New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

The British Isles to 1688

by: Chet Dach

The British Isles to 1688 HIST 3360

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > History > HIST 3360 > The British Isles to 1688
Chet Dach
GPA 3.8

Abigail Swingen

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Abigail Swingen
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in History

This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chet Dach on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3360 at Texas Tech University taught by Abigail Swingen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/226490/hist-3360-texas-tech-university in History at Texas Tech University.


Reviews for The British Isles to 1688


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
Bn shldestol688 011811 0 Ancient and Roman Britain 0 Geography I Low LandsHigh Lands 0 Creates cultural divides o Neolithic Age c 4000 1000 BCE I Neolithic Revolution Advent of Agriculture 0 Allows the people to settle in one area 0 The population can grow create villages I Stonehenge c 3000 15000 BCE 0 Biggest piece of evidence during Neolithic Age 0 Built over a long stretch of time o Built in stages by groups 0 What it tells us 0 Some sort of Working Society required teamwork 0 Engineering Background Move stones on top of the other 0 Possible Religious Center I The Celts c 800 300 BCE o Resided in Old Britain Celtic Languages were dominant in Britain and Ireland around 400 to 300 BCE Big Group of People but different ethnicities and languages but still similar Evidence 0 Hill Forts 0 Most were farmers I CattleSheep Herding o Coins were circulated throughout ses 0 Some evidence oftrading o Druids Priests I In charge of the calendar s holidays when people work I Practiced human sacrifice 0 Roman Conquest o Intermarriage 0 Some sort of political change occurred around the time Romans arrived I Smaller groups were absorbed by bigger groups I Power Shifts Julius Caesar 55 54 BCE Gaul Takes army of 5500 men from Gaul and takes them to south Britain 0 Easily crush natives 0 Set up on the beach 0 Native British forces have small skirmishes over the next few months Goes back to Gaul to regroup Comes back with Army of 20000 Didn t have enough soldiers to leave behind Had to return to Gaul to deal with rebellion OOOOO He makes the kings pay tribute to Caesar and they agree I Some British Kings were happy to pay tribute 0 Didn t want army to return I Romans gain information geography cultures because oftrade and other instances 0 He returns to Gaul Capturing territories to keep empire strong Take Tributes from captured land Emperor Claudius 43 CE Sends army of 40000 Roman soldiers under Aulus Plautius on conquest mission Took 4 months to capture southern Britain and South England Because of the information they had received earlier it was much easier knew the geography the climate etc Captured island of Anglesey 60 61 CE Roman British Alliances Cartimandua Queen of Brigantes o Divorced husband who opposed forming an alliance with the Romans 0 Split Tribe o Prasutagus Leader of ceni 0 Makes alliance with Rome lasts until he dies in the year 60 o Passes Kingdom onto 2 daughters 0 Left some territory directly to the Romans Wanted some protection for his tribe 0 Romans tried to take it over Iceni try to fight back and are set down 0 Queen Boudicca s Revolt C 61 CE 0 Destroyed 3 Major Towns in Roman Occupation Camuldunum Colchester Londinium London Verulamium Suburb of London 0 Suetonius Paulinus Roman General 0 Conquest of the North Has to regroup soldiers and retake the land By this time many native Britain civilians had joined the Iceni They fought still not determined where Roman soldiers were better equipped and they win the battle quotScorched Earth Policy 0 Started to go across the lands and crush any tribegroup of people who didn t support the Romans I Extended control into Scotland I Julius Agricola 78 84 CE 0 Defeated Caledonian tribes in the north around 84 CE 0 Tacitus marries Agricola s Daughter 0 Writes Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola c 98 CE 0 Could be bias 0 Lots of firsthand accounts of Agricola I Galgacus o Other than Tacitus there is not much evidence of him 0 quotSuperior than the rest in Valor and in Birth 0 Military leader for Caledonians o Said that they would become slaves of the Roman Empire if they didn t fight back 0 Describes them as a Military Occupation I Once Agricola Dies 0 Hold on Northern Area is weakened 0 Scotland disbands and is not under Roman rule anymore I Hadrian s Wall c 117 133 CE 0 Ordered to be built to keep Northern Tribes from coming south 0 Also appears that Hadrian was changing Military Strategy 0 Containment rather than Expansion 0 3 Major Garrisons along the wall I Roman Empire c 117 0 Covered 3 Continents o Ruled much of the Mediterranean and surrounding Seas I Londinium London 0 Growing Rapidly 0 Biggest City so far 0 TradingEconomic Center 0 Was not a political capital in today s terms I Roman Roads 0 5000 Miles were built through Britain during Roman rule 0 Cobble Stone 0 Main purpose was to move armies I Urban Life in Roman Brtain 0 Bath 0 Public Theaters Religious Temples 0 Many had walls London Wall 0 Countryside 0 Many had Villas I Lullingstone Kent c 350 CE I Strongest Cultural Influence I Owned and Operated by Romans 0 Some intermarried with British Elite I Christianity in Roman Britain 0 Emperor Constantine c 325 CE o Moved capitol to Constantinople 0 First to convert to Christianity 0 Origins of Christianities arrival to Britain still unknown 0 Some Church like Structures were built 0 Collapse of Roman Rule I 4th Century Upheavals I Many wars and rebellions I Constantine s sons fight to see who will rule I Alliance of Irish Picts and Saxons 0 Try to overthrow the Roman Rule of Britain 0 Ultimately Fail but had to put up a big fight 0 Use many soldiers and occupy for a long time I 380 CE 0 Main problem areas were in the east so many of the Roman military leaders focused on the east I Series of Usurpers c 390 408 0 Many leaders step up and claim themselves as the leaders ofthe Western Roman Empire I Saxon Invasions 409 o Marked the end of Roman rule in Britain 12011 0 Anglo Saxon Britain 0 Anglo Saxon Invasions c 500 700 I Decline of Roman rise of Celtic culture 0 Return to regional Monarchies o Decline in practicing of Christianity 0 Evidence that economy collapses I Germanic Tribes 0 Come to Britain to settle o Settle down in the coastal areas of England I Land Shortages 0 Most plausible reason for why Germanic tribes came to England 0 Also a possible population increase I 2 Regions of Britain 0 Celtic Christian Irish Sea 0 Germanic Pagan North Sea I Political 0 Mostly Anglo Saxon Kings British and Celtic kings had been killed or removed I Anglo Saxon Olde English 0 Certain languages survive because the Anglo s didn t reach and conquer certain parts of Britain 0 Re Christianization of England I Pope Gregory I r 590 604 o Sends Missionaries to England to spread Christianity I Augustine 597 0 Arrive in Kent with group of Monks I King Ethelbert of Kent 0 Willing to talk to Augustine and his Monks 0 Married to a Christian 0 Allowed her to practice and bring a bishop with her 0 Built Church in Canterbury Capitol of Kent 