ah nlnmm 39 W M ErnieJit Ex v3hHrII39ewm an u as Ir anmellw dlll 39d 1 u 11 1 5quot 1 gvxuu1 u sm y nwsxuu nu U Enrff Faleeindian H593 mIUJIIG BF Heisman I Lam F aleaindian IDJUEO in EJEDU BF I Hlezem 20 Clovis Chmnnlugy 39 Aubrey Lubbock Lakr and Miami U ILSOEta LIBEIBFI 21 Folsom Chmnalagy 39 A Lubi auck szc 10541 lI JD BP an 1 charmal time 22 Plainview Ch ran ology U Nut mi umblishe HailMew Sine lollH ELF quot 5L Hry39s Hall Paint may be 11115 yuungnr than F39iaimfm 23 EarlyStemm ed Chronology man arms Wham Lucas 11 9mnm an a Ill37 l39 24 San Patrice and Scombluff Chronology I On Ih er bcL39i Lial 2mm kaltt J L rm and an admin ut m mm Prim4 all Ilyzlu lgqr 39lan W39lacn u39vm HWY GafondrlnaBarber Chmnulargy n Thrne mu I Ala WI mung ram with Ihuc m c rm Angustu rasThrail Ch ron elegy I Rizaluni BunnnzAngaxtun BEDS45 am 5640quot60 U WIm ILccmrd REID BF ulna band an m mphil pas39r m Site Furms l 455 any Iur writd Palmnlzlar camps1mm m wna nd mnhipr rampmenu thllm mm u include 1hr purerHm md m TIF39F W Dan dmdm mun 1m mun law Palm Hungwank HIM ha I Faistmlsm Hus I Hm mu any rum cm CO39VIMDET 15 and mere than ltst have mm or l39mr commwa I 139quot suggest that for the must par heu mus mn t mugged 26 27 28 i Etc Fulm and Midland Clovis 5km F39alnuindim Sm 30 29 All San Pm V i V V 1nd Smm alu Situ Smmblu I 7 shown in gure 39 33 Galnndn39m 39 I and Dalton Sites quot Paleoindians Continued I Subsistence 391 Human Hamlin I Ud39lic l39crhnnlng U Tnnsiduns m e rtkai I TEH Sim l anaid Shcltur Gmquotle Ru 34 35 36 Early Subsistence Models I Clovis peoples m manmach thmrs t Folmm maples wane bism humans ElrlyArthni peop es were gcnenlind hunahgmhernrs 1 luvi Aubrey and Lewisvi le Sites D Aubrey riddad bimn deer mbhit guphcr vnt vc squirmL b rl s burden nakzs I Lewisvilln1xrtrahbi tm udnlr w h sh mines 13933an birds shrew males grail 3 do squirrel guphnn mnusu ml dug mamanod Lubbock Lake 391 Claviseagu ma a m ceasing simian I Hmod1camlhom ext39zlct bimn Ithhtzd bear and giant urnradii 37 38 39 4o Miami I rimd mammoth kill it to 72 resigned in US a 9151 hard kiled plly I FM mammn m the rrazurc and mu fD JFE U anee Cluvi paint Fuund 39Mv h quothum CluvisJFolsurn Subsistence Par quotN I zl ll iwdzn Hum Kincaid Shelter I 39uT m lym i l h h I MM I can 131 mquotmzm Lixpscnmb kxy 9 IiiGum I BEB I aimn Fla 1n Trn l 51 Ear ma39mx 5n msr r arren mp 41 42 43 44 Luhback Lake FunnMihnd munum A 551 quot11 by ed A Foreman a an Vb a m Bon re Shelter Home Bed 2 I rumTre mm and Warn mm in Y may md say JawM12 D Irrtr39n 9 a 53 In BQHHEG m nun A l 41nr I 111113 Em Lmncd 1Nquot r lmy hrp I39U 46 47 48 Fiainviuw Midland PhilMew Plainmiew Bison Hunting 139 32 rm when Learnt LoreWm lv vtt Late 41 TI Shae1r Ranch 3 Pump nx a my EI39IUITNEquot 1915 t camgm nry tuxcu my t cur Iln39pl 1 mm 50 51 52 Late Palea Subsistence 1 39nHI l Wunu n1 ad mal rah umn m Jen 1L quotm 7 1quot quotauran rm m 31th Baker Cave Big Lake C Ar Inquot In hl frv m tme uil him 139 Him I a red Md1 1um1kL m quuxz n thy m hcr 39iuh i L mugL ml viaquot lurk 1 7V an 5 r1 Lubbock Lake Hate Pelee O Na iH E ll lam Wemndlan lumums mud in satmt mduncc 39 These ndudu Run 141 nan uf ether smaller mammal 39l One IOEIIHDE39I is a Finn pracusm39rgand hrvnsmg arm and a lamp 53 54 55 56 Palec indian Human Remains I nutuan Elma 39 Lager Sand Pu i Deni3r Cut 1 C Fnnm Skdum I quotELvs Bmihhquot I Hu u Raihilvdlm Na 1 a qum Rm ShemIn I Wism nmed 3quot am It W330quot le39 f I Hl bwd o in R1 5mm Braznria Cnunty 2 Hm Amman m 1Wle m 51m Horn Shelter No 2 Firearm uftwn indivi mls l inlnrrnatim on burial amtices l WBIFSLITU JFEH and dated context 4 completeness Pb skeletons 3 prune nfzn39m 34315 quot r H Leanne I W39Ilsmerrunf Site I Nicknamed Leanne ur Leandeer WUml I beams sine is near Leander U Discmrud in I953 bfoDOT arthaedugisa Ii IUJIOI ta awn BF 57 59 60 Paleoindian Technolag W Campsites tend an have Inm39 pEI39EB39IEEES 91 pmkrti e paints but ugh percentage of mIifatilf maintenanchuppnrzand gmundstn Ie l Killl autszhunng s tes have high percentage of points and unihces How to Make a vais um a 11quot 111 1 Lu39m mad my I L kulrwrk um quotsmug eman mandb Mon 11 pu 111 mun mum at the M a u but v9 Gnu a MuL h chm c lullmam mquot n arm i 39u h n Irm 5 man r m mm quot mm EdiHJtn M wp Clmis Blade Cores 61 62 63 64 Clovis Blade Cones Es 53quot Eff q u h Equot H L 5 L an E 7 I How tn Make Bu 3 a Folsom 3 Point 9 Raw Material Studies 39 Falmndian bau39lc39nrins wan gambabhr quim large n but 3121 some farm 6 E Iquot 3quot 7 1 exchange m5 grubny also used Projectile points In more likehr to bl made on nan39atnl raw material 39LHL39I are unifazus and b lces Engraved a f V 4 J Stunes 439 11 3 l it 3 39 quot J Transition to the Archaic F paddy mazrmaad 39l subsistence shift 1mm exploiting mayhuna Lu Halogen aura was 1 change that due nae refluct human choice bu crm39m39lrncnml availability U territories appear tn shrink i1 S IL39 EarlI Archaic j quot Wan Kincaid Stratigraphy buwu n w 1 Z Lsr m aw 69 71 72 Zone 3 n m inn rirulA39T x39u3aquotn39 wik39mnm 3 Au Ga ult Site Contrast with Folsom It the qmntcssencal speciaizud his game hunters af ne Pains U All kmmn Folsom sine occur mthn or near the Gnu Flam and peakins Bf the rnidcnmincnt U And a 01 the Folsom sites w39m 1 animal barns have exam hisun bones I No Fnlsnen ache an knm Pave Rea Foist deposit It PIVD Rm 78 79 80 10 AAA AAA The Palo Duro Complex Rede ning the Early Ceramic Period Paleoclimatic interpretations for the Southern Plains suggest that the Early Ceramic or Late Prehistoric 1 period was probably wetter than the preceding Late Archaic period and it appears that condi tions were generally less favorable for bi son While the precise relationships be tween climate vegetation and bison may never be fully understood a general de cline in the number of bison in the South ern Plains may have occurred around AD 500 and populations probably remained relatively low until around AD 1200 Dillehay 1974 187 Hughes 1991 8 30 Just prior to or during this time two major events the westward spread of eastern Woodland culture and the eastward spread of Southwestern Puebloan culture had a signi cant and widespread impact on the peoples of the Southern Plains The two traditions met or perhaps collided along the eastern margins of the Llano Estacado and this canyonland region herein termed the Caprock Canyonlands apparently played a prominent role in the cultural develop ments and interactions during the rst millennium AD The Woodland tradition spread east ward from the upper Midwest into the Great Plains arriving in north central Oklahoma by AD 100 300 and in southcentral Oklahoma prior to AD 450 There are a number of diagnostic traits such as corner notched dart and arrow points shell disc beads burial in mounds in tae Caprock Camunkind Douglas K Boyd or ossuaries an increase in the Frequency of ground stones and the appearance of tools associated with horticulture Vehik 1984 175 but it is the distinctive cord marked pottery vessels elongated forms with conoidal bottoms that are the hall mark of the Woodland tradition Not all of these diagnostic traits are manifest in the Oklahoma Plains Woodland sites however and it is not until ca AD 800 that good evidence for agriculture and semipermanent villages appears Vehik 1984 195 97 Despite the absence of de nite evidence for preAD 800 agricul ture it is notable that most of the Wood land complexes in the Southern Plains are thought to have begun between AD 100 and 500 Hofman and Brooks 1989 Other researchers have noted that agricul ture probably appeared on the Plains dur ing this time In the Chaquaqua Plateau of southeastern Colorado for example Robert G Campbell 1976 53 54 sug gests a date ofAD 500 for the appear ance of maize The Woodland tradition had spread into the Delaware Canyon area of west central Oklahoma by around AD 50 250 Ferring 1982 1986a and archeo logical evidence from sites on the Thur mond Ranch Thurmond 1991 and the Swift Horse site Briscoe 1987 indicates that it had spread into western Oklahoma as early as AD 200 400 A thermo luminescence date ofAD 520 on a cord marked sherd from the Tascosa Creek site 296 is the earliest occurrence of Woodland pottery in the Texas Panhandle but ab solute chronological evidence is limited and Woodland occupations probably be gan somewhat earlier The appearance of the Woodland tradition in the Panhandle Plains occurred at approximately the same time as the disappearance of the Late Archaic bison hunting lifestyle around AD 500 The Plains Woodland remains in the Texas Panhandle are called the Lake Creek Complex J Hughes 1962 1991 At about this same time the Jornada Mogollon culture of southcentral New Mexico Trans Pecos Texas and northern Chihuahua Lehmer 1948 expanded across all of southeastern New Mexico and onto the western edge of the Llano