COMMUNICATION THEORY COMS 2301
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Katharina Larkin on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMS 2301 at Texas Tech University taught by LeAnne Gibson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see /class/226455/coms-2301-texas-tech-university in Communication Studies at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Rivera Study Guide Exam Two 1 COMS 2301 Communication Theory Rivera Exam Two Study Guide The format for the exam is multiple choice matching and truefalse The total point value for the exam is 100 points The content of the exam is both from readings and class lecture I discussion This handout is meant to be a guide to assist in your preparation Review What is a theory Chapter 1 a set of informed hunches about the way things work Based on inclass discussions what is a paradigm strongly held worldviews and beliefs that undergird scholarship the complete constellation of beliefs values techniques etc shared by the members ofa scientific community Know and be able to identify each of the three paradigms discussed in class Social ScientificObjectivePositivistPostPositivist Interpretive Critical Objective The assumption that truth is singular and is accessible through unbiased sensory observation committed to uncovering causeandeffect relationships Interpretive The linguistic work of assigning meaning or value to communicative texts assumes that multiple meanings or truths are possible Critical The assumption that the world is socially constructed and infused with power that power constrains the options that people have for living their lives Critical scholars also assign meaning or value to communicative texts Critical scholars also assume there are multiple truths based on individual experiences of power Know and be able to identify for each ofthe three paradigms discussed in class Ontology Epistemology Axiology class notes and paradigm chart on Blackboard Based on class discussion why is it important to talk aboutunderstand paradigms a person s paradigm will guide the decisions they make about research For example what questions will you ask what tools will you use how will you interact with research participants how will you report your findings Relational Dialectics Chapter 12 What is relational dialectics a dynamic knot of contradictions in personal relationships an unceasing interplay between contrary or opposing tendencies Relational dialectics as the tension struggle and general messiness of close personal ties p 155 bend it like Beckham is an example What is contradiction how is it formed and what role does it play in relational dialectics the dynamic interplay between unified opposites They are formed whenever 2 tendencies are interdependent yet mutually negate one another Rivera Study Guide Exam Two 2 Bakhtin s two contradictory forces in human nature centripetalcentralizing force vs centrifugaldecentralizing force Know and be able to identify characteristics of the three primary dialectics discussed in the text integrationseparation a class of relational dialectics that includes connectednessseparateness inclusion seclusion intimacy independence and closeness autonomy Stabilitychange a class of relational dialectics that includes certainty uncertainty conventionality uniqueness predictability surprise and routine novelty Expressionnonexpressiona class of relational dialectics that includes openness closedness revelation concealment candor secrecy and transparency privacy What are internal and external dialectics What s the difference between the two lnternal ongoing tensions played out within a relationship External ongoing tensions between a couple and their community What is dialogue communication that is constitutive always in ux capable of achieving aesthetic moments Know and be able to identify dialogue as a constitutive process dialectical ux the unpredictable un nalizable indeterminate nature of personal relationships an aesthetic moment a fleeting sense of unity through a profound respect for disparate voices in dialogue as utterance am portion of multivocal communication that affects and is affected by one or more other voices in the conversation and as a critical sensibility an obligation to critique dominant voices especially those that suppress opposing viewpoints a responsibility to advocate for those who are muted When dialectical tensions emerge there is an opportunity for honest and transformative dialogue Dramatism Chapter 22 As Burke viewed it life is not like a drama life is drama p 289 What is identification the common ground between a speaker and the audience such as physical characteristics talents occupation experiences personality beliefs and attitudes What was the key to old rhetoric vs Burke s new rhetoric Persuasion vs identi cation p 290 the key term for old rhetoric was persuasion and its stress upon deliberative design The key term for the new rhetoric is identi cation and this may include partially unconscious factors in its appeal What is the dramatistic pentad an analytical tool used to understand the speakers motivation A tool to analyze how a speaker attempts to get an audience to accept hisher view of reality by using ve key elements of the human drama Rivera Study Guide Exam Two 3 Know and be able to identify characteristics of a god term The word a speaker uses to which all other positive words are subservient and a devil term The word a speaker uses that sums up all that is regarded as bad wrong or evil In class you can access the link on the notes on Blackboard we viewed a video and discussed the speech based on Burke s pentad Being familiar with this example will be helpful for questions about dramatism Know and be able to identify act A critic s label for the act illustrates what was done scene The description ofthe scene gives a context for where and when the act was performed agentThe person or people who performed the act agency The means the agent used to do the deed and purpose The stated or implied goal ofthe address What is the function of guilt in rhetoric according to Burke the ultimate motivation of all public speaking is to purge ourselves of an everpresent allinclusive sense of guilt What is the GuiltRedemption Cycle Know the two options mortification purge guilt through selfblame vs victimage purge guilt by designating and external enemy as source or cause of problems Narrative Paradigm Chapter 23 What is narration Symbolic actions words andor deeds that have sequence and meaning forthose who live create or interpret them According to inclass discussion what is the essence of human nature according to Fisher and the narrative paradigm story telling human beings all communication is a story stories are shaped by history culture and character What is the rational world paradigm a scienti c or philosophical approach to knowledge that assumes people are logical making decisions on the basis of evidence and line ofargument How is it different than a narrative paradigm see slide from class discussion how are decisions made how is rationality determined what is the role of values What is narrative rationality A way to evaluate the worth of stories based on the twin standards of narrative coherence and narrative delity What is narrative coherence Internal consistency with characters acting in reliable fashion the story hangs together What is narrative fidelity Congruence between values embedded in message and what listeners regard as truthful and humane the story strikes a responsive chord Rivera Study Guide Exam Two 4 o What is the ideal audience a permanent public an actual community existing over time that believes in the values oftruth the good beauty health wisdom courage temperance justice harmony order communion friendship and oneness