0 Bede The Venerablequot 673 735 I Writes history about 100 years after Augustine arrives I Benedictine Monk 0 Lived modestly in a Monastery with other Monks o Owned Nothing I Worked in the Monastery Jarrow Born in Northumbria I History that he wrote was biased 0 Anyone against the Roman s were wrong 0 Conversion of North England I King Edwin 627 o Converted from Pagan or Germanic Practices to Christianity 0 This happens before the Church arrives in North England I King Owsy r 642 670 o Firmly establishes Celtic Christianity in his region I St Aidan Lindisfarne o Establishes a place of learning in Northumbria that was very important I Synod of Whitby 664 0 St Hilda cousin of Owsy o Called by King Owsy to settle when Easter should be 0 Owsy decides in favor of the Roman Church s calendar 0 quotNorthumbrian Renaissancequot c 600s 700s I Lindisfarne Gospels c 700 I Book of Kells c 800 o Theodore of Tarsus I Archbishop of Canterbury r 669 690 o Convinced by the Pope to take position 0 No one else would take it I Organized Dioceses o Bishoprics 0 Where a Bishop would be stationed and work I Have different territories I Pastoral Care 0 Working within your regionarea to keep people in the quotfoldquot 0 Keep them coming to the church and worshipping o Anglo Saxon Kingship I Hierarchy of Kingship 0 There weren t really clearly defined areas of Sovereignty 0 Not always based on blood or recognition from Pope o If people in your area were willing to recognize your authority and pay you tribute then you were King I Spheres of Influence I Tribute 0 Pay for protection I Gift Giving Plunder 0 Gifts were given for loyalty from people 0 Fair amount of plundering also occurred I Witan o Counsel that gave the King referred to for help 0 Appointed not necessarily dependent on land ownership 0 Viking Invasions c 800s I Started coming from Scandinavia o Went all over Europe I Overpopulation was suspected as why they left Scandinavia I Political and Economic changes also might have resulted in this I Increase in Shipbuilding I Settle down and establish new Kingdoms o Verangians Kiev 0 Normandy France 0 Iceland 0 Britain I Wessex is the sole Anglo Saxan Kingdom that could hold off the Vikings I Danelaw 0 Alfred the Great r 871 899 I King of Wessex o Able to hold offthe Vikings 0 quotrex Anglorum I Military Reforms o Divided Army 0 Expanded the army and divided them in half 0 Half the army fought in battle while half was at home taking care of the fields and supporting the rest of the army 0 Abandoned after the Vikings left 0 Navy 0 Builds the first English Navy 0 About 60 ships 0 Burghs boroughs o Divides Kingdom 0 Creates different cities that are strategically built I One is no more than 20 miles from the next I Lets people go from one to the next quickly I Let the Army move quicklysupport for the Army can come quickly 0 Occupied London 883 0 Had been under the control of the Mercians Another Anglo Saxon group 0 Mercia 0 Extended Wessex influencecontrol into Mercia 0 Gets the Vikings to settle north of London 0 Promoted education and language 0 Mortified that the Latin language was dying I Establishes new monasteries for monks I Promotes literature that is written in the old English vernacular I Consolidation and Administration 0 King Edgar r 959 975 o Shires 0 Kingdom divided into Shires by King Edgar o Counties are created around existing towns o Borders of the Shires aren t changed till about 1974 o Ealdorman o Royally appointed 0 They ruled over the Shires 0 Main task was to keep the shire functioning in terms of military organization 0 Collects revenue on behalf of the crown o Loyal to the King since they were appointed by him 0 Shire reeve Sheriff o In control of certain day to day operations 0 Main task was judicial keeping the peace 0 Acted as a check on the Ealdorman 0 Not usually nobility I Results in loyalty to the king one who gave them the job 0 Hundreds o Shires are divided into Hundreds 0 Each hundred had a court I Made it easy for judicial purposes 0 quotKing s Peace 12511 0 Beowulf Values 0 Religion 0 Honor 0 Strength Ability to Fight 0 Bravery o Clan Kinship Lineage I Acts as a reputation o Loyalty 0 Treasure Material Possessions o Storytelling 0 Violence 0 What Motivates Beowulf 0 Glory Fame 0 Faith in Good over Evil 0 Challenge 0 Treasure 0 Grendel 0 Night 0 No Reason for Attacks 0 Attacks when Vulnerable 2311 0 From Norman to Angevin Rule 0 Beginning of the end of Normal Rule I King gets hit with arrow and eventually dies 0 Beforehand he divies up his land to his 3 sons 0 Robert gets Normandy 0 William H Rufus r 1087 1100 gets money and crowned at Westminster Abby and rules England I Abused feudal privileges I Appoints St Anselm as archbishop of Canterbury 0 Pious man I Wants to get Normandy from his older brother 0 Sends his army to Normandy to occupy it while his brother is on the Crusades I Rufus dies and crown passes to youngest son 0 Reign of Henry I r 1100 1135 0 When the older brother Robert returns from the crusades he tries to form an army and take England 0 Marries a Scottish princess becomes Queen Matilda Robert s Invasion 1101 I Brings small army into England 0 I Rather than fight they negotiate and declare a truce 0 Decide that Henry would remain King of England and Robert would stay Duke of Normandy however Henry would pay 2000 lbs to Robert every year so that he had some money I Has many illegitimate children 0 About 20 I Royal Judicial System 0 Kings court would move to different parts ofthe country and listen to the most important cases 0 King wasn t always with the court 0 quotjustices in eyre o Eventually local judges would just stay in their shire and hear cases on the kings behalf I Royal Writs 0 Brief royal commands o Proclaimed land ownership or other brief commands 0 Had kings seal on it he didn t always have to be their because of this I Office of Exchequer o quotmoney man 0 Roger of Salisbury 0 Main responsibility is financial fiscal o Semi Annual audit of county revenues 0 Hold a meeting twice a year in Winchester and every sheriff of each county had to present an account of their county 0 Problem of the Succession 0 His son dies at an early age I Daughter Matilda was to marry Count Geoffrey of Anjou I Gets his barons to agree that his Daughter will become Queen I Matilda and Geoffrey rebelled against her father when he didn t follow his promise on giving her some landcastles in Normandy I Father dies at the barons go back on Matilda because of the rebellion 0 Stephen of Blois r 1135 1154 I Grandson of William the Conqueror I Claims that Henry made him the rightful heir on his deathbed 0 Civil War esp 1141 1146 I Fighting between England and MatildaGeoffrey 0 Henry of Anjou I Son of Matilda and Geoffrey o Angevin Rule 0 Henry Count of Anjou Maine and Touraine Duke of Normandy 0 Eleanor of Aquitaine m 1152 I Henry and Eleanor get married I Most powerful women in Western Europe 0 Treaty of Winchester 1153 I King Stephen and Henry negotiate and agree that Henry is the rightful heir and that King Stephen can finish ruling peacefully but will appoint Henry after Henry H r 1154 1189 0 Legal Reforms I Expand the jurisdiction of Royal courts 0 Started over seeing land ownership disputes 0 quotcommon custom I Common Law 0 Not really written down common practices