Estacado This eastern extension of the Jornada Mogollon Corley 1965a 1965b Leslie 1979 may represent the spread of Jornada Mogollon peoples or at least considerable expansion of their cultural in uence among neighboring peoples Additional Southwestern in uence indi cated by the sporadic occurrence of Mo gollon brownware pottery see M Miller 1995a also E Johnson and Holliday chapter 9 this volume may be traced all across the southern Llano Estacado par ticularly around large playas or pluvial lakes and into the southern Caprock Canyonlands First recognized at a small rockshelter in Swisher County Texas the Palo Duro Complex Willey and Hughes 1978b appeared to represent a group of hunter gatherers who simply obtained brownware pottery in trade directly or indirectly with Jornada peoples More re cent archeological ndings of residential base camps with pithouses and storage fa cilities at the Kent Creek Cruse 1992 and the Sam Wahl Boyd et al 1994 sites are changing our perceptions about who the Palo Duro peoples were and it now appears that the Jornada Mogollon in uence involved much more than just pottery see J Hughes 1991 Although there are many similarities between the Plains Woodland tradition Lake Creek Complex and the Jornada Mogollon in uenced Palo Duro Com plex the differences in these manifesta tions have been interpreted as evidence that two groups of people occupied the Texas Panhandle Plains during the rst millennium AD Assuming that the distri bution of pottery traditions represents the maximum extent of cultural in uence eg the extent of exchange networks diffusion of technology or even the spread of related peoples Jim Couzzourt 1982 1985 and Jack T Hughes 1991 inter pret the archeological data to indicate that a cultural boundary between Woodland and Southwesterninfluenced peoples ex isted along the drainage divide between the Canadian and Red Rivers As early as the 19405 Alex D Krieger 1946 1978 observed the existence of this cultural boundary and suggested that it repre sented the southern limit of Central Plains tradition complexes or influence It is notable that brownware pottery oc curs in very few sites in the Canadian River drainage while it is much more common to the south in the Red River and Brazos River drainages Conversely while sites yielding Woodland pottery are common in the Canadian River valley only a few are found in the northern trib utaries of the upper Red River and none are known south of the Prairie Dog Town Fork Consequently de ning the rela tionships between the Palo Duro and the nearby Plains Woodland and Southwest ern cultural phases and complexes is criti cal to understanding the Late Prehistoric Iperiod ca AD 500 11001200 in the Caprock Canyonlands The goals of this chapter are to 1 de scribe the Caprock Canyonlands as an archeologically signi cant ecological sub PALO DURO COMPLEX 297 region 2 summarize the Late Holocene culture history and paleoclimatic recon structions for the Caprock Canyonlands 3 identify pertinent regional cultural phases and complexes that surround the Palo Duro complex 4 identify the im portant archeological remains that are attributed to the Palo Duro complex 5 reevaluate and rede ne the Palo Duro complex in light of recent archeological nds and 6 speculate on the intercul tural relationships between Palo Duro peoples and the cultures around them This chapter evolved out of the ongo ing cultural resources studies at Lake Alan Henry a municipaluse water reservoir built for the City of Lubbock Texas From 1987 to 1993 Prewitt and Associ ates Inc of Austin Texas conducted archeological surveys testing and data recovery within the 11280 acre project area on the Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River in Garza and Kent Coun ties Texas Each phase of work resulted in a separate archeological report and the publication of a regional synthetic arche ological overview concluded these studies The extensive research done in conjunc tion with the regional synthesis Boyd et al 1997a helped to rede ne the cul ture history of the Caprock Canyonlands One of the more signi cant contributions of this work is a thorough reevaluation of the early Ceramic period Palo Duro Complex which is the subject of this chapter The Caprock Cunyonlunds Environmental Diversity Paleoenvironment and Culture History One of the important conclusions reached during the course of the Lake Alan Henry archeological investigations is that the traditional View of the Texas Panhandle Plains environment and ecol ogy is an oversimpli cation that obscures some very important concepts that have signi cant bearing on archeological inter pretations The traditional archeological View is that the Texas Southern Plains comprises only two regions the High Plains and Lower Plains The High Plains and Lower Plains are distinct in many ways and each is broadly characterized by its own geology and physiography cli mate and hydrology and ora and fauna What became apparent during the course of the investigations at Lake Alan Henry however is that the archeology of the project area did not t neatly with that of either the High Plains or Lower Plains The greatest similarities were seen in other project areas located in the rugged canyonlands along the Caprock Escarp ment but not to the west in the vast ex panses of Llano Estacado atlands or to the east in the rolling hills that make up most of the Lower Plains Emerging from this research then was the concept of the Caprock Escarpment as its own archeo logical region one that is intimately re lated to but distinct from the archeology of the High Plains and most of the Lower Plains The southern end of the High Plains which is physically separated from the central Great Plains by the wide Cana dian River valley is an isolated plateau called the Llano Estacado It is the single dominating physiographic feature in the southern Great Plains It is a at nearly featureless plain broken only by occa sional ephemeral stream valleys or draws and small basins called playas that sea sonally hold rainwater or pluvial lakes that intersect the underlying Ogallala groundwater aquifer To the east of the Llano Estacado is the Lower Plains re gion which largely comprises undulating or rolling hills of soft Permian mudstones that have been severely eroded Hence other names that have been used for this region include the Redbed Plains Eroded Plains Rolling Plains Western Rolling Plains and Low Rolling Plains While the notion that the High Plains and Lower Plains are environmentally unique is accurate it is a gross oversim pli cation Sandwiched between the Llano Estacado and the Lower Plains is the Caprock Escarpment which consti tutes the eastern edge of headward stream erosion eating away at the High Plains plateau The Caprock Escarpment is of ten thought of as a single dividing line but it is more realistically viewed as a long northsouth strip of rugged canyon lands separating the High Plains from the Rolling Plains The Caprock Canyon lands generally coincide with exposures of Tertiary Ogallala and Triassic Dockum Group Formations on any state geological map Because the Ogallala caliche and Triassic sandstones are more resistant to 298 HIGH PLAINS AND CANYONLANDS D Caprock Canyonlands Lower Plains I High Plains includes Llano Estacado West Central Texas includes Edwards Plateau amp Northern Cretaceous Outliers Fig 101 Ecological aIcheological regions Within the Texas Panhandle Plains The Caprock Canyonlands subregion is defined based on a combination of topography Raisz 1957 surface geology Curtis and Ham 1972 Renl ro 1973 Williams and McAllister 1979 vegetation areas Arbingast et al 1973 and geographic regions E H Johnson 1931 erosion than anything above or below differential erosion has resulted in the for mation of a rugged canyonland topogra phy The term Caprock Canyonlands is a tting name for this north south corri dor that divides the High Plains from the Rolling Plains Fig 101 Caprock Canyonlands is a term bor rowed ftom Dan Flores 1990 whose book Caprock Cam0721471115 oumeys into the Heart of the Southern Plains is a trea tise on the unique ecological character of the rugged canyons along the Caprock Escarpment Notably the Natural Heri tage Policy Research Project a Texas ecol ogy project sponsored by the Lyndon B Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin calls this area the Escarpment Breaks and recog nizes that it is a distinct ecological subre gion In addition the National Park Ser vice recognized the ecological importance of the escarpment canyonlands as early as the 19205 and in 1934 they considered the development of a million acre Na tional Park of the Plains that would f0 cus on the canyonlands of the Red River including Palo Duro Canyon For vari ous political reasons the National Park Service never followed up on any