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by: Chet Dach


Chet Dach
GPA 3.8

Philip Pope

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Philip Pope
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chet Dach on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3310 at Texas Tech University taught by Philip Pope in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/226488/hist-3310-texas-tech-university in History at Texas Tech University.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
Spanish Texas Exploration and Search for Gold 15191689 I First Spanish Explorers in Texas a Treaty ofTordesillas 1493 b Alonso Alvarez de Pineda c Panfilo de Narvaez d Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca e Estevanico f Fray Marcos de Niza g Francisco Vasquez de Coronado h Quivera 0 1492 Columbus set sail from Spain in search of route to E Indies 0 Found W Indies instead 0 Status of soldier elevated in Spanish society 0 Appealing to second sons etc 0 Equal to status of lawyer doctor priest 0 quotWe came to serve God and get rich I God gold glory 0 Spain found substantial amount of silver and gold in C and S America 0 Some riches in Mexico 0 Texas barren wilderness devoid of riches o Bases set up in Caribbean Cuba Haiti 0 Mexico quickly became prize of Spanish empire 0 Spain came with advanced military technology disease horses metal 0 Natives did not put up much resistance 0 1519 first expedition to coastline ofN America 39 1 I led expedition from Caribbean base I Covered FL and Mexico extensively Texas not so much I 2 1 expedition searched along TX coast looking for waterway to India 0 1St exploration ofinland TX came about by accident 0 IIernan Cortes sent b Gov ofIamaica to FL to explore and claim I k H sent by Cortes sponsor to fire him and continue exploration of FL 0 Narvaez and Cortes men fought I Narvaez s men lost and he was unable to gain FL 0 Lost an eye and returned to Cuba to heal 0 Bad mouthed Cortes enough to get lots of support from Spain 0 Gained FL 0 Narvaez s 2m1 in command J I Also treasurer o Narvaez s second trip disastrous o Encountered 2 hurricanes 0 Had him and 300 men dropped off on E coast of FL I Ships would sail around peninsula r I BAD IDEA 3 months to cross FL ships left I Built rinkydink ships to cross gulf o Narvaez s boat swept out to sea 0 Cabeza de Vaca landed on San Luis Island 0 Found by group of Karankawa with small band of survivors I Badly malnourished resorted to cannibalism I Spent 4 yrs in TX among numerous Indian groups 0 Slaves 0 Numerous escape attempts o Cabeza de Vaca came across Coahuiltecan o Knew he was Spanish and returned him to group 0 I may slave of another Spaniard in surviving group 0 Finally got back to Mexico 0 Upon return Cabeza de Vaca told authorities he d heard stories of gold and silver 0 Had to be more than failure gt lied 0 Spanish very interested o Took 8 12 rs of wandering wilderness to get back led expedition to look for gold and silver in TX Took Estevanico as guide I quotExtendedquot expedition to enjoy freedom I Got too friendly with Zuni females 0 Zuni males killed him I Zunis inform Fray Marcos of no gold 0 Tells Sanish officials he d heard stories of great riches u 0 led last expedition for 50 yrs into TX Brought Fray Marcos de Niza with him O O I Believed he went through Amarillo o Contingent may have passed near Lubbock I Picked up Indian guide in N Mexico 0 quotThe Turk or quotE1 Turco o Leads them throughout TX and OK to KS 0 Killed after leading Spaniards on wild goosechase o Told officials NO GOLD o Expedition termed quotsuccessful failure I Allowed Spanish to gain knowledge of region I Allowed Spanish to claim TX and SW 0 Spanish concentrated on C and S Mexico 0 Had silver and gold II Initial Spanish Colonization Efforts in Texas a Jan de O ate b The Pueblo Revolt 1680 c Corpus Christi de la Isleta 1682 Ysleta i Tigeux Pueblo III The French Threat and Spain s Response a Rene Robert Cavalier Sieur de la Salle 1 established New