with the commons And what is the role of persuasion in the narrative paradigm Critical Theorv in Orqanizations Chapter 20 o What is corporate colonization Encroachment of modern corporations into every area of life outside the workplace 0 According to inclass discussion what is ideology A system of ideas that serve as the basis ofa political or economic theory refers to our basic often unexamined assumptions about how things are or how they ought to be 0 Based on inclass discussion know and be able to identify characteristicsexamples of overteasily spotted and usually against the law examplesdiscrimination sexism racism etc punishing employees use of work resources And covert power harder to identify and stop includesthings like persuasion coercion and understandings about the way things just are examples Work hours work dress emotional labor etc o What is managerialism A systematic logic set of routine practices and ideology that values control over all other concerns What are examples of managerialism stockholders want profits and workers desire freedom nut management craves control 0 What is consent The process by which employees actively though unknowingly accomplish managerial interests in a faulty attempt to fulfill their own interests 0 According to inclass discussions what is hegemony Ideological control that is subtle and indirect but highly effective because the world view articulated by the ruling elite is actively taken up and pursued by subordinate groups What role do consent and hegemony play in helping to maintain power in organizations 0 In class we discussed the Milgram experiment see class notes on Blackboard for review as an example of consent and hegemony how is this experiment and example ofthese concepts 0 What is involvement Stakeholders workers free expression of ideas that may or may not affect managerial decisions 0 According to inclass discussions what is resistance Workers distancing and defending themselves from organizational power from largescale social movements to individual tactics designed to carve out a small but satisfying space of agency action and autonomy Be familiar with examples of resistance in the workplace both individual and group Rivera Study Guide Exam Two 5 Standpoint Theory Chapter 34 What is a standpoint A place from which to critically view the world around us The social groups within which we are located powerfully shape what we experience and know as well as how we understand and communicate with ourselves others and the world p 441 Standpoint theorists suggest that we can use the inequalities of gender race class and sexual orientation to observe how different locations within the social hierarchy tend to generate distinctive accounts of nature and social relationships p 441 According to inclass discussion who has a standpoint We all have a standpoint Why is the standpoint of members in marginalized groups different than those in dominant identity groups the social groups within which we are located powerfully shape what we experience and know as well as how we understand and communicate with ourselves others and the world When people speak from the opposite sides of power relations the perspective from the lives of the less powerful can provide a more objective view than the perspective from the lives ofthe more powerful p 442 What is local knowledge Knowledge situated in time place experience and relative power as opposed to knowledge from nowhere that s supposedly value free What is strong objectivity The strategy of starting research from the lives of women and other marginalized groups thus providing a less false view of reality What are four knowledge claims for black women how is knowledge generated according to Collins pp 449450 1 Lived experience as a criterion of meaning expertise from experience 2 The use of dialogue in assessing knowledge claims knowledge requires communication and hearing multiple perspectives 3 The ethic of can39ng emotion is as valid as the rational mind 4 The ethic ofpersonal accountability we must evaluate what we say and why we say it our communication is a reflection ofour character values and ethics According to inclass discussioncritiques of standpoint theory what are challenges and benefits to lumping all members ofa group such as women into one group Muted Group Theory Chapter 35 What is a muted group People with little power who have trouble giving voice to their perceptions because they must reencode their thoughts to make them understood in the public sphere Rivera Study Guide Exam Two 6 Basic assumption Language is a manmade construction based on men s experiences and rooted in the gendered division of labor Because language is established by the dominant group words and language norms work toward the dominant group s favor What is a gatekeeper editors and other arbiters of culture who determine which books essays poetry plays film scripts etc will appear in the mass media According to the text book and inclass discussions how are words for women s talk and the design and norms of the internet examples of men in gatekeeper and dominant positions over language and norms Based on our inclass discussion about names for men and women who are sexually active what do the words we use to describe sexual activity tell us about social normsexpectations about gender and sex Key Can members in the muted group say what they want when and where they want to say it The ultimate goal of critical theories is to evoke change Based on inclass discussion and the text book what are some examples of ways that feminists have made stridestoward changing masculine norms in language feminist dictionary sexual harassment reclaiming words such as bitch Cultural Studies Chapter 26 What is cultural studies a neo Marxist critique that sets forth the position that mass media manufacture consent for dominant ideologies What is democratic pluralism the myth that society is held together by common norms such as equal opportunity respect for diversity one person one vote individual rights and rule oflaw What does it mean to articulate the process of speaking on oppression and linking that subjection with media representations What is ideology frameworks through which we interpret understand and make sense of social existence Hall s goal to unmask the power imbalances within society cultural studies approach is valid if it deconstructs the current structure ofa media research establishment that failsto deal with ideology p 335 Be able to identify the following terms proletariat the laboring class who lack capital or the means of production and so must sell their labor to live economic determinism the belief that human behavior and relationships are ultimately caused Rivera Study Guide Exam Two 7 by differences in financial resources and the disparity in power that those gaps create culture industries the producers of culture television radio music film fashion magazines newspapers etc discourseframeworks of interpretation discursive formation the process by which unquestioned and seemingly natural ways of interpreting the world become ideologies How does the text book s discussion of the media post911 exemplify a cultural studies approach What are the three decoding options Hall outlines as alternatives for an obstinate audience p 342 1 Operating inside the dominant code the media produce the message the masses consume it The audience reading coincides with the preferred reading 2 Applying a negotiable code The audience assimilates the leading ideology in general but opposes its application in specific cases 3 Substituting an oppositional code The audience sees through the establishment bias in the media presentation and mounts an organized effort to demythologize the news
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