of its proposals Flores 1990 160 65 but the State of Texas has created two small parks along the Caprock Escarpment the 16400 acre Palo Duro Canyon State Park and the 13906 acre Caprock Can yons State Park Just as modern humans nd the Caprock Canyonlands to be unique and inviting so too did the pre historic Native Americans living in the Southern Plains and it is not surprising to nd that the archeology of this subre gion also is unique This revelation is not entirely new but the culture history syn thesis by Boyd et al 1997 is the first attempt to formalize the concept of the Caprock Canyonlands as a unique arche ological subregion The environmental characteristics of the Caprock Canyonlands and the many subtleties that distinguish it from the High Plains and Rolling Plains are not described in detail here What is impor tant is recognition of the fact that be cause of its geologic and geomorphic his tory the Caprock Canyonlands was an oasis in an otherwise arid landscape For prehistoric peoples the canyonlands pro vided more abundant in terms of quality and quantity and predictable resources than anywhere else in the Southern Plains natural shelter rewood raw lithic mate rials plant and animal foods and most importantly water Freshwater springs emerging primarily from the Ogallala aquifer and to a lesser extent from Trias sic and Quaternary aquifers are common all along the Caprock Escarpment and major riverine systems were generally well watered in prehistoric times Prior to the depletion of groundwater aquifers in the twentieth century such springs and spring fed tributaries provided abundant water and lush vegetation that attracted humans and animals Water has always been and still is the single most critical resource dictating the distribution of plant animal and human communities throughout the Southern Plains Prehis toric peoples recognized this fact and they adapted their lifestyles and settle ment patterns accordingly In contrast to the well watered canyon lands surface water over most of the Llano Estacado was with a few exceptions such PALO DURO COMPLEX 299 SOUTHERN HUMAN EXPLOITATION PANHANDLEPLAINS OF BISON CAPROCK CANYONLANDS PALEOENVIRONMENTAL IN THE NATIVE AMERICAN RECONSTRUCTION SOUTHERN PLAINS CULTURE HISTORY meslc xerlc PERIODS CULTURES O T Near Extinction Historic Comanche quot 1950 Intensrve Prmohistonc Apaches E Teyos Tierra Blanca 8 Moderate Lme Pren39smnc Garza Complexes 1000 1000 Minimal Late Prehistoric igfee Complexes Intensive Transitional 2000 1 0 Late E Little Sunday s Q Hi Archaic Summers 03000 l Complexes 1000 5 E Period g gt LLI Moderate gt 4000 2000 Middle No dolo 5000 7 Archaic undefined T 3000 Assumed Minimal Period 6000 4000 Fig l02 Comparison of the Middle to Late Holocene paleoclimatic reconstruction for the southern Panhandle Plains and the culture history of the Caprock Canyonlands from Boyd et al 1997 as major pluvial lakes or spring fed draw segments sporadically distributed sub ject to considerable seasonal fluctuation and generally unpredictable The same is true of the Rolling Plains but the water supply there also suffers from one addi tional problem Any surface or ground water that passes through the Permian redbed country becomes salinized often to the point of being undrinkable because it is several times more salty than seawa ter Therefore it is likely that there were large areas of the Rolling Plains where little or no potable water could be found during prehistoric times The resourcerich Caprock Canyon lands played a major role in the develop ment and evolution of cultures in the Southern Plains The escarpment area seems to have been a critical zone in terms of subsistence and settlement for many different prehistoric populations over many thousands of years In a sim plistic fashion the Caprock Canyonlands may be viewed as a home base for many cultures whose seasonally oriented activi ties extended over a much larger territory that included the Llano Estacado and Rolling Plains Boyd et al 1997 re viewed the regional paleoenvironmental and cultural data for the Middle to Late Holocene in the southern Panhandle Plains and Caprock Canyonlands and summaries of their interpretations are presented in Fig 102 The various lines of evidence that form the foundation of these interpretations are not presented here but it is notable that the paleo environmental reconstruction and cul ture history are a general consensus of studies done throughout the Southern Plains The focus of the remainder of this chapter is the Late Prehistoric l cul tural period from prior to AD 500 to ca AD 11001200 Regional Cultural Complexes and Phases during the Late Prehistoric I Period The Late Prehistoric 1 period was a time of dynamic cultural interaction in the Southern Plains and the cultural conditions and changes that characterize the Palo Duro Complex cannot be fully understood without a brief mention of the archeological manifestations de ned for surrounding areas Fig 103 and Table 101 The Late Prehistoric I pe riod in the Captock Canyonlands spans the entire Plains Woodland stage of cul tural development in the Texas Panhandle ie the Lake Creek Complex and the latter part of the period is contemporane ous with late Plains Woodland formative Plains Village occupations in western Oklahoma ie the Custer phase and with unknown cultural groups in west central Texas ie the Blow Out Moun tain phase This period also coincides with the Southwestern pithouse periods in southeastern New Mexico and far western Texas ie the El Paso and Do a Ana phases of the Jornada branch of the Mogollon the Querecho and Maljamar phases of the eastern extension of the Jornada Mogollon and the 18 Mile and Mesita Negra phases of the Middle Pecos and ends at the time of the pithouse to surface pueblo transition The reader is referred to Bell 1984a Brooks 1989 Corley 1965a Creel 1990 Hofrnan 1975 1978 1984a 1984b Hofman and Brooks 1989 Hughes 1991 Je linek 1967 LeBlanc and Whalen 1980 Lehmer 1948 Leslie 1979 and Lintz 1982 1984 1986 for general informa tion on these and other Plains Woodland and Plains Village manifestations in the southern Great Plains Many sites in the Caprock Canyon lands and surrounding areas date to the Late Prehistoric 1 period and are of con siderable importance for de ning the Palo Duro Complex Fig 104 Many of the sites have been attributed to the Palo Duro Complex but a large number of sites in the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma have evidence of contempora neous Plains Woodland occupations Plains Woodland sites in the Texas Pan handle are attributed to the Lake Creek Complex J Hughes 1962 1991 A de tailed summary of the Lake Creek Com plex is beyond the scope of this chapter see Boyd et al 1997 but this manifesta tion is discussed later because it is critical to de ning the nature of the interaction between Plains Woodland and Palo Duro Complex peoples Fig 103 Map of Late Prehistoric I culture complexes and phases in and around the Texas Panhandle Plains Fig 104 Map of selected Late Prehistoric I sites in the Texas Panhandle Plains and sur rounding areas See Table 101 for the num bered key to site locations LEGEND E CulturalCompIexesPhoses PALO DUFlO COMPLEX SITES l Rockshelter A Residential Base 0 T H E R S l T E S O Cumpsne A Residemiul Base PALO DURO COMPLEX 301 Table 101 Selected Late Prehistoric Sites in and around the Texas Panhandle Plains N0 Site Name Number Late Prehistoric I Cultural A ilz39ation Reference Residential Bases 1 Kent Creek 4 H1466 Palo Duro Complex Cruse 1992 2 Sam Wahl 41GR291 Palo Duro Complex Boyd et al 1994 3 Buffalo Lake PPHM A2042 Palo Duro Complex Hays 1986 4 Tahoka Lake Palo Duro Complex Lee Johnson 1993 personal communication 5 Greenbelt 41DY17 Lake Creek Complex T Campbell 1983 6 Duncan Ranch 41HC124 Lake Creek Complex Gustafson 1994a 1994b 7 Merchant LCAS E4 Eastern Jornada Mogollon Leslie 1965 8 Laguna Plata LA 5148 Eastern Jornada Mogollon Lea County Arch Soc 1971 Runyan 1972 9 Boot Hill LCAS B5 10 Salt Cedar 41AD2 11 King Ranch LA 26764 12 Fox Place LA 68188 Camp Sites 13 Chalk Hollow PPHM A883 14 Blue Clay 41B142 15 County Line 4 1 B133 16 Cat Hollow 41GR503B 17 Gobbler Creek Bridge 41GR383 18 South Sage Creek 41KT33 19 Fatheree 41GY32 20 Maintenance Barn PPHM A1543 21 South Ridge PPHM A1568 22 Floydada Country Club 41FL1 23 Montgomery 41FL17 24 Big Spring 41 HWZ 25 Lake Creek PPHM A48 26 Tascosa Creek PPHM AZOGO 27 Sanford Reservoir unnamed 41M05 28 Sanford Reservoir unnamed 41PT29 29 Night Storm 41RB21 30 Sandy Ridge 41HF5 31 Swift Horse 34RM501 32 Beaver Dam 34RM208 33 Middle Cheyenne PPHM A2082 34 Carrizozo Bridge 34C1199 35 East Levee 41TG91 Rockshelters 36 Deadman s Shelter 41 SW23 37 Boren Shelter No 2 41GR559 38 Canyon City Club Cave PPHM A251 39 Blue Spring Shelter PPHM A485 Eastern Jornada Mogollon