History of the United States to 1877
History of the United States to 1877 HIST 2300
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chet Dach on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2300 at Texas Tech University taught by James Stuart Barber in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see /class/226489/hist-2300-texas-tech-university in History at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Final Exam Review Sheet for HIST 2300 7 United States History to 1877 IDs 1 John Tyler a 10111 president of US 1 18411845 b Annexed Texas c Was a whig 1 However whigs didn t like him once he started turning down their policies and going against their ideas while in the presidency 2 Dred Scott a Slave sold to surgeon i Therefore required to travel to free territories b Owner dies and leaves slaves to wife c Scott offers wife 300 for his and his wife s freedom i She refuses Sues her i once free always free 1 bc he traveled to free territories ii can t prove surgeon wife s ownership of scott s wife sues again i very decisive with no legal precedent sues again but this time in fed court i supreme court hears case original owners before surgeon finances him loses bc 3 1 D quot1 ii39 1 can t tell ppl where to bring property had no right to file lawsuit as slave iv freed in 1857 by owner s new husband 1 dies of tuberculosis a year later 3 John Slidell a Louisiana senator who left to become a member of the Confederacy when they seceded from the US He was a captured diplomat in the Trent Affair of 1861 i This was when a mail ship was captured by a Unionoperated ship The mail ship contained John Slidell and James Mason who were heading to Britain to gain recognition for the Confederacy internationally The US ship captured the two men 1 This almost threw the US into war with Britain but with Britain s dependence on American trading they did not create con ict and the Confederacy s attempt at recognition was thwarted 4 Thornton Affair a Fquot April 1846 i American troops above Rio Grande River border between Mexican Texas and American Texas go to investigate a hacienda northwest oftheir position Captain Seth Thornton lead 70 Dragoons into the hacienda where over 200 mexican soldiers were stationed iii A battle broke out that Thornton lost brutally Ended in President Polk announcing that Mexico had attacked US soldiers on US soil and that this constitutes an act of war 5 John C Fremont a b C Radical Republican Against Lincoln i Had con ict in Civil War when he tried to push Missouri to join the Union after a truce keeping them a neutral territory Also didn t like Lincoln s derogative to bring the South back to the Union easily as a Radical Republican he wanted slavery abolished and the South punished Election of 1864 6 Wilmo a 7 Spot R a Radical Republican candidate Can t stand McClellan 1 If McClellan wins he will let slavery continue and focus on bringing back the Union Drops out of race in order to keep ii39 McClellan out of of ce and supports Lincoln 1 This way slavery will be abolished 2 Reunited the Republican party enabling an easy victory for Lincoln t Proviso A proviso put at the end of a bill asking for 2000000 and later 3000 which was granted to President Polk by David Wilmot and other Bambumer Democrats which tried to outlaw slavery in any territories acquired in the Western region including Texas i It was not passed but lead to the Compromise of 1850 esolution Lincoln a Republican Whig supporter demanded that President Polk show the exact spot that American blood was spilt on American soil to declare an act of war on Mexico in 1847 Declaration of War was in May and the resolutions were in December of 1847 8 Nicholas Trist a 9 Treaty a b A very outspoken proslavery man who wound up being the US Consul in Cuba He used this to create false documents protecting the illegal slave trade in Cuba and was removed of the position and sent to Mexico by President Polk in the 1840s 39 He was to bargain with Santa Anna for an armistice of 15000000 mexican pesos He was ordered to come home when Polk was upset with his conduct but instead he wrote a 65 page paper explaining why he should stay and eventually negotiated the Treaty of GuadalopeHidalgo on February 2 1848 of GuadalupeHilda o Signed February 2quot 1848 Ended MexicanAmerican War See details under Nicolas Trist Spot Resolution and Wilmot Proviso above 10 California Gold Rush of 1849 a James W Marshall found gold at Sutter s Mill in Coloma California in 1849 i Was hoping to build up an agricultural business so this discovery destroyed him 1 Tried to keep it quiet but when rumors spread around it was finalized and President Polk announced the discovery of gold a He lost everyth ing livesto ck land agricul ture etc Attracted 300000 people to the site iii People came from other countries to get rich 1 Very dangerous trip foreign and domestic Many died trying to get there iv Turned San Francisco into a boom town 1 Railroad steamships v California was annexed and a state constitution was written in response to the rush and as a part of the Compromise of 1850 N 11 Free Soil Party a Strong 3rd party in election of 1848 Fquot Wanted to prevent advancement of slavery i Not necessarily stop it c Small farmers i Difficult life bc of large plantations 12 Compromise of 1850 a In 1849 California requested to join the Union as a free state potentially upsetting the balance of freeslave states in the senate 5 laws passed having to do with slavery as a compromise i Fugitive slave act amended ii DC slave laws abolished California entered Union as a free state iv Territorial government established in Utah Boundary dispute in New Mexico and Texas settled and territorial