Mexico and Santa Fe 39 first permanent settlement in NM disrespectful to Pueblo natives o Pueblos got fed up and successfully overthrew Spain in NM 0 Spain unsuccessful to retake NM until 1690s 0 Spain retreated to Mexico El Paso de Norte S ofpresentday El Paso o F1rst permanent European settlement in TX E ofpresentday El Paso o 1690 S ain takes back NM and Santa Fe mpprevented gradual Spanish population of TX 0 Failed expeditions to Canada gt returned to France 0 Returns later to Canada and comes across MS River 0 Tried to travel up MS River from S I Lost 1 ship to Spanish pirates I Lost some crew due to being bipolar I Overshot MS River and went to Houston Matagorda Bay 0 One ship badly damaged by sandbar 0 Established French colony at Lavaca Bay 0 Head W from Lavaca Bay 0 Come across Rio Grande 0 Head back E to Lavaca Bay I 2 remaining ships run aground 0 Head NE with 17 remaining men of300 0 Kill him in E TX 1692 o Karankawa kill remaining men 0 La Salle s expedition raised Spanish interestin TX 0 TX buffer against French threats to Mexico Spanish Texas Colonization 16901779 I Responding to French Threat a Alonso de Leon b Father Damian Massanet c Mission San Francisco de los Tejas 1690 o 1690 Sain res onds to French threat overnor ofMexican province and W a to lead expedition to E TX I Massanet to establish missions basis of operation for Catholicism I Presidios military outposts I Leon in control ofsoldiers o m n Mmmiauu t l39el ln quotlerfa start of colonization plan 0 3 soldiers left at mission with Father Massanet 0 Mission only lasted for 1 12 yrs I Climate got hotter and drier gt crops died I Hostile natives very few natives converted Permanent Spanish Occupation of Central and East Texas a Presidio San Juan Batista de Rio Grande 1703 b Francisco Hidalgo c Louis de Saint Denis T cIIr in Mexico 0 Base of operations for colonization effort 0 France more aggressive in establishing settlements in gulf o Biloxi Mobile New Orleans 0 Primary focus immediate financial gain 0 Reluctant to go into E TX Franciscan priest wanted to covert Indians in TX S ain wouldn t su ly money France did CL merchanttrader accompanied Hidalgo I Purpose monetary Spanish Colonization 16901779 IV Retrenchment Again a French and Indian War 17541763 b Marques de Rubi 0 Early 1760s TX same as 1720s 0 Spain failed to do much 0 Only thriving community San Antonio I 1000 Spanishspeaking citizens I 500 in La Bahia I 500 in E TX 0 TX status as buffer would chan e in 1763 0 End of 7 Years War TI I Spain not involved unt11 very last year I Ally of France I Treaty of Paris of 1763 0 Spain gave Cuba to Britain 0 Then got Cuba back and gave FL instead 0 France gave Spain LA in thanks for help 0 LA now buffer Ci into entire N frontier CA to LA to visit missions 0 Spain sent I and presidios 0 Determine if TX needed occupation 0 Recommended pulling out almost completely I Needed only 15 presidios 2 in TX 0 San Antonio and La Bahia I Change Indian approach 0 Focus on Apache gt eliminating o 1772 Spain pulls out from TX 0 Except for San Antonio and La Bahia o Abandon E TX and transfer capital to San Antonio 0 American Revolution had impact on TX and Europe Texas History PreColumbian Texans I Humans inhabited TX 10000 yrs before arrival of Europeans 0 Challenges of survival met 0 No unified native culture Early Migration a Lubbock Lake Landmark The HunterGatherers a Atlatl Humans have continuall occupied Lubbock area for at least 12000 yrs 0 Climate in TX much different than today s o More tropical Big game hunters used inttipped spears herding stampedes etc 0 Preferred bison to mammoths Proficient with stone carving and butchering tools i 2 pure innocent in tune with land 0 M1sconception due to ethnocentrism 0 Did live in state of nature but not like portrayed o Frugal due to need Native Americans advanced their civilizations by trading 0 No longer have to be so frugal Indians today reject idea of noble savage After 40005 000 yrs large game started to die out due to overhunting 