Eastern Jornada Mogollon Middle Pecos or Eastern Jornada Mogollon Middle Pecos or Eastern Jornada Mogollon Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex E Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Lake Creek Complexes Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Lake Creek Complex Lake Creek Complex Lake Creek Complex Lake Creek Complex Lake Creek Complex Lake Creek Complex Lake Creek Complex 9 Plains Woodland Lake Creek Complex Plains Woodland Blow Out Mountain phase Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Palo Duro Complex Corley and Leslie 1960 M Collins 1968 Wiseman 1981 1988 Wiseman 1993 personal communication Wedel 1975 Willey et al 1978a Willey and Hughes 1978a Boyd et al 1994 Boyd et al 1994 Boyd et al 1992 J Hughes et al 1978 Couzzourt 1982 Etchieson 1979 Word 1963 1991 Word 1965 Northern 1979 Sommer 1971 J Hughes 1962 Couzzourt 1985 F Green 1986 F Green 1986 J Hughes et al 1978 Quigg et a1 1993 Briscoe 1987 1989 Thurmond 1988a 1988b 1988c 1991 Couzzourt 1982 1985 R Saunders 1983 Creel 1990 Willey and Hughes 1978b Boyd et al 1994 J Hughes 1969 J Hughes 1978 Numbers are ke to site lOCations shown on Fi ure 104 y g Archeological Remains of the Palo Duro Complex Based on the 1973 74 excavations at Deadman s Shelter in Mackenzie Reser voir Patrick 5 Willey and Jack T Hughes 1978b proposed that the site was repre sentative of a widespread cultural mani festation characterized mainly by Mogo llon brownwares and early corner and basal notched arrow points Many other sites in the Red River drainage had pro duced similar materials and were thought to be related to this new Palo Duro Complex Willey and Hughes 1978b 190 A few more Palo Duro sites have been investigated since that time includ ing some in the Brazos River drainage and the complex now covers a larger area than was originally proposed see Fig 104 and Table 101 The chronology of the Palo Duro Complex is known primarily from radiocarbon dates from eight sites Table 102 Most of the Palo Duro sites that have been tested or excavated may be grouped into one of two site type categories camp sites or rockshelters and there ap pears to be considerable variability in site function within these groups Recent in vestigations have added a third category Table 102 Summary of Radiocarbon Dates for Sites of the Palo Duro Complex Calibrated Site Name Number Lab Na Material Uncorrected Uncorrected Delta Corrected Corrected Age Component and Reference and Provenlem e Date BP Date AD 15 C Age BP Age 10 Range AD Residential Bases Kent Creek site TX 5323 1240 i 120 710 t 120 1256 i 127 665 977 41 HL66 Charcoal Cruse 1992 57 64 Structure 1 oor Tx 5665 840 i 250 1110 t 250 856 i 253 902 1393 Charcoal Feature 5 upper Tx 5709 1160 i 80 790 i 80 1176 i 90 733 985 Charcoal Feature 5 lower Sam Wahl site Beta 61498 1210 i 80 226 1250 i 80 686 936 41GR291 Charcoal Feature 17 Early Occupation Period Beta 61499CAMS 5824 1390 60 6107688 Boyd et al 1994 table 6 Charcoal Feature 19 Beta 59822 1370 i 90 247 1380 i 90 603 766 Charcoal Feature 29 Beta 61501 980 i 80 251 970 i 80 997 1189 Charcoal Feature 37 Beta 59823 1020 i 90 245 1030 iquot 90 900 1151 Charcoal Feature 37 Beta 61500 1180 139 80 235 1200 i 80 4 693 979 Charcoal Feature 41 Camp Sites Cat Hollow site TX 6295 1150 t 50 186 21250 i 50 6907871 41GR3033 Sediment Feature 8 LOWCIZOHC Beta 59827CAMS 5168 v 1880 50 73 229 Boyd et al 1994 table 28 Charcoal nonfCaturC Chalk Hollow site 400 850quot PPHM A883 uncorrected Upper Midden uncalibrated Wedel 1975 273 Rockshelters Deadman s Shelter 51 1897 1485 i 70 465 i 70 1501 i 81 Y 432 645 4ISW23 Area 11 Charcoal Stratum B Strata B and D 81 1898 1240 65 710 65 1256 76 686883 Wluey End Hughes Charcoal Stratum B 1978 187 189 51 1899 1740 i 40 210 i 40 1756 i 57 236 383 Charcoal Stratum D 51 1900 1830 i 60 120 i 60 1846 i 72 79 319 Charcoal Stratum D 51 1901 630 i 140 1320 i 140 v Charcoal Stratum D Boren Shelter No2 BX 14449 1155 i 210 233 1180 i 210 652 1146 41GR559 Charcoal Feature 5 Lower Shelter BetaA60261 1920 70 249 1930 70 v 4 209 Boyd et al 1994 table 54 Charcoal Feature 16 Beta 60262 1730 i 80 254 1730 i 80 238 418 Charcoal Feature 1326 Beta 59831 1320 i 110 265 1300 i 110 645 875 Charcoal Feature 22 Beta 59832 1520 i 90 245 1530 i 90 425 641 Charcoal Feature 24 Table 102 continued PALO DURO COMPLEX 303 Calibrated Site Name Number Lab No Material Uncorrected Uncorrected Delta Corrected Corrected Age Component and Reference and Provenz39enee Date BP Date AD 13 C Age BP Age AD Range AD Canyon City Club Cave WIS 408 620 i 45 1330 i 45 PPHMVA251 Charcoal Level 3 W615 3 and 4 WISV402 1260 i 55 690 55 1276 i 68 7 666 866 Hughes 1969 table 1 charcoal Level 3 WIS 404 1650 i 55 300 i 55 1666 i 68 262 529 Charcoal Level 4 VHS 414 1250 i 60 700 i 60 1266 i 72 672 874 Charcoal Level 4 Blue Spring Shelter u 815 1100 PPHM A485 uncorrected Palo Duro levels uncalibrated Hughes 1978 43 Burial Sam Wahl site Beta 61496 1530 i 60 136 1720 i 60 256 415 41GR291 Bone Feature 23 Boyd et al 1994 table 6 Unless otherwise stated all ages represent the calibrated 1 sigma age range using data set 2 in CALIB Version 303 Stuiver and Reimer 1993 Correc tions and calibrations in parentheses are based on estimated delta13 C values of 2400 for fossil charcoal Stuiver and Polach 1977 Wedel s 1975 estimate of the age of the upper midden based on six uncorrected radiocarbon dates Lintz 1995 has reexamined the radiocarbon dates from Chalk Hollow and concluded that ve dates are valid and the age of the upper midden is ca AD 404 975 Date is out of stratigraphic sequence and is considered erroneous by the original investigator W J Hughes s 1978 estimate of the age of the Palo Duro levels based on an unspeci ed number of dates that of residential bases to the site type inventory also adding a new dimension to the settlement pattern A fourth class of archeological remains that of human burials also has important implications for de ning the complex Each of these site types is discussed below Residential Buses The Kent Creek and Sam Wahl sites are the only two sites that have been posi tively identi ed as residential bases of the Palo Duto Complex Two other sites that have not been adequately investigated have been tentatively proposed as possible residential bases of the Palo Duro Com plex These two sites are important be cause they highlight the fact that there may be many other Palo Duro residential base sites that have not yet been identi ed J S Hays 1986 10 11 20 identi es a probable Palo Duro Complex site PPHMA2042 in the Buffalo Lake Na tional Wildlife Refuge Randall County Texas This site was initially visited in 1980 by Hughes Jack T Hughes eld notes February 6 1980 who observed a greater density of cultural materials eg bone fragments re cracked quartzite burned caliche and lithic debris than seen at any other site in the refuge Arti facts observed or collected consist of dart points arrow points including some Deadman s bifaces unifaces ground stones and sherds of Mogollon brown ware A test pit indicated that substantial buried deposits exist Of particular im portance Hughes noted that several de pressions at the site were probably pit houses Without further testing however the interpretation that the site represents a Palo Duro pithouse village was tentative Tahoka Lake a large pluvial lake in Lynn County Texas also has been sug gested as a possible location of a pithouse site that might be related to the Palo Duro Complex see Boyd 1995a 1995b LeRoy Johnson Jr 1992 personal com munication remembered seeing possible pithouse depressions and Mogollon ce ramics in the vicinity of Tahoka Lake many years ago prior to the complete cultivation of the area Lacking an ade quate archeological investigation how ever it is impossible to evaluate the po tential for the existence of a Palo Duro pithouse site near Tahoka Lake Surface collections from a site 5 km south of Tahoka Lake have yielded corner notched and stemmed arrow points indicating the presence of Late Prehistoric I occupa tions but no pottery was found Riggs 1965 W C Watts 1963 1 4 notes that undifferentiated brownwares have been found near Tahoka Lake and at many other lake sites on the southern Llano Estacado Watts s 1963 study is quite outdated but another ceramic dis tribution study is in progress Wiseman et a1 1994 and eventually should pro vide much more detailed information on Southwestern wares on the Llano Esta cado Even with the limited amount of data available at this time the presence of Palo Duro Complex occupations on the southern Llano Estacado should not be discounted Both of the sites that have been identi ed con dently as residential bases of the Palo Duro Complex have been investi gated intensively The Kent Creek site located along a spring fed tributary of the North Pease River in