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The Crusades

by: Chet Dach

The Crusades HIST 3348

Chet Dach
GPA 3.8

David McDaniel

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David McDaniel
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chet Dach on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3348 at Texas Tech University taught by David McDaniel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/226491/hist-3348-texas-tech-university in History at Texas Tech University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
The Crusades 011411 0 3 Cultures o Byzantine Empire 0 Western Side 0 Muslim World 0 Jerusalem 0 Important to Christians Jews and Muslims o Geographicallyimportant 0 Evidence of History 0 Written I Chronicles and Histories 0 Many gaps in coverage I Laws and quotActaquot of Ecclesiastical Councils 0 Useful for tracking who s who at court I Hagiography Vitae of Saints I Letters 0 Physical I Art I Archaeological I Architectural I Coins 0 Primary vs Secondary Sources 0 Primary Sources I Contemporary I Records but usually not histories I Fragile Scarce 0 Secondary Sources I Written quotafter the factquot I May be contemporary 0 Sources for the First Crusade 0 Anna Comnena The Alexiad o Alexius Comnenus Letter of Alexius Comnenus o Guibert of Nogent The Deeds of God Through the Franks Fulcher of Chartres Histoire des Croisades Letters of Godfrey Raymond and Daimbert to the Pope William of Tyre History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea 0000 Anselm of Ribemont Letter to Archbishop of Rheims 11911 0 Pilgrimage o A trip to a holy place I Fills a spiritual need 0 Some go for Penance I Some are ordered to go o Gained respect I Would get support on the journey I Earned quotbadgesquot along the way showed that the person was on a pilgrimage I Reinforced faith 0 quotLiminalquot Experience I Leveled social differences 0 Common in World Religions 0 Jerusalem 0 Major Holy Center for 3 Religions I Jews Muslims Christians 0 Pilgrim Itinerary I Many started writing accounts of their journeys I ntinerarium Burdgialense o Went from Gaul to Jerusalem 0 First detailed Itinerary 0 An industry started to be built around the pilgrimage I Hotels Hospitals Cemeteries o Fathers ofthe Church I Jerome d 420 o Directed Hospices I Augustine d 430 0 Thought pilgrimage was irrelevant o Advocated a pilgrimage ofthe mind contemplation I Origen d 254 0 Also didn t believe the pilgrimage was relevant o The Piacenza Pilgrim I Last account of the pilgrimage 0 Before the Muslims came from Saudi Arabia and took over part of the Roman Empire including Jerusalem 0 Infrastructure and problems with authenticity I Gives a good account of expectations and reality I Still questioning how authentic everything they saw was 0 High Culture Civilization 0 Complex Political Organization 0 Complex Economic Organization I Many different people were coming with different types of currency so someone had to take care of the currency differences 0 Complex Religious Organization 0 MonumentalArchitecture 0 Cities I Had to have places for people to stay and hospitals for the sick 0 Record Keeping o The Mediterranean World 0 Eurasian Landmass I Citizens in the Western Roman Empire were protected from the people in the far east by the Byzantine Empire 0 The Role of the Mediterranean Sea 0 The Mediterranean Climate I Not Much Rainfall I Good for bread wheat wine milk I Easy to move around due to tradewinds 0 Political Unification I Romans had trouble due to the 10000 mile perimeter they had to defend 0 Different Cultures I Greek Roman ArabMuslim o The Holy Land 0 Jerusalem as quotUmbilicus Mundiquot 12111 0 The Three Heirs of the Roman Empire Part 1 o The Greek East at 1000 AD Roman Greek Byzantine Division of Empire by Diocletian in 285 293 0 Maximan Constantius Galerious quotTetrarchsquot o Maxentius d 312 and Constantine d 327 o Constantine takes the east in 324 Overextension and Collapse o 568 AD invasion of Italy by the Lombards o Plagues o Earthquakes o Sassinids Heraclius 610 641 0 First Crusader 0 Theme system of administration Arab pressure on Constantinople 0 Two centuries of constant war with the Arabs o Siege of Constantinople 