things that everyone already knows origins are unknown 0 Trial by ordeal 0 Trial by battle 0 Extending King s Justice Henry II and the Church o Conflictingjurisdictions secular and church courts I Main problem was who was right to try clergyman who had broken the law 0 Thomas Becket was originally Henry s right hand man I DrinkingHunting buddy etc I Becket was appointed to Archbishop position I He started to support the church instead of Henry 0 Constitutions of Clarendon 1164 I Becket signs it but then goes to the Pope and says he didn t mean it I Wanted to do something about it but Pope said he needed Henry s support 0 Henry II puts Becket on trial I Claims that he stole money while being chancellor I Becket eventually flees o Coronation of Young King Henry 1170 I Crowns his eldest son as king before he dies I Gets Archbishop of York to crown him 0 Becket is furious I Ex Communicates everyone who was at the coronation ceremony 0 Henry wants someone to get rid of Becket I 4 people volunteer and they hack Becket to death 0 Murdered Dec 28 1170 Angevin Empire 0 France Capetian Family I King Louis VII r 1137 1180 o Wants to have more direct control cut down Henry a bit 0 Rebellion 1173 Henry Richard Geoffrey I All evidence shows that Eleanor stages the rebellion and she was working with King Louis Former Husband I Henry finds out that Eleanor was behind it and throws her into a castle prison for the rest of his reign 0 Peter of Blois s letter 0 King Philip H Augustus of France 0 King Richard 2811 0 Richard r 1189 1199 quotThe Lionheartquot o Took over after his father King Henry dies 0 The Crusades 0 Third Crusade 1190 1192 recapturingJerusalem from Saladin I Ummyad empire ran most of the middle eastern area at the time I Eventually a failure 0 However it seals Richards reputation as a courageous fighter 0 8 Crusades 1095 1270 o Reunite Eastern and Western churches 0 Richard and the Third Crusade 1190 1192 0 quotKing s Crusade Richard I Philip H of France HRE Frederick Barbarossa 0 Richard Cyprus I Important strategic basis for the crusaders 0 Used by subsequent crusaders 0 Acre 1191 I Philip and Richard join forces to capture city of Acre I Biggest Garrison city that was standing between them and Jerusalem 0 Philip decides to leave after capturing Acre I Takes army with him 0 Richard is the lone Kingarmy that is on this crusade 0 Richard recognizes that Saladin is equal to him as a militaristic leader I Realized how long and difficult capturing Jerusalem will be 0 Negotiates truce with Saladin 1192 I Saladin agrees to guarantee Christians rights that were coming into Jerusalem for a religious pilgrimage They would go unharmed Richard s Return 0 O O O Leopold Duke of Austria I Captures Richard in the Mediterranean I Turns him over to the Holy Roman Empire 0 Barbarossa s son HRE Henry VI I Held captive for many months I Demands 100 Thousand pounds for his release I Swear allegiance to him I England becomes his fiefHenry VI has lordship over England quotKing s Ransom Walter of Coutances and Eleanor I Organize revenue collection to get King back I In a matter of months they collect enough to get the King War with France and John 1194 1199 Philip has been getting ready to conquer Richard s French territories John helped Philip for a little but realized he would be heir of England and he begs Richards forgiveness Philip was no match for Richard 0 Richard recaptures all their French territories Richard dies a hero s death in battle King John I r 1199 1216 O 0000 O O 0 Bad reputation as king Cruel Hard to assess however history was written by his enemies Hired smart people to run parts ofthe Government Revenue especially John vs King Philip H Arthur of Brittany I Philip supported a rival claimant to the throne 0 Arthur of Brittany was John s nephew I John is eventually recognized as the true King 0 Sign truce in 1200 allows them to control a certain amount of areacastles John marries Isabel of Angouleme 1200 I She was already promised to another Lord inside Aquitaine 0 Hugh the Brown of Lusignan I Triggers new war between England and France John captures Hugh and some other Lusignan s I Ransoms them for empty promises Speculation that John may have killed his nephew Arthur o Barons start to switch allegiance away from John 0 John retreats to England in 1204 0 Philip captures Normandy and Anjou 0 John and the Church 0 Pope Innocent I r 1198 1216 I Most powerful Pope of the Middle Ages 0 Monks of Canterbury traditionally had the authority to name one of their own to Archbishop of Canterbury and the King would approve it I Hasn t happened in a long time I Monks secretly find someone and send him to Rome to be secretly approved by the Pope I John finds out and tells them to retract he sends his own candidate 0 Pope s choice Stephen Langton 1206 I Pope didn t like either choice and appointed his own candidate I John bars Stephen from entering England 0 7 year nterdict I All religious activity ends I Only sacraments that can continue are Baptism Confessions Death 0 John decides to make peace with the Pope I He is ready to launch an attack against the King of France and needs all the support he can get 0 Concessions to the Pope 1213 1214 I Swears fealty to the pope I Allows Langton to be Archbishop and enter England 0 John and the Angevin Empire 0 Alliance against France German Flemish princes I They had issues with the King of France I Banded together against him 0 War 1214 I John s allies are completely routed 0 Battle of Bouvines I Philip and his army destroy the Germans and Flemish princes 0 Parts of Aquitaine Gascony remained I All John had left from his French territory 0 Magna Carta 1215 0 John returns to England in 1215 o Baronial revolt 1215 I Tired of the taxation and all the military defeats I Barons demand a written guarantee of their rights and privileges o Runnymede I Fixed the royal seal to the Magna Carta 21011 0 Shaping of English Society and Politics 0 Urbanization I Growth of cities and towns is a Europe wide phenomenon o Towns grow are created and some are redeveloped because they outgrew the area they had I 20 of population lived in cities by 1300 I Dangerous 0 Cities were not very nice 0 Houses were built sub standardly I Church s became nicer I Wealthier people used stone and tiles I Roads were unpaved muddy 0 Wild animals roam all over the street I Privileges Royal Charters 0 Cities had the right to elect their own officials 0 Could trade in the city without royal tariffs 0 Had their own court systems 0 Burgesses would pool their money and quotbuyquot these privileges from the King I Most people lived and worked in the same building 0 Home Manufacturing 0 Live upstairs workshop downstairs 0 Family would also help with work 0 Young apprentices would move in and live with the family and work with the man till he learned enough to leave 0 Education I Literacy Numeracy 0 Many services required advanced education I Cathedral Schools I Greek Philosophies o Re discovering of these philosophies were important 0 Aristotle o Centered around Cathedral Schools 0 Specialized in law and other advanced things I Origins of Universities 0 Oxford University late 1100s 0 London in the High Middle Ages I About 60000 by 1300 I City Gov t is run by an annually elected mayor 0 Meet frequently I