southeastern Hall County was excavated in 1985 86 by 304 HIGH PLAINS AND CANYONLANDS E Unlined Hearth ClayCapped Pit Baking Pit munimunmmummmmmim mim J Mono Cache L E G E N D Depression Rock Feature 0 Posthole RockLined Hearth O 12 1 2 CE meters T O 2 4 8 RUCTURE If a Burned Rock Cluster Date 355 Clay Lined Pit feet Fig 105 Map of structures and features at the Kent Creek site modified from Cruse 1992 g 6 1 Brett Cruse 1992 and was the rst site where habitation structures were identi ed The early occupation period at the Sam Wahl site situated in the canyon lands along the Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River in Garza County was identi ed as a residential base as a result of excavations by Boyd et a1 1994 The similarities and differences between these two sites have important implications for de ning the Palo Duro Complex Kent Creek Site 41HL66 The 62 m2 of hand excavations at the Kent Creek site uncovered two complete rectangular pithouses a possible third structure and ve extramural features Fig 105 The last consists of two oval pits one clay lined and one claycapped that may have functioned as storage facili ties a small rocklined hearth an unlined hearth and a large baking pit 80 cm in diameter and 30 cm deep lled with ash charcoal and burned rocks Charcoal from the lower and upper portions of the baking pit provided calibrated radiocar bon age ranges ofAD 733 985 and AD 902 1393 respectively Two postholes located just outside Structure 1 could represent extramural activities or they may be related to the structure Structure 1 is a rectangular 43 by 33 m pithouse with an eastfacing en tryway centered along one long wall In terior features include a trough or step down just inside the house probably a water trap a large posthole just off cen ter three other postholes along the front and side walls and two clusters of burned caliche rocks thought to be heating ovens on the oor A sub oor human burial see subsection on burials below also was found in the center of Structure 1 but the house was abandoned at the time the individual was interred and the burial pit could have destroyed a central hearth Charcoal from the oor of Struc ture 1 was radiocarbon dated to AD 665 977 providing an approximate age for the occupation of the pithouse and the sub oor burial Structure 2 is a rectangular 23 by 33 m house with a west facing entryway and no interior features except for shallow troughs or depressions all along the front and back walls possible water traps The oor of this structure was Virtually devoid of artifacts Because of their differences Structure 1 is interpreted as a habitation while Strucrure 2 is thought to represent a stor age facility but they both exhibit some similar characteristics Both structures have clay plastered entryways approxi mately 1 m wide and more than 2 m long in the form of ramps that gradually slope upward from the oor level The pithouses are shallow with floor levels at approximately 35 cm below the ground surface Some erosional beveling of the landform probably has occurred but it is unlikely that the houses were dug down much more than 50 cm and some form of superstructure must have extended above ground Pieces of daub recovered from the ll of Structure 1 suggested that it may have had a wattle and daub super structure Patches of claygravel and large rocks with plaSter remnants found in the ll may indicate that Structure 1 had a partial masonry superstructure The possible structure is a small 190 by 85 cm subrectangular depression with cobbles gravel and daub fragments mixed in its ll and a mano cache n3 along one end Since it is too small to have been a habitation this possible structure may have served as a storage facility or perhaps a small grinding shelter The precise duration of the occupa tions at the Kent Creek site are not well established since there are only three ra diocarbon dates see Table 102 The two dates from the baking pit are problem atic They may indicate reuse of the fea ture at different times but the scenario of two use episodes several hundred years apart does not seem likely The l sigma ranges for these two dates do overlap somewhat at AD 902 985 and the fea ture might date to this time Another in terpretation is that the older date is accu rate while the upper sample may have been contaminated by younger carbon The latter seems most likely since the standard deviation for the upper baking pit sample is quite large ie i 250 years Since the earlier baking pit date is very close to the date for Structure 1 it is suggested that the site occupations occurred primarily around AD 700 1000 Cruse 1992 124 calibrated an average of the three dates and concluded that the site was oc cupied between AD 690 and 1010 and the total duration of the occupations may have been between one hundred and three hundred years More than thirteen thousand artifacts were collected from Kent Creek includ ing fty seven arrow points Deadman s and Scallorn are the only identi able types twelve dart points some identi ed as Ellis a variety of other chipped lithic tools bifaces unifaces drills gouges and spokeshaves cores and debitage twenty manos and eight metate fragments and thirty four brownware sherds Of the latter most were identi ed as Jornada Brown Roswell Brown or Middle Pecos Micaceous Brown while one sherd is un like any varieties of Jornada Mogollon pottery and could represent a locally made brownware The faunal assemblage indicates that the inhabitants killed and ate more deer and or antelope than they did any other animals and only one bi son element was recovered Other ani mals that may have been utilized for food include skunks rabbits and turtles while snake prairie dog and other rodent re mains are probably intrusive Pollen analy ses provided somewhat equivocal results and a preservation bias is likely but slightly higher concentrations of cheno ams were observed in some features Charred plant remains recovered from extramural features indicate that goose foot and purslane may have been food resources and juniper and cottonwood willow were used as rewood In addi tion charred oak acorns were recovered from the ll of the burial from a trough depression inside Structure 2 and from the possible structure Although the spe cies was not identi ed it is likely that these acorns represent the use of shin oak Quercus havardiz39 as a food resource The number of analyzed pollen and ota tion samples was minimal and Cruse notes that the possibility that horticul ture was practiced cannot be ruled out Cruse 1992 141 The Kent Creek site is interpreted as a multifunctional residential village but its size ie the number of pithouses pres ent is unknown because the excavated area represents only a small portion of a much larger site The primary activities that are evident at the site are hunting and processing of small to mediumsized animals procurement processing and possibly storage of plant foods and a PALO DURO COMPLEX 305 full range of lithic tool manufacture and maintenance Sam WM Site 41 GR291 The Sam Wahl site was discovered in 1987 Boyd et a1 1989 and tested in 1988 Boyd et al 1990 Diagnostic and unusual artifacts recovered consist of four arrow points including one Scallorn and one Deadman s an untyped dart point two plain brownware sherds Jornada or Roswell Brown and a fragment of a pen dant made of nonlocal kaolinite that is vi sually identical to the hydrothermally al tered kaolinite found at Burro Mesa in Big Bend National Park Alex 1990 No radiocarbon dates were obtained and a thermoluminescence date on a burned rock yielded an erroneous age The site occupations were considered to date to Late Prehistoric I times and to represent a manifestation of the Palo Duro Complex Data recovery excavations in 1992 consisted of extensive mechanical excava tions three long maintainer blade cuts and 36 backhoe trenches and hand exca vation of 106 units each measuring 1 by 1 m Fig 106 The extensive mechani cal excavations were done in an effort to locate buried structures and features and these excavations were quite successful Many of the features that were critical for accurately interpreting the site ie the pithouse and storage pit features were g l 29 1641 BLOCK 4 E L E G E N D BLOCK 5 Backhoe Trench Blade Cut 39 u Excavation Unit 3 20 A Feature in Blade Cut 28 2 Cairn Burial BLOCK 1 MN Pithouse O l 0 20 40 meters L E G E N D 0 40 80 150 Q CharcoalBurned Rock Scatter 01 2 4 feet 0 31 F 098 Pit meters Contour nterval 50 cm 0 Hemwaaking Pit 0322510 20 i Burned Rock Cluster feeI Fig 106 Map of the northcentral portion of the Sam Wahl site 41G8291 showing locations of data recovery mechanical excavations hand excavations and cultural features 306 HIGH PLAINS AND CANYONLANDS 1400 L A T E 1300 OCCUPATION I P E R IO D 1200 F12 F 21 F12 CharcoalBurned RockScotters