government was set up in New Mexico 13 Stephen Douglas a One of the people responsible for KSNE Act b Turns KS into testing ground for beliefs 14 Popular Sovereignty a People make their own laws and decisions b Happens in KS in 1854 i KansasNebraska Act 15 Fugitive Slave Act a 1850 made individuals responsible for runaway slaves Apprehension gets 10 Ppl ordered to join searches Inspired Uncle Tom s Cabin Fquot ii39 lt 996 Dark portrayal of southern slavery All info learned from runaways i 16 John Brown a Staunch abolitionist b FreeSoiler i Leads group in KS ii Led the Pottowattan Massacre c Could possibly lead slave uprising i Scares Southerners ii Almost does but is stopped and taken to court 1 Hung His attempt scares the south and shows what is possible 17 Bleeding Kansas a Name given to KS after KS NE act of 1854 is passed b Very violent place c First shots of civil war 18 Border Ruffians a Missourians crossing bored to KS to vote for slavery ii39 b Known to be violent c Responsible for Sack of Lawrence 19 The KnowNothings a Secret society became political party in 1848 b Against typical street crimes c When asked about society had to respond I know nothing 20 Charles Sumner a Wrote Crime Against Kansas speech in 1856 b Accuses Andrew Butler for KS problems i Makes fun of him for drooling on himself when he talks ii Preston Brooks Butler s nephew gets pissed and can t challenge a duel because Sumner is lower class 1 treats him like a dog Beats him after a speech Left him braindamaged Became a martyr for the antislavery cause N E 4 21 Preston Brooks a See above b Became a hero to the South 22 Harpers Ferry a 23 Election of 1860 a Lincoln wins b Final straw for the south i They secede 24 Radical Republicans a Party in 1864 election b Want Lincoln out of office 39 Hasn t ended slavery Focused too much on unifying the nation iii Was too easy on south iv RRs wanted south severely punished c Strong abolitionists 25 Confederate s Constitution 26 Antietam 27 Gettysburg a 1863 Robert E Lee starts scavenging for supplies here in attempt to invade the North as a strategy i Runs into part of Union Army ii Bitterly loses i39 b Tries to still ght even though battle was over c Was nal chance to invade north and he failed i Every move following was defensive 28 29 Sherman s March to the Sea a One of Grant s main generals i Grant head of army bc Lincoln wanted someone aggressive to destroy the South b Sept 1864 he marches to ATL captures it and then burns it to the ground i Then marches to the sea Orders troops not to seize private property but to take any war material 1 Is taken very loosely 2 Soldiers rob destroy burn and loot their way across the South 30 Appomattox 31 Black Dispatches 32 Copperheads a Democrats that support McClellan in election of 1864 Wanted a quick resolution to the war i Were largely against Civil War 33 Emancipation Proclamation a Freed slaves but purpose was to reunify the nation 34 Lincoln s 2nd Inaugural Address 35 African Americans in Civil War a Used primarily as slaves i Largest source of info for the North Fquot b 54Lh Massachusetts regimen i All African Americans Poster child for black soldiers c Blacks in North wanted to ght 36 Women in the Civil War 37 Native Americans in Civil War a South looks for NA help in 186 1 i 5 civilized tribes lived Southern lifestyle b Help in 1862 i But get fed up with i39 linear ghting and complain 1 Irritates confederates 2 Stopped happening 38 George McClellan a General in army that runs against Lincoln in election of 1864 b Democratic candidate i Largely supported by Copperheads c Completely against Lincoln d If he had won he would ve ended the war and slavery would continue 39 George Meade 40 Ulysses S Grant a Lincoln makes him head of Northern armies in 1864 Needed someone aggressive i Very aggressive general and wanted to destroy the south Appointed Sherman as one of main generals see Sherman s march to the sea Allows South surrender terms in April 1865 U 0 3 1 Military equipment handed over confederates hand over arms listed men could keep farm animals and those who took an Oath of Allegiance to the Union faced little punishment and could go home 41 Robert E Lee a Famous Confederate general b Loses at Gettysburg 42 Jefferson Davis 43 WadeDavis Bill a Formally abolishes slavery i But Lincoln vetoes bc he wanted an easy reconstruction and passing this bill would make it more difficult for the south to reenter in the Union society b Veto of this bill really pisses off Radical Republicans 44 13111 Amendment 45 14111 Amendment 46 15th Amendment a Gives every MAN the right to vote i Does nothing for gender 47 John Wilkes Booth a Disgruntled actor and strong supporter of Confederacy b Shoots Lincoln on April 14m 1865 c He believed that by assassinating Lincoln it would weaken the North and cause the Confederacy to come back and conquer them i He was wrong ii Actually only takes away any sympathy the North had for the South and turns Lincoln into a martyr 48 Andrew Johnson 49 Freedmen s Bureau 50 Field Order 15 51 Southern Homestead Act 52 Black Codes a De ned race in South b De ned to keep an eye on freedmen c One Drop Rule i One drop of African American blood you are black ESSAYS 3 1 Regulated blacks in agriculture i As well as their hours e Can t have guns i Can t hunt f Freedmen need to be supervised in large groups 53 Sharecropping 54 Carpetbaggers amp Scalawags a 55 Ku KluX Klan 56 Liberal Republicans 57 Election of 1876 58 Compromise of 1877 1 Why did the the Union break down into CiVil War Discuss sectional differences western expansion and the changes in politics that eventually lead to war Be sure to trace the roots of the war to early national period