Livery Companies 0 Monopolized certain areas 0 Grocers Bakers etc o Operate almost as a welfarefamily 0 Protected members and their families o If a member of the guild died they would pool money together and pay for the funeral and help the family I Immigrants 0 Mostly from the surrounding counties I William FitzStephen c 1183 o Wrote an advertisement for London in the introduction of his story about Thomas Beckett 0 Rural Life I Agricultural Improvements 0 More food gets produced 0 People are healthier Children live till adulthood Women live longer and have more babies I Cultivating more land 0 Growing more stuff 0 Clearing wastelands o Drained Swamps o Clearing Woods 0 Kicked out squatters I Fallowing 0 Don t cultivate land 0 Lets land recuperate I Three Field System 0 Doubles food production around Europe 0 Evolution of English Manors I Mutual benefit Peasants and Lords 0 They would work on the manor Lord would help protect them Free Peasants to Serfs 0 Enter into contractual agreements with the lords of these manors 0 Over time Peasants diminish in status and become serfs o Serfs 0 Not technically slaves they are not owned 0 They are tied to the land 0 Commercial agriculture by 11th 13th centuries o Villeins o Laborers 0 Lack of freedom is established by common law 0 No property rights 0 Social distinctions 0 Property I People who own property are more important than those who do not 0 From John to Henry III Rebellion against John with the French 0 John nullifies the Magna Carta after he signs it John died October 1216 0 French troops are marching down the streets of London Crown passes to Henry III 0 Problem is Henry is 9 Civil War Royalists vs Rebels o Royalists Loyal to Royal Monarchy 0 Rebels Want to install a new regime After John dies a handful of Rebels switch sides and support Henry 0 Their problem was with John Henry reissues Magna Carta in 1216 0 Didn t please the rebels Royalists win a major battle unexpectedly in 1217 o Magna Carta is again reissued in 1217 o The Boy King They form a regency council William the Marshal o Dies in 1219 o Other 2 are the only ones left I Hubert de Burgh justiciar I Peter des Roches 0 Bishop of Winchester I Government gets back to business 0 Land Disputes Revenue is collected again I Henry starts to be King when he turns 19 I Wants to rebuild Angevin Empire that was lost I Poitou France 1230 o Launches invasion with expectation that the old French Barons will help him out o All of them bail 0 He has to retreat no resources no army 0 Personal Rule of Henry III I King vs Barons 0 Rights to Give Counsel 0 Major theme throughout Henry s rule I Does away with the office of Chancellor and Justiciar I European ambitions 0 Simon de Montfort 0 Savoy I Death of HRE Frederick H 1250 I Kingdom of Sicily 0 Pope wants someone else to rule it o Offered to Henry s brother Richard 0 Henry accepts it on behalf of Edmund 1254 0 Huge debt accrued during battle 0 Now Henry III owes the money 0 Pope threatens to excommunicate Henry if he doesn t pay debt I Turned to Barons Origins of Parliament and Upheavals of the Middle Ages 0 King Richard II meeting the leaders ofthe Peasants Revolt 1381 0 End of Henry s reign I Sicily situation 1254 0 Henry is unable to pay the debt 0 Pope threatens excommunication 0 He has to turn to his barons in 1258 0 Harvest that year had been bad I Provisions of Oxford 1258 0 King agrees to the formation of council 15 o 15 barons who act like an advisory board to the King 0 Parliament must meet 3 times a year 0 After a couple of years the council of 15 starts to rule things on their own 0 Meet without the Kings knowledge 0 Call parliament without the Kings knowledge 0 The King turns to the pope to have the council of 15 nullified because he signed it under duress o The pope agrees and nullifies the Provisions of Oxford in 1262 I Simon de Montfort 0 Married Henrys sister 0 He was behind the Provisions of Oxford 0 Fled when it was nullified o Came back to lead a small revolt I Montfort defeated 1265 o A royal force on behalf of the king led by his son defeated Montfort and killeddismembered him I Edward I r 1272 1307 0 Edward was away on a crusade when his father died in 1272 0 However no one revolted or led a usurpation of the crown while he was gone 0 He becomes King when he returns 0 Edward I s Wars Wales I Prince Llywelyn 1277 o Refused to swear fealty to the King o In response Edward sends in an army and quotstrongly suggests that Llywelyn swear fealty 0 He does and Edward retreats with his army I Rebellion 1282 0 After a few years Llywelyn and other welsh men rebel 0 Edward returns with an Army 0 Llywelyn dies in battle I Edward conquered Wales 1283 I Castles 0 To show his rule Edward divided up money between his Barons and had them build castles all over Wales 0 Edward and Scotland I Succession dispute Robert Bruce John Balliol 1290 o The royalty in Scotland turn to Edward to help them figure out who the successor is 0 He agrees forces them to swear fealty to him and takes his time to decide who the King is o Chooses Balliol and forces him to submit to the power of the King himself I Scottish Rebellion 1295 0 Edward leads his army into Scotland 0 Massive military victories o Steals the Stone of Scone I Takes it to Westminster Abbey I And encases it 0 After a few years Edward is having trouble subduing the Scotts 0 Running out of resources 0 William Wallace d 1305 o Rebellion runs for about 8 years 0 Captured by the English 0 Robert Bruce 1307 Grandson of the original successor 0 Edward dies on his way to fighting Robert Bruce 0 Edwards Son Edward II flees rather than fights 0 Edward and France I Philip IV quotthe fair I Gascony o The main remaining territory of the lost Angevin Empire 0 Big wine trade sends wine to England England sends wool to France 0 Philip wants a piece of their economic prosperity 0 Calls Edward to France to discuss 0 Edward refuses I Philip invades 1294 0 Sending men and money to Scottish rebels o Origins of ScottishFrench alliance I Edward delayed until 1297 o By this point many of his own barons in France are at their wits end 0 Stalemate for a few years 0 Neither King can get an upper hand I Peace treaty 1303 o The only difference now is that Edward has a huge debt for fighting in both France and Scotland I Edward is relying on his barons more 0 Calling his Parliament more often I In 1297 Magna Carta is re issued to lessen the blow of growing taxes 0 Emergence of Parliament I Parler 0 quotTo discuss I Origins King s great council 0 Intentions were to supplement the Kings authority 0 Not contradict it or oppose it I Variety o Lords Barons o Bishops Lower Clergy o Shire Knights Burgesses I Listen to judicial cases for the King grievances agree to taxation later on I quotModel parliament 1295 I By 14th century House of Commons House of Lords 0 Edward Iand England s Jews I Money Lenders usury 0 Jews were allowed to charge non Jews interest I Resentment Anti Semitism 0 Many Jewish families got rich because of loaning money and getting repaid with interest I Jews don t have full rights in England property of the King I Since Edward needed so much money because ofthe wars he taxed the Jews severely 0 They ran out of money and became no use to the crown I Italian Sometimes Italian Jews Merchant Bankers 0 Edward