IOOO D lt39 F37 v Pithouse g lt F37 LU Pithouse gt 800 E o E A R L Y E 700 21 1 F47 F41 600 F49 pit aking Pit P E R IO D F29 8 03th Hem 500 Baking PII 400 B U R IA L 300 C O M P O N E N T F23 200 BUFIO39 L E G E N D I 1sigma Range of Calibrated Dates with Intercepts Fig 10 7 Graph of calibrated radiocarbon dates from the Sam Wahl site rst encountered in maintainer bladecuts and backhoe trenches and they might not have been discovered otherwise By the end of the data recovery inves tigations 37 cultural features had been documented and 3970 artifacts had been recovered Site chronology is established by eleven radiocarbon dates that indicate numerous occupations over a long period of time Fig 107 When the features calibrated radiocarbon dates and artifacts were analyzed it was clear that they were separable into three time periods that were de ned as separate analysis units A burial component consists of a single cairn covered burial discussed below that is radiocarbon dated to ca AD 230 to 400 This burial is some two centuries earlier than and may be unrelated to the earliest occupational evidence at the site The late occupation period is de ned by 1916 artifacts and two features that are radiocarbon dated to ca AD 11501200 to 13501400 These later occupations postdate the Palo Duro Complex and ap pear to have been quite different from the earlier occupations The early occupation period is attrib uted to the Palo Duro Complex and is represented by 1445 artifacts and a fea ture complex that consists of a pithouse 10 storage pits and 2 baking pits that are radiocarbon dated to ca AD 600 to 10501100 The pithouse Feature 37 is an oval basinshaped depression that is 3 by 35 m and was dug down ap proximately 40 cm below the former ground surface into the bedrock substrate Fig 108 Two large oval basin metates were found cached ie stored upside down inside the pithouse and a third slab type metate in the structure found in the backhoe trench also may have been cached Subtle burned areas in the central floor of the pithouse may repre sent an interior hearths no de nite en tryway was identi ed but it may have been to the southwest Charred mesquite beans were recovered from the oor of the pithouse The ten storage pits Features 17 20 24 25 30 32 and 39 are all quite sim ilar in morphology being round in plan view and ranging from 85 to 110 cm in diameter and 50 to 80 cm deep with rounded to at bottoms and sides that ta per slightly inward Fig 109 All of the pits are intrusive about 40 to 60 cm into bedrock and two had large ovalbasin metates cached again upside down at the top of the pit The fill of these fea tures is generally fairly clean sandy sedi ment except for one that may have been back lled with trash and there is little doubt that they represent storage pits They are all clustered into a relatively small 8 by 8 m area see Fig 106 and it is hypothesized that they were located in this particular spot and dug into the bed rock in order to provide rodent proof storage The estimated storage capacities of these pits range from 024 to 031 m3 for the smallest to 053 to 068 ms5 for the largest Flotation samples did not provide de nitive evidence of what was being stored but charred grass seeds four taxa were abundant and may represent the use of grass linings inside the pits Other features associated with the early occupation period include two bak ing pits that presumably were used to cook some type of plant food Unfortu nately flotation of the feature ll failed to yield any de nitive macrobotanical evi dence of what plants were being cooked Notably the rocks used in the construc tion of one of the baking pits included mm PHLO DURO COMPLEX 307 Fig 108 Overview of excavated pithouse at the Sam Wahl site looking northwest The two largest rocks are upsidedown metates Fig 109 Storage pit Feature 17 at various stages of excavation a halfexcavated pit b com pletely excavated pit twenty ve recycled groundstone frag ments mano metate and indeterminate fragments representing 31 percent of the total rocks In addition to the pithouse storage pit baking pit complex two bedrock mortars were found 170 m southwest of the pithouse Although these features can not be directly dated they are indirectly associated with the early occupation pe riod because a broken pestle was found on the oor of the pithouse This pestle provides circumstantial evidence that mortars were used at approximately the same time as the pithouse One of the late occupation period fea tures Feature 12 is of particular impor tance and is radiocarbon dated to ca AD 1200 It is a wellde ned ovate 2 by 3 m charcoalstained area that is super imposed on and de nitely postdates two of the storage pits Features 17 and 18 A small charcoal lled pit along one edge of the stain appears to represent an in situ unlined hearth This feature is interpreted as representing an ephemeral surface house with a small interior replace If this interpretation is correct then the oc cupants of the Sam Wahl site may have shifted from living in pithouses during Palo Duro times to living in surface houses after ca AD 1 100 The early occupation is interpreted as a small pithouse village of the Palo Duro Complex Plant procurement processing and storage were major activities Except for the mesquite beans found in the pit house the speci c plants that might have been utilized are not well documented Charred remains of some other plants such as Crmopodz39um and cucurbit seeds may represent food resources but their archeological contexts do not con rm this interpretation The charred cucurbit seeds cannot be identi ed as to species and probably represent a wild species such as buffalo gourd rather than a cul tivated variety but the absence of domes ticated plants in the macrobotanical samples from 41 GR291 cannot be in terpreted as an absence of agriculture al together Since the absence of cultigen remains could be due to differential pres ervation or plantprocessing techniques that did not result in charred remains the question of Whether the early occu pants were involved in farming must remain open The archeological evidence primarily the features and artifacts suggests that there were dramatic changes in site func tion and subsistence activities around AD 1100 In general the early occupa tion period is characterized by a greater dependence upon plant processing ie more and larger groundstone tools and the late occupation period is characterized by a greater reliance upon hunting ie more arrow points and an increase in the manufacture of chipped stone tools ie more unmodi ed debitage It is hypoth esized that the increasing importance of hunting activities and the shift from pit houses to surface houses are related to climatic changes that occurred around AD 1100 There is not enough evidence to determine whether the late occupations represent a late variant of the Palo Duro Complex or something else entirely Camp Sites and Rockshelters Twelve camp sites and four rockshel ters that have been testedexcavated con stitute the bulk of the archeological data for the Palo Duro Complex Boyd et al 1997 present individual site summaries for Palo Duro camp sites and rockshel tets but here they are discussed only brie y as a group Subsurface investigations at many open camp sites have produced de nable Palo Duro components with artifact as semblages that are useful for comparative 308 HIGH PLAINS AND CANYONLHNDS Table 103 Comparison of Palo Duro Complex Components at Camp Sites 722ml N0 of Diagnostic Artz acts Assessment of Area Artifacts in Excavnted N0 of Palo Duro Brownware P410 Duro Data Sz39te Component m 2 Dates Assemblage Paints Soemit Component Quality Chalk Hollow upper midden 11 6 P x x good none Blue Clay 65 1701 X x good good County Line 70 1492 x good good Cat Hollow 27 2 623 x good fair Gobbler Creek Bridge 53 3 2160 x good good South Sage Creek 62 1 2052 x x good good Fatheree Area 1 7 213 x fair fair Maintenance Earn 28 x x poor fair South Ridge East 32 1077 x x good good Floydada Country Club 108 P x x poor poor Montgomery gt20 x x poor poor Big Spring 15 x x unknown fair See Table 101 for references to site investigations Component Data Quality good discrete component fair may be discrete component but investigations are limited poor component is mixed or otherwise poorly de ned unknown possible Palo Duro component cannot be adequately de ned purposes while investigations at other camp sites have yielded only minimal evidence of Palo Duro occupations Table 103 The level of work at these sites varies from minimal testing with scattered units to comprehensive excava tions involving large blocks of contiguous units The discreteness of the Palo Duro components or occupations and the qual ity of the data reporting also range from very good to very poor Thus one must take into