0 Early Texans forced to adapt gt 1 V v o Supplemented with native roots plants etc I Did NOT grow Added manufacturing and technology with huntergathering i l added distance and accuracy to spears o Developed more effective spear points etc o Baskets gt lead to sandals nets snares Small social units of huntergatherers 0 2530 members Switch to huntergatherer life led to semipermanent quotresidencequot Climate change gt people moved to E and C TX 0 Better climate 0 W TX became hotter and drier Development of Agriculture a The Caddoes The Atakapans The Karankawa The Coahuiltecans The Iumanos f The Apaches Agricultural revolution bow and arrow and pottery changed native lives 0 Didn t all happen at once 9990 o Occurred at different times for different tribes First tribe to live life based on agriculture in E TX n real chief Caddo first lived as huntergatherers o 40002500 yrs ago began to cultivate crops I Corn beans squash pumpkins sun owers 0 Still hunt small game 0 Agriculture frees up a lot of time I Allows them to develop advanced culture 700 AD I Produced enough wealth to develop social classes I Lived on scattered farms 0 Small communities with some larger towns I Entire town would clear fields and plant crops I Leadership in men 0 Matrilineal I Reached zenith in between 800 and 1300 AD Caddo had welldeveloped religion and politics prosperous o Evidenced by building of ceremonial mounds 1350 longterm climate change affected Caddo by making crops less certain o by 1500 Caddo sorted into 3 kin groups Caddo Confederacies to survive I The Natchitoches of NW LA I The Kadohadacho in Red River region ofNE TX and AR I The Hasinai of E TX along Sabine Angelina and Neches rivers Caddo had no exposure to European diseases 0 Measles small pox cholera 0 Not immune easily succumbed 0 Population dwindled to 15000 rapidly Caddo word for friendship used by Spaniards to describe region gt Tejas lived in LA and SE TX Sabine to San Iacinto river 0 Engaged in some farming I Mostly hunted fished collected shellfish o Lived in small dispersed bands I Rarely stayed in same place 0 Rudimentary social political organization 0 Spiritual beliefs centered on creation myth I Men spit up from sea in oyster shells I Man to do no evil gt rise above death 0 Name means quoteaters ofmen in Choctaw I Cannibalism ritualistic 0 Being eaten meant eternally damned o Eater absorbs best qualities of eaten lived in SW along gulf from Galveston to Corpus Christi 0 Name probably meant quotdog lovers or quotdog raisers 0 Didn t practice any form of agriculture 0 lll ilze m I Hunting gathering fishing 0 Depended on bow and arrow for hunting and fighting I Would smear bodies with alligator or shark grease to repel insects o Smell BAD I Very physical tan muscular 0 Contests ofphysical skill I Small group 0 By time of contact with European numbers already dwindled 0 Almost extinct by 1800s 39 quot lived in S TX SW of Karankawa Huntergatherers Not solid unified I Divided into several 100 groups autonomous I Shared similar lifestyle but not language 0 Subsisted from land 0 Lived I poorest part of TX resources I Moved constantly searching for food 0 Did not develop advanced society 0 Organized into small family bands I Only come together in larger groups for protection 0 Only group in TX that is pretty accepting of Catholics Europeans o lived from Big Bend to El Paso along Rio Grande 0 Least known group I Origins unclear o No shared common ethnic back group or culture I Could have been related to Pueblos Grew corn beans and squash Hunted buffalo and deer Operated extensive trade network Culture ourished for awhile then declined rapidly I Probably due to climate change European diseases 0 In PanhandlePlains region MUme e dominated from 1300s1700s o Named by Zuni I Means quotenemyquot o Domineering warlike tribe I Mescaleros in W N Mexico I Lipan Apaches in E Texas 0 Controlled Panhandle until 1720s with arrival of Comanches OO OOOO


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