was turning to them more often 0 Once its realized that Edward doesn t need the Jewish families anymore he starts to force them out 0 Edward 1275 Statue ofJewry o Outlaws usury quotsuggestsquot they find a new occupation Edward rounds up about 300 prominent leaders ofJewish families and executes them 1280 o Encourages Dominican Monks to preach to Jews to get them to convert Edict of Expulsion 1290 Jews are pretty much rounded up and forced to convert or leave H r 1307 1327 Piers Gaveston 0 Edward had kicked him out of England due to his influence over his son 0 When Edward I dies Piers comes back 0 Given the title Earl of Cornwall Scottish incursions in Northern England Edward II is uninterestedvery inept militarily Thomas Earl of Lancaster d 1322 0 Extremely wealthy and powerful o Him and the other Barons force the King to accept an council similar to the Provisions of Oxford 0 Force Piers into exile Gaveston murdered 1311 0 After exile Piers rallied a group and invaded England 0 The barons defeat him and kill Piers o Seen as gruesome and Lancaster starts to lose his following Hugh Despenser o Became wealthy lots of land through illegal confiscation and other methods 0 Him and Lancaster get into a dispute Roger Mortimer o Joins Lancasters side Lancaster and Mortimer vs Despenser o Despenser wins Queen Isabella 0 Her and Lancaster get together and eventually decide to overthrow the King 0 Edward II Deposed 1327 I Hugh Despenser is captured and executed I Edward II is deposed with the sanction of Parliament I Edward II is sent to prison and eventually found murdered 0 14th Century Upheavals I Economic 0 As population grows Agricultural output eventually cannot keep UP 0 Bad harvests 0 Crop Failure 1321 I Black Death c 1347 1351 o Bubonic Plague o Started in China and made it s way through oversea and overland routes to Europe 0 13 of Europe s population is gone between 1347 1351 0 Estimated that England s population declines about 40 o Recurrences of Plague throughout 14th century 0 Labor Shortages 21711 0 Edward I and the Hundred Years War I Black Death Consequences o Accelerates the disintegration ofthe Medieval Economy 0 Rent 0 Rather than giving land and taking profit off the agricultural gains from the people who live there they gave them land and just charged rent 0 1351 Statute of Laborers o Freezes wages at a certain level 0 The laborers in such a short supply that the demand is raised they can charge as much as they want for their timework 0 Poll Taxes 0 Tax on every person living in your household I Peasants Revolt 1381 o Anonimal Chronicle o Trigger 0 Poll Tax 0 There was a tax collector in Essex who was collecting more than he should ve 0 Rebels into London 0 Released prisoners in London I Wanted more people on their side 0 Beheaded people I Tax Collector other people in authority 0 Set fire to houses 0 Took many records and other important documents I Records documented who owned what and how much people owed in taxes 0 King Richard agrees to meet with the rebels 0 First meeting I Abolish Serfdom I Set a rent in law and it can t be changed 0 King agrees on the first meeting 0 Rebels behead the Archbishop of Canterbury 0 Also attacked people that were not from the area I Foreigners 0 King Richard agrees to a 2nd meeting with rebels o Meets with Wat Tyler and Tyler calls the King brother I They trust him and are loyal to the King but they do not like the people who work for him 0 Rebel Demands I Only 1 bishop for the whole church of England I Better pay and education for the local priests o Wat Tyler was killed by William Walworth I When the rebels saw their leader dead they begged the King for forgiveness 0 Government never tried a poll tax again after this till the 1980 s I Hundred Year s War 0 Edward I r 1327 1377 o Took throne when he was 17 from his mother and her boyfriend Roger Mortimer o Opposite of his father I Strong Militarin I Respected by his barons 1338 1453 o Ongoing tension between English and France English claim to the French Throne 0 Edward I had a claim to the throne of France through his mother I His mother was the sister of the King of France quotAuld Alliance 0 France was still supporting the Scottish Flanders 0 Fighting over this area 0 King of France wanted to control Flanders directly 0 English wanted Flanders to be autonomous I English bought Wool from Flanders Gascony o Contested area in Southwestern France Late 1330s little luck 0 Edward and some of his soldiers sail across the English Channel Battle of Sluys 1340 o Gives English control over the English Channel Edward I changes strategies 0 Originally he did what King John did and tried to bribe France s armies to join him and help him fight but they didn t 0 Instead he trained small groups of soldiers and sent them into towns and cities in France and they plunder the area Brittany 1342 0 English take over this small city Normandy 1346 Battle of Crecy Aug 1346 Longbow 0 Military Technology that English used that gave them an advantage 0 Better Range Arrows were shot faster Calais 1347 Fighting dies down for about 10 years Black Death 0 Battle of Poitiers 1356 0 Edward quotthe Black Prince 0 King John the Good French King I Captured and sent back to England as War Prisoner o Treaty of Bretigny 1360 0 Edward I gives up his pursuit of the French Throne 0 However English get back pretty much all the territory that was lost from the Angevin Empire 0 Edward also did not have to be the vassal to the King of France anymore 0 And English also demand 500 Pound ransom for the King 0 By the end of Edwards reign the French had taken almost all the territory back I Emergence of the House of Commons 0 Made up by Sheriffs Merchants Burgesses o Taxation o No bills that had to do with taxation could be passed if it did not originate in the House of Commons 0 Edward I would go to Parliament would ask for something they would agree and pass it only if he would address grievances they had I Religion and Anticlericalism 0 They were not opposed to all the clergy 0 Normal citizens favored their priests because they were like them 0 Opposed Ecclesiastical Hierarchy o Avignon Papacy 0 Influence of French monarchy o 2 popes schism 1378 0 One controlled by King of France 0 The other controlled by King of England HRE and German Princes o Resentment o 1351 Statute of Provisors o Aimed at limiting appointments of clergy by the popes o 1353 Statute of Praemunire o Prohibits any English person from appealing to a foreign court 0 Cuts off papacy control over local problems I John Wycliffe 1384 0 Oxford trained theologian and philosopher 0 John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster 0 Wycliffe is a client ofJohn 0 He preaches against corruption in the church 0 John uses him to pass his own agenda through parliament 0 Opposition to church wealth hierarchy 0 Later his sermons and preaching turn into heresy 0 Wanted King to confiscate church property and redistribute it 0 Also started to question some of the basic sacraments at the time 0 Also questions whether church hierarchy is beneficial I It s about ones relationship with god 0 Predestination I People are predestined to be saved or to not be saved 0 Lollards I Followers ofJohn Wycliffe I quotTo mumble I They apparently mumbled to themselves with prayers 22211 