account the quality and quan tity of the archeological data when eval uating the interpretations offered by various investigators To illustrate the differences it is notable that only five of the camp sites meet the following criteria 1 have discrete Palo Duro components with de nable artifact assemblages of more than one thousand specimens 2 have had more than 30 m2 of hand excavation and 5 have adequately reported excava tion data that are useful for comparative purposes As discussed later however it is clear that the camp sites vary considerably in terms of site function and intensity of useoccupation One point in regard to open camp site investigations is worth stressing Most camp sites attributed to the Palo Duro Complex were investigated before pit good data adequately reported and sample size is adequate house structures were recognized as an important component of the complex The existence of residential base villages with semipermanent structures was not realized until about 1986 and archeolo gists were not consciously searching for such evidence prior to this time Cruse 1992 excavated at the Kent Creek site for quite some time before accidentally discovering the pithouses there and a substantial mechanical testing effort at the Sam Wahl site was speci cally de signed to search for buried houses Since the pithouses at these sites were unde tectable on the surface it is very possible that many of the camp sites listed in Table 103 are actually residential bases Sites that have a wide diversity of features and artifact types brownware ceramics and large groundstone tool assemblages are particularly likely to be residential bases The South Sage Creek site for ex ample is a good candidate for a possible residential base It is the only other site in the region that has yielded a complete largebasin metate like those found in as sociation with the pithouse and storage pits at the Sam Wahl site Unfortunately the South Sage Creek site was not recog nized as a Palo Duro Complex site at the fair data adequately reported but sample size is small poor assemblages are not de nedde nable none no data are reported time that the data recovery work was planned and without anyone having realized the potential for structural re mains the investigation strategy was quite different from that employed at the Sam Wahl site Four rockshelters in the Caprock Canyonlands contain evidence of occupa tions by Palo Duro peoples or date to Palo Duro Complex times The archeo logical evidence suggests that the canyon land rockshelters were used in different ways by Palo Duro peoples Table 104 Occupations at Boren Shelter No 2 lower shelter were brief and periodic generating little cultural debris only twentyeight artifacts excluding deb itage Occupations at the Canyon City Club Cave also appear to have been brief and generated few artifacts n44 ex cluding debitage but the greater number of projectile points and bones indicates that hunting was a primary activity In contrast a higher frequency of artifacts n643 excluding debitage indicates that occupations at Deadman s Shelter were much more intensive ie of longer duration and more frequent While hunt ing is well represented ie points ac count for 15 percent of all artifacts the number of manos and metates is excep PHLO DURO COMPLEX 309 Table 104 Comparison of Palo Duro Complex Components at Rocksheltersquot Dearmart Canyon City Boren Shelter Shelter Cluh Cave N0 2 Attributes all strata Level 4 Lower Shelter Shelter size ml 35 50 167 lt30 estimated Area excavated m2 including areas 30 418 15 outside shelter inside only No of artifacts excluding debitage 630 44 28 No of debitage elements 3720 88 No of faunal elements 2000 1844 482 N0 of pointsmanos and metates 96 108 134 10 See Table 101 for references to site investigations Blue Spring Shelter is excluded from this table because no excavation data have been reported The size of the shelter is estimated because dimensions are not given and the shelter was not com pletely excavated tionally high 17 percent of all artifacts In addition the total artifact assemblage from Deadman s is quite variable and cer tainly denotes a wide range of activities Consequently the data are interpreted to mean that occupations at Deadman s Shelter were more like those at multifunc tional camp sites or residential bases than those at the other rockshelters Burials Human burials in the Southern Plains are particularly important because they provide direct evidence of cultural be haviors other than subsistence activities documented at most sites There are only ten locations in the region that include burials dating to Late Prehistoric I times and that have a bearing on de ning or explaining the Palo Duro Complex Fig 1010 Of these only seven burials at ve localities are de nitely or possibly af liated with the Palo Duro Complex The burial of an adult male in an al most extended position with its legs semi exed in an oval pit inside Deadman s Shelter is described by Willey and Hughes 1978b 154 190 The skeleton was ac companied by the following artifacts as grave o erings a complete terrapin mud turtle shell two mussel shells and nine modi ed deer bones an awl an ulna and seven neatly stacked split metapodial halves The burial apparently occurred during or near the end of Stratum D times radiocarbon dated to AD 79 383 see Table 102 Based on similarities in cranial measurements Willey 1978 in dicated that Deadman s cranium was most similar to skeletal populations at Pecos pueblo and to Middle Woodland and Kansas Hopewell populations He tentatively suggested a possible genetic af liation representing a mixture of Southwestern and Woodland traits The burial of an adult female tightly flexed in a circular pit in the floor of Structure 1 at the Kent Creek site see Fig 10 5 contained four modi ed deer bones one awl and three split metapodial halves and three modi ed mussel shells as grave offerings One of the mussel valves had a ground edge and may have been used as a scraper while the other two had drilled holes were found in the chest area and probably were worn as pendants The tip of an arrow point was found beneath the skeleton and since the grave ll was otherwise devoid of cultural material Cruse 1992 55 speculated that an ar row wound may have been the cause of death Since the pit was dug into the oor and the gravelly ll was piled up above the level of the oor the pithouse must have been abandoned immediately after the interment Thus a radiocarbon date on charcoal from the oor of Structure 1 places the approximate age of the inter ment at AD 665 977 see Table 102 The Jim Arnold site also located along Kent Creek in Hall County consists of an approximately 60cm thick cultural zone exposed in a gravel pit Two separate but closely spaced burial pits observed in the wall of the gravel pit were subse quently investigated by Curtis D Tunnell 1964 Both burials had been disturbed by gravel operations and subsequent slumping of the edges of the gravel pit walls Hence the skeletal materials and artifacts that were recovered are incom plete but suf cient information was sal vaged to indicate the nature of the graves Burial 1 a young adult female had been dislodged from the burial pit but four modi ed deer bones two awls and two awl fragments were found with the re deposited skeletal remains Burial 2 an adult male was partially intact probably in a semiflexed position inside an oval pit Associated grave offerings which were found in situ consisted of six modi ed deer bones three awls and three split metapodial halves three mussel shells two unworked valves and one with notches along its ventral edge and a bifacial chert knife The graves at the Jim Arnold site lo cated Within 1 m of each other are simi lar in that both were primary interments in shallow oval pits both were in identi cal stratigraphic contexts with identical pit ll and both contained modi ed deer bones Tunnell 1964 noted that the burial pits were intrusive into a sterile zone from the bottom of the overlying cultural zone No investigation of the cul tural zone was made but flint artifacts and bison bones were noted and dart points were found on the surface Tunnell 1964 could not determine their age and cultural af liation but subsequent re searchers J Hughes 1991 B Miller 1992 Willey and Hughes 1978b 190 have indicated that the Jim Arnold burials are probably associated with the Palo Duro Complex and they noted that the burial site is situated less than 2 km from the Kent Creek site Lacking a radiocar bon date or any temporally diagnostic ar tifacts this burial is assigned to the Palo Duro Complex only on the basis of simi larities in mortuary offerings The four burials described above are considered to be af liated with the Palo Duro Complex and they exhibit many similar mortuary characteristics