0 Lancastrian Kings and the Wars ofthe Roses 0 Richard H r 1377 1399 I Surrounded himself with quotsuck ups and gave them royal favors I Alienated Barons I Extravagant o Liked to spend a lot of money on displays of royal power 0 Questioned why he spent so much money on household and not on wars 0 Launched investigation on his spending habits 0 King resented this I Parliaments mandates that Richard quotcleans house in 1386 I Michael de la Pole 0 Richard s Chancellor 0 Parliament wanted him to be fired 0 Richard refused 0 Conflict between King and Parliament grew Parliament reminded the King of another King who had been deposed earlier in the century 0 Richard understands and says he will listen to their advice and take their opinions Richard moves the Government from Westminster to Oxford Legal Cases 0 Challenges to the King s prerogative 0 Parliament is only for the King and can only be called by the King 1388 quotMerciless Parliament 0 Try to go after Richard and take away his power By 1399 0 Richard gets some of his power back and he dismisses this parliament For the next few years there is a period of awkward peace Married Isabella of France 0 Daughter of the King 0 Came with a sizable dowry o Reinstated a sort of truce between England and France 0 Won t need the tax money to fight France anymore therefore won t need parliament Able to pack parliament with people who are loyal to him and his power Wants to get revenge on the people who tried to take away his power 0 Started confiscating land 0 Tried to mess with inheritance laws for the barons 1399 o Exiles Henry Bolingbroke of Lancaster 0 Son of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster 0 While Henry is gone his father dies 0 He is supposed to come back to England and claim his inheritance 0 Richard prevents him from coming back into the country and extends the sentence of Exile 0 Richard seizes the land and the inheritance 0 Opposition to Richard grows even more 0 A big number of sons of Barons are exiled o Launches an invasion of Ireland 0 Henry Bolingbroke comes back while the King is offfighting 0 Returns to claim inheritance 0 Also has royal blood Grandfather of Edward I 0 Richard meets with Henry when he returns and gives him his inheritance Richard gets ambushed and kidnapped after the meeting and sent to the tower Orchestrated a coupusurpation 0 Now he needs to convince parliament to support him 0 Henry forces Richard to abdicate while he is in the tower O O o Recognize Henry Bolingbroke has King Henry IV 0 Crowned in October 1399 0 Richard is murdered in the tower 0 Henry IV r 1399 1413 I Known as a usurper king by his people I Balancing barons and parliament o Stresses him out to the point of his death I Baronial revolts Percys 0 King successfully suppresses 0 Henry V r 1413 1422 I Conflict with France 0 Veteran soldier 0 Also a way to keep the Barons busy 0 Sent them off to war with their soldiers and they won t be at home revolting I Wants to prove himself as a worthy King I French Weakness 0 Problems with the monarchy 0 Series of mini civil wars in France I Becomes obsessed with the French Campaign I Felt that if he proved himself on the battlefield then he would be proven as a good King I Gets country behind his cause Medieval Propaganda Campaign I Did not have a traditional Army like from the old feudal systems 0 ContractIndenture Armies 0 Hire Officers and in their contract would be how many men to gather what supplies they would receive how much money they would earn I Harfleur Sept 1415 Land in France Harfleur surrenders quickly I Agincourt Oct 1415 50000 strong French Army surround the English and English still win LongbowsArchers provided much help Battlefield was small One of the greatest military victories in English history Manage to kill a few important French Soldiers 0 Dukes Counts Knights I After Agincourt nfighting continues French Barons want to align with Henry since he is so successful I Treaty of Troyes 1420 Princess Catherine Henry is given Princess Catherine Daughter of the French King as his wife Rightful heir to the French throne is the children of Princess Catherine I Henry VI Becomes King of England and France as a 6 month old baby Passionate about religion Did not care for War While he was a baby his uncles ruled his kingdom with a council advising them Married Margaret of Anjou French Princess Parliament distrusted Margaret By the time he was 30 he lost everything his father had gained except for Cale Margaret had a son and the heir was legitimized Henry had a fit of madness and they were looking for a new ruler Margaret claimed her right as the Queen She had no support though Parliament and Barons supported the Duke of York I War of Roses Red Rose of Lancaster vs White Rose of York 0 York forced his claim as the heir but even his supporters did not want to see another usurpation o Forced to compromise and Henry stayed King I Margaret of Anjou 0 Did not want to see York take her sons place as King 0 They battled and York died in battle I 1471 0 Edward IV wanted his right as king 0 Henry VII 0 Battled and was able to stay King 3311 0 Henry VIII and the Break with Rome 0 Henry VIII r 1509 1547 I First 20 years left most of the day to day operations to Thomas Wolsey 0 Thomas Wolsey o Went to Oxford Trained lots of sons of the nobility Got a position in Henry VII s family as a chaplain Stayed on when Henry VIII took his father s place Gave Henry whatever he wanted Supported Henry VIII s war ambitions against France Invaded France 1513 I Army led by King Henry 00000 I English capture small but symbolic towns o 1514 I Wolsey organizes a peace agreement between England and France 0 France s King would pay Henry double what they did before and he would marry Henry s sister 0 Henry names Wolsey Bishop of Lincoln and then eventually Archbishop of York 0 Named Cardinal by the Pope soon after 0 And then named Papal Legate I Pope s representative 0 Lord Chancellor 1515 I Right hand man for the King 0 Gets himself appointed to multiple positions in the church so he can get more revenue and money 0 European Problems 0 Treaty of London 1518 I England France Spain HRE I Established a balance of power between the major countries I Keep each other in check I Don t declare war on each other I Come to each other s defense I Didn t last long HRE dies appoints Grandson 0 Emperor Charles V I Most powerful man in Europe I King of Spain Controlled Netherlands I Way more powerful than the others the treaty can t hold 0 France and HRE go to war I King Henry and Wolsey support HRE 1520 1525 I In exchange for Henry s support Charles V agrees to marry Henry s daughter Mary I French loses King of France is captured by HRE I Charles backs out of marriage agreement with Mary I Wolsey organizes an anti HRE alliance in 1526 0 League of Cognac 1526 I England France Papacy vs HRE I France and England would help the pope expel HRE soldiers out of Italy I Charles Vcalls in favors through his Empire who are mostly Lutheran Protestant now 0 Sack of Rome 1527 I The HRE armies pillage Rome 0 Pope Clement VII I Tries to escape to Northern Italy I Lives as a prisoner to the Emperor o Forced to switch sides 0 Has to rely on Charles Vto stay alive 0 The King s quotGreat Matterquot 0 Queen Catherine of Aragon I Mary is her and Henry VIII s only child I Henry VIII wants to divorce Catherine 0 Can t without the pope who is under HRE control I Catherine doesn t want a divorce I HRE Catherine s nephew won t let it happen 0 Anne Boleyn I Queen s lady in waiting I Henry wants to marry her 0 Papal Dispensation I Henry VIII sends delegation to Pope to ask for help I Points out how Catherine married Henry s older brother Arthur 0 Cardinal Campeggio I Sent to England to investigate I Wolsey and Campeggio work together to figure it out I Campeggio is getting pressure from the Pope to delay I Wolsey can t help anymore 0 Henry VIII claims he doesn t need Wolsey anymore 0 Statute of Praemunire I Henry VIII claims that Wolsey violates this I Henry strips him of all his property I Sends Wolsey to York 0 Fall of Wolsey 1529 30 I Accused of Treason by Henry I Orders him back to England I Wolsey dies of natural causes on the way 0 Cranmer and Cromwell 0 Thomas Cranmer I Ask the leading Theologians what they think of Leviticus and Papal Dispensation I Two different Universities side with Henry VIII the law can be overturned 0 Thomas Cromwell I Parliament I Good at finding ways to get revenue 0 Supplication against the Ordinaries 1532 I List of grievances against the Church Judges 0 Convocation 0 Thomas Cranmer 0 Archbishop of Canterbury 1533 o Boleyn Family I Helped get Cranmer into the Archbishop position 0 Cranmer calls a new Convocation because Anne is pregnant I Wanted to get her and Henry VIII married soon Most were on Henry s side with the divorce Act in Restraint of Appeals 1533 Marriage invalidated Spring 1533 Act in Absolute Restraint of Annates 1534 I Annates are the income that a Bishop receives 0000 during his first year I Tradition is that Bishop sends his first year income to the Pope I This act keeps Bishops from sending pope first year incomes 0 Act of Supremacy 1534 o Enforcing Supremacy Making Reformation o Cromwell Vice Regent for ecclesiastical affairs I Power to investigate churches o Succession Act 1534 I Declares that the children of the Boleyn family are the rightful heirs I Thomas More and Fisher refuse to sign 3811 0 Utopia 0 Themes I BookOne o CritiqueofOldWorld o Efficiency 0 Public Service Book Two 0 Structure of Utopian Society 0 Gov tLaws 0 Religion War 0 LaborWork 0 Family 0 TradeEconomyWealth o ValuesPleasureHappiness 0 Private Property gt Poverty gt Crime 32211 0 Reign of Mary Tudor and the Elizabethan Settlement 0 Mary I r 1553 1558 Lady Jane Grey 1553 Popular portrayals of Mary 0 Hysterical 0 Not very good looking 0 Stubborn quotMarian Exiles 0 About 800 people leave First Statute of Repeal 1553 o Difficult time passing through Parliament Philip of Spain 0 Mary wants to marry Philip 0 Wants to strengthen power among the Catholics in Europe 0 Philip is made King of England however he does not have much power as King Mary still has final power 0 Problems and Upheavals Wyatt s Rebellion 1554 0 Sir Thomas Wyatt 0 Planned big ambitious nationwide rebellion Plans got leaked Had to act fast OOO Fizzles out in the north and in the midlands Cardinal Reginald Pole 0 Papal legate Second Statute of Repeal 1554 0 Every act passed by Parliament regarding the church since 1529 is null and void Heresy laws 0 Marian Martyrs 1553 1558 300 burned at the stake Mostly commoners Many of these people are seen as martyrs courageous heroes John Hooper s execution 0 Bishop of Gloucester John Foxe s Book of Martyrs c 1580s Cranmer 1556 0 International Affairs Pope Paul IV 1555 o Negotiates treaty with France Philip of Spain Sends army to Italy 0 Philip excommunicated by Pope War with France 1557 o Calais 1558 0 England loses last Garrison in France Mary I died November 1558 Pope Paul dies hours later 0 Elizabeth I r 1558 1603 Religious Settlement Balancing Interests 0 Marian Exiles 0 quotCambridge men William Cecil o Marian bishops Proclamation to Forbid Preaching Dec 1558 0 They can only preach what they approve Treaty of Cateau Cambresis 1559 o Elizabethan Settlement Cecil and Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper Act of Supremacy 1559 o Re establishes royal supremacy over church 0 Makes Elizabeth Supreme Governor I Matthew Parker Archbishop of Canterbury I Act of Uniformity 1559 0 State Church I Thirty Nine Articles 1563 0 List of things that were wrong with the Catholic church 32911 0 War with Spain The Armada 0 Incursions and War I Sir Francis Drake o quotElizabethan Sea Dogs privateers I New World wealth I quotno peace beyond the line I Duke Medina Sidonia I Duke of Parma I Cadiz 1587 o Drake sails small fleet into Spanish city of Cadiz o Plunders city sets back the production ofthe Spanish Armada a little bit I Armada technology 0 New ships built with old technology 0 Spanish fleet made up of many Galleons 0 Large hard to maneuver ships I Lord Howard of Effingham Admiral 0 Has control over English fleet I Spanish Armada makes it as far as the English Channel 0 Goal was England I No one expects England to win 0 Spanish has a powerful monarchynavy I Over a week of skirmishes both sides suffer heavy casualties o A number of ships on both sides get destroyed 0 Resources used up I July 28th Sidonia orders Armada to anchor off of Calle 0 Wait for Duke of Parma to see if Army is on their way 0 Howard takes advantage of that sends fire ships into the crescent formation 0 Armada scatters inexperience ofthe Admiral shows o Effingham is able to block the channel and doesn t allow them to take the quickest route to Spain 0 Armada must go back up north and go all the way around 0 Elizabethan Worldview I Queen s Speech at Tilbury August 1588 0 Given after the Armada scatters in July I War a stalemate I Elizabeth s moderate sensibilities o Stayed out of skirmishes that had nothing to do with England 0 Reluctant to get involved with foreign issues 0 James VI and I r England 1603 1625 I r Scotland 1567 1625 I Trew Law of Free Monarchies 1598 0 Published book before becoming King of England Anonymously o Divine Right Scriptural basis I One of the more intellectual Kings England has ever seen 0 Well versed in Law Philosophyetc I Millenary Petition 1603 o Puritans 0 List of grievances that Puritans had with the Church of England Brought to King James He pretty much brushes it to the side But likes the idea that they call a meeting to discuss the state of the church I Hampton Court Conference 1604 o quotno bishops no king 0 Decision was made to publish a new English version of the Bible 0 King James Bible 1611 I Gunpowder Plot 1605 0 Plot to blow up Parliament 0 Would ve killed the King House of Lords House of Commons 0 Someone had second thoughts and told someone in the House of Lords 0 They found the explosives in the cellar ofthe House of Lords o Rounded up everyone and arrested them and put them on trial I Huge wave of Anti Catholicism and Xenophobia 0 James says the only Catholics he will take aim at is the Missionaries in England and prominent Catholic families that refuse to join church of England 0 Those who swear loyalty to him occasionally go to church practice Catholicism privately he turns a blind eye to I Prerogative and the Finances o Bate s Case 1606 0 Merchant in the Levant Company 0 Who had the right to impose duties on imports o Ruled that King has the power 0 Gives him opportunity to