All are primary burials containing modi ed deer bones as grave offerings and three of the burials contained a combination of deer bone awls split deer metapodials awl preforms and modi ed and unmodi ed mussel shells The burials differ in pit shape round to oval and in skeletal 310 HIGH PLAINS AND CANYONLANDS Deodmon39s Polo Duro Complex Plains WoodlandCuster Phase Blow Out Mountain Complex Unknown Location not Precise OHIO CULTURAL AFFILIATION Unknown possibly Polo Duro Complex quot0 34RM668 Double Burial 0 Luke Aitus Jim Arnold Kent Sam Wohl a Roberts Covered Mounds 41 CN94 41 CC237 Fig 1010 Map of selected Late Prehistoric I burials in the Texas Panhandle Plains placement within the pits nearly ex tended to tightly exed but differences in their intrasite contexts one in a house two in open camp sites and one in a rockshelter may account for some of this variability Two individuals buried in a single cairn covered pit in Donley County were excavated in 1938 Witte 1955 Both were buried in exed positions but one was reported to have been placed head downward on top of a carefully prepared sitting burial Witte 1955 85 The skeletons represent adults sex not deter mined who had apparently been killed Two arrow points were found among the ribs and left scapula of the rst individ ual and ve arrow points were found in the torso and pelvic areas of the second person The points several of which have impact breaks are quite similar to Dead rnan s points in that they have corner to basal notches and long prominent barbs see Witte 1955 plate 13 but the burial specimens are generally larger ie longer and wider with slightly broader expand ing stems and have serrated blades No grave offerings were present but the points indicate that the burial dates to the Late Prehistoric I period Although its precise location is not stated the Double Burial site is situated between 50 and 100 km north of the Kent Creek site The Double Burial is undated but the associated points indicate that it is proba bly contemporaneous with and perhaps related to the Palo Duro Complex This was suggested by Willey and Hughes 1978b 190 based primarily on the sim ilarities of the burial points to the Dead man s arrow point style This interpreta tion is plausible but the fact that these two individuals probably were killed by arrows tipped with Deadman s like points is equally important An alternative inter pretation is that these individuals may have been killed by people of the Palo Duro culture rather than having been Palo Duro peoples themselves and this possibility also has been noted by Chris topher Lintz 1986 225 The only other burial that might pos sibly be associated with the Palo Duro Complex is one found at the Sam Wahl site It is a single cairncovered human interment Feature 23 in Fig 106 that is radiocarbon dated to AD 256 415 The human skeletal materials were found in an oval pit and are interpreted as a sec ondary ie bundle burial of a middle aged male The bones were extremely fragmented and jumbled and their con text in a tight cluster in one portion of the pit suggested that they might have been con ned inside an organic container such as a basket or a hide bag The only grave inclusions were a ground and fac eted piece of hematite ie paint stone and a Scallorn arrow point 6 cm long The latter was found in a context suggest ing that an arrow had been laid over the bone cluster Since the Sam Wahl site burial dates to the transitional Archaic period and is ear lier than the earliest documented occupa tions at the site it is possible that the bur ial is not associated with the Palo Duro Complex at all This interpretation is supported by the fact that the Sam Wahl burial is quite different from the three Palo Duro burials described above none of which are secondary cairn burials An alternative interpretation is that the burial is af liated with the early Palo Duro Complex Three lines of circumstantial evidence suggest that this interpretation is tenable 1 the burial at the Sam Wahl site is approximately contemporaneous PHLO DURO COMPLEX 311 RES IDE NTIAL BASES CAMPSITES Sam Cat Chalk Gobbler Kent Wahl Hollow Hollow Creek Creek Early Lower Upper Bridge Na N N2 NS NS South ROCKSHELTERS BURIAL Dead Boren Canyon Blue Sage man39s Shelter 2 City Spring Sam Shelter Lower Club Cave Shelter Wahl 1 Na N5 Ns N7 N ll AD 40004 CALENDAR YEARS 1 Total 1Sigma Range of Calibrated Radiocarbon Dates 9 Total 1Sigma Range of O Uncalibrnted Radiocaroon Dates Late Prehistoric I Fig 1011 Graph of radiocarbon dates for Palo Duro Complex components with the Palo Duro Complex burial at Deadman s Shelter 2 the associated Scallorn arrow point although unusually large would not be stylistically out of place in the Palo Duro Complex and 3 the burial was found at a pithouse vil lage of the Palo Duro Complex Based on the current evidence however the cul tural af liation of the burial from the Sam Wahl site is debatable and the possi bility that it represents a burial of a tran sitional Archaic or even a Plains Wood land ie Lake Creek individual cannot be discounted Bede nition oi lhe Palo Duro Complex Chronology Many components attributed to the Palo Duro Complex have been radiocar bon dated Fig 1011 see Table 102 Occupations that are attributable to the Palo Duro Complex may have begun dur ing transitional Archaic times ca AD 1 500 but are definitely recognizable by at least AD 500 Palo Duro occupa tions apparently continued until around AD 1100 but they seem to disappear quite suddenly Thus the Palo Duro Complex is contemporaneous with the Plains Woodland occupations in the northern Texas Panhandle ie the Lake Creek Complex and western Oklahoma the Blow Out Mountain phase of west central Texas and the pithouse phases of the Jornada Mogollon and Middle Pecos areas Subsistence and Site Function Material Culture A comparison of artifacts recovered from residential base camps rockshelters and camp sites of the Palo Duro Com plex indicates that there are some signi cant similarities and differences between and among these site types The data presented in Tables 105 and 106 show that the Palo Duro material culture is ex tremely diverse overall but that there are some sites presumably where limited or special activities occurred where the di versity is rather low The site data may be compared using the artifact diversity in dex see Table 106 as a crude represen tation of the variability in activities that occurred on site Not surprisingly the residential bases have the Widest range of activity diversity with fteen to sixteen of the seventeen artifact categories repre sented Deadman s Shelter also has a high activity diversity with fteen categories represented while all of the camp sites exhibit moderate artifact diversities with between ten and thirteen categories repre sented Boren Shelter No 2 has the low est artifact diversity with only nine of the seventeen categories represented Two other calculations presented in Table 106 are useful for further compar ing and contrasting these components One is the total artifact density calcu lated as the number of artifacts per square meter of excavation and the other is the adjusted artifact density calculated as the number of artifacts excluding unmodi ed debitage per square meter of excava tion These artifact densities are consid ered to be crude measures of the relative intensity and or duration of occupation The Kent Creek site and Deadman s Shelter have much higher total artifact densities than do any of the other sites As discussed below this situation may be due to differences in site function or in the total duration and intensity of the oc cupations but one other factor also plays a role in the unusually high artifact den sity seen at Kent Creek The Kent Creek site has a signi cantly higher percentage of unmodi ed debitage accounting for 97 percent of all artifacts recovered than does Deadman s Shelter debitage repre sents 86 percent of all artifacts or any other site debitage represents 76 to 91 percent of all artifacts The differen tial availability of lithic source materials seems to be a partial explanation for the higher total artifact density at Kent Creek because it is the only site where good quality chert is immediately available and abundant Tecovas jasper which is found in the stream terrace gravels exposed on site comprises more than 90 percent of all the stone artifacts at Kent Creek and most of the corticate debitage represents stream worn gravels Cruse 1992 72 and table 2 Because the Kent Creek occu pants were sitting on a chert source area it is not surprising that they would gener ate a higher percentage of waste lithic de bris than would people in areas located much farther from good quality lithic sources The immediate availability of lithic material is only a partial explanation for