raise duties on certain imports without consulting parliament o Raises duties on almost everything except food or things needed for navy 0 Has no money 0 Elizabeth leaves him nothing in the Treasury due to the war with Spain 0 Taxes are raised as high as Parliament will let them 0 Raising duties 0 Allowing monopolies as long as he gets money back 0 Robert Cecil Earl of Salisbury 0 Great Contract 1610 0 Proposed to parliament by Robert Cecil 0 Give up King s feudal rights in exchange for Hundreds of Thousands of pounds of supply Money and a 200000 pound annual tax 0 Go on recess and the representatives go home and talk to constituents I Constituents are upset with the annual tax I Can t be implemented 0 Come back to Parliament and they can t impose the Tax 0 Cecil repeals the lawcontract 0 Politics and the Law 0 quotancient constitution I England has an unwritten constitution that goes back long before the Norman invasion that covers common law and tradition o Confrontations o Primacy of Common Law Sire Edward Coke 0 Thirty Years War 1618 1648 0 James was reluctant to enter England into the Thirty Years War 0 Origins lead to Holy Roman Empire I Begins in Bohemia I Habsburg by the name of Ferdinand is elected King of Bohemia I Bohemia Majority Catholic but Sizable Protestant Minority I HRE Tolerant of Protestantism in wake of Protestant Reformation I Problem arises when Ferdinand starts persecuting Protestant minority o Defenestration of Prague 1618 I Protestant Rebel group goes to a Catholic meeting of Powerful people and throws 2 representatives out the window 0 Frederick Elector of the Palatinate I M Elizabeth Daughter ofJames 0 Everyone believes James will enter the war to help Daughter and Son in law I Elected King of Bohemia by Protestant rebels 0 Spain Intervenes 1620 I Help defend Austrians 4511 0 Long Parliament and Civil War 0 Arminianism I quotBeauty ofthe holiness I Roger Maynwaring Religion and Allegiance 1627 I Puritan and Arminian I William Laud 0 Archbishop of Canterbury 1633 I Altered church appearances I Deemphasizes the importance of preaching I Persecuted quotPuritansquot 0 Star Chamber Became symbol of secrecy and persecution at court 0 Personal Rule 1629 1640 I Problem Revenue I Distraint of Knighthood 0 Old Medieval Law quotAnyone that s worth over 40 pounds must be Knighted 0 He finds many people who haven t been Knighted and he fines them and gets hundreds and hundreds of pounds I Forest Laws 0 Royal Forests were the Kings domain 0 Redraws Forest boundaries like they used to look anyone living in the forest had to pay him I Ship Money 0 Tax that gets collected from port cities during Naval emergencies 0 Used to build ships 0 However does not limit tax to port cities every city must pay I John Hampden s Case 1637 o Argued in front of Kings court alongside a lawyer that Ship Money is a tax and can t be collected with parliamentary consent 0 7 vote for the King 5 for Hampden I Ship Money becomes harder to collect by 1637 1638 due to the 5 judge s ruling in favor of Hampden 0 Need for Parliament I Scottish Kirk Church o Wants to make the English and Scottish church s look more uniform 0 Ask the Bishops of Scotland to write a new prayer book to look more similar to the English Book of Prayer 0 The people didn t like that there was Bishops in the first place seen as Tyrannical I Scottish Prayer Book 0 Unveiled creates a riot o Seemed too Catholic I Bishops Wars I Thomas Wentworth Earl of Strafford 0 Lord Deputy of Ireland I Short Parliament Spring 1640 I John Pym I Long Parliament Impeached Straf ford 0 Didn t Work 0 Accused him of Constitutional Treason o Straf ford is ultimately executed Impeached Laud 0 Doesn t get executed Root and Branch Petition Dec 1640 0 Get rid of the Episcopal Structure 0 Parliament only considers it 0 Main Significance Reveals split in Parliament I Those who want to change the Episcopacy and those who don t Triennial Act 0 Parliament has to be called every 3 years 0 No more Personal Rule Consent of Parliament 0 Makes it illegal for the King to dissolve Parliament without the consent of both houses Star Chamber Court of High Commission Council ofthe North abolished Distraint of Knighthood Ship Money Forest Laws all abolished Impositions 0 Parliament has to consent to all duties on trade By this time almost no one is talking about overthrowing the monarchy executing the king or civil war 0 Due to him agreeing to all these laws Starts appointing Puritan leaders to powerful positions 0 John Pym is appointed to the Privy Council I Road to Civil War rish Rebellion Nov 1641 o Radicalizes many people in England Grand Remonstrance Dec 1641 0 Listed about 200 Grievances that occurred during the Personal Rule 0 Asked for 3 Things I Depriving the Bishops ofthe Right to Vote in the House of Lords I Removal of all the Kings counselors I Something should be done about the Irish Rebellion 0 Main Idea The King because of his counselors is breaking the law 0 Commons pass Grand Remonstrance by vote of 158 148 0 Significance Serious divide in parliament 0 Five Members Jan 1642 0 Charles calls for arrest of 5 leaders I John Pym John Hampden included Claims they are Guilty of Treason He rides into Parliament and asks for them They heard rumors and already escaped Him and his family leave the following week 0 Leaves London in the hands of Parliament 0 Militia Ordinance Spring 1642 o Gives parliament authority to name officers and Lieutenants o Orders the King to agree to this but he refuses o Nineteen Propositions June 1642 0 Demand that parliament should have ultimate control over who sits on the privy council along with other high positions 0 Denounce secret committees and meetings 0 Parliament wants to be in control over who the Kings children can marry and their education 0 Strip Kings right to create peers make up a position in the House of Lords 0 King refuses raises Royalist Army in Nottingham I First Civil War 1642 1646 o Roundheads and Cavaliers o Puritans and Royalists 0 Prince Rupert o Joins Royalist army 0 Solemn League and Covenant 1643 o Independents Oliver Cromwell o Brilliant Military Leader Marston Moor July 1644 o Cromwell defeats Prince Rupert 0 Battle that turns the tides in Parliament favor I New Model Army Self Denying Ordinance Dec 1644 0 Removed members of Parliament from Army Officer positions Naseby July 1645 o Defeat Kings Army Charles gives himself up to the Scottish Army as a prisoner Army wants a guarantee that they wont be charged with crimes they may have committed during the war Army becomes radicalized due to Self Denying Ordinance 0 People who aren t from high classes all of a sudden have military power Levellers 0 John Lilburne An Agreement of the People 1647 Putney Debates fall 1647 0 Oliver Cromwell 0 Henry reton 0 Thomas Rainsborough 0 Edward Sexby I Second Civil War 1647 1648 King escapes late 1647 Convinces the Scottish Army to fight on his side New Model Army is sent to fight Scottish Army Colonel Thomas Pride 0 Pride s Purge Dec 1648 I Prevents members of Parliament from getting into the Chamber I Allow about 40 men into the Chamber quotRumpquot Parliament 0 Issues charges against the king 0 Cromwell still wants to negotiate with the King but realizes it cant happen


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.