718 o Isaurian Dynasty 0 Leo III Byzantine Iconoclasm o Influenced by Muslim attitudes about icons 0 Pre dated crises in Byzantine Empire 0 Iconoclasts and Icon nodules I Icon Breaker vs one who serves images o 1 t Period 730 787 0 Emperor Leo III the Isaurian 717 741 I Banned Icons 0 Leads to revolt 0 Pope Gregory III 731 741 I Ex Communicates the Iconoclasts 0 2nd Council of Nicaea 787 0 Council Meets 0 Icons can be venerated but not worshipped o 2quotd Period 813 843 0 Try to meet again but soldiers arrive and they must disband till they find a safer location 0 Photian Schism 863 867 o Photian is an iconoclast 0 He was supposed to be elevated to the emperor position I Macedonian Dynasty 0 Basil II quotthe Bulgar Slayer 976 1025 0 Greatest extent of Byzantine Recovery I But NOTJerusalem 12411 0 The Muslim West 0 MuslimsArabs 0 quotDesert Fighters Practical Theology Mecca is the site of Pilgrimage quotDome ofthe Rockquot in Jerusalem 000 30 Mile sanctuary was built around Mecca I Allowed it to grow 0 Geography of Saudi Arabia 0 Desert 0 Humid along the Coast of the Red Sea 0 Fertile in the Southern Coast 0 More MuslimsArabs o Mohammed grew up in the tribe Quraysh I He was given the Quran and told to recite it revelation occurs in 610 0 Last prophet ever 0 Mohammed s message was not accepted in Mecca In 622 he goes to Medina I Year the Islamic calendar starts 0 o Medina becomes the first House of Islam I Accepted Islam and Mohammed s message 0 Mohammed was leading a series of raid s from Medina to Mecca I In 630 he captures the city of Mecca 0 At 632 when Mohammed dies much ofthe Arabian Peninsula has become Muslim 0 Islam 0 quotSubmission to Godquot 0 5 Pillars I Creed I Pray 5 Times a Day I Fast during Ramadan I Give Alms I Pilgrimage o Sha ria I Muslim Law 0 Series of Dynasties follow Mohammed s death 0 Caliph I Head of State 0 Political and Religious leader I Sultan I Amir o Dhimmi I People that live on lands unconquered by Islam I Protected by Islamic Law 0 Jizya I Tax that was imposed o Shia o The Rashidun Four Right Caliphs o Abu Bakr 432 434 o Umar ibn al Khattab 434 444 I Assassinated o Uthman ibn Affan 444 456 I Assassinated 0 Ali ibn Abi TaIib 456 461 I Assassinated o Sunni Muslims consider Talib as the last real caliph 0 Didn t think Talib was the rightful successor o Shia believe Ali was the beginning of the imam s o This is where the split begins 0 Ummayad Caliphate 0 Biggest political empire that has ever existed o In 751 the Abbasid s invited the Ummayad clan to a banquet and killed them all except for one o Ummayyad Emirate o The only one that survives escapes to the Iberian peninsula and creates his own Emirate o Abbasid Caliphate o Moved capital to Baghdad 0 Over the next 100 years the Caliphates amount of land decrease due to a rival Caliphate o Fatamid Caliphate vs Abbasid Caliphate 12611 0 The Latin West at 1000 AD 0 First Source Analysis I What did Urban say at Clermont in 1095 o Conflicting Accounts 0 Some more contemporary than others 0 Some projected their own ideas onto Urban s address to the crowd 0 Some went on the Crusade I Pick 5 accounts about Urban and make the most probable hypothesis of what he really said 0 The Latin West I Why the lease impressive ofthe three successors to Rome 0 Cities Complex Government 0 Literature 0 Records 0 Complex Professions I ArtArchitecture 0 Very Small 0 Rough 0 Not Decorated very well 0 Rustic 0 Kings Palace s were small I Franks are considered to be the most successful of the barbaric tribes o The Carolingian Renaissance o Carolingian Miniscule I quotBookhandquot 0 Latin Language I Medieval Latin I Old French 0 Standardization of Texts I Alcuin of York 12811 0 Schools and Curriculum I Trivium and quadrivium 0 Court Scholars 0 Advances in Military Technologies 0 Use of the stirrup 0 High Back Saddle 0 Gave riders the ability to give a killing blow without falling off horse 0 Holy War Christianity and Islam Peace piety and violence 0 Latin West at 1000 AD Decline of urban based quothigh culture Role of the Church and Bishops Division of empire Last Barbarian invasions Encastellation Military improvements 0 War and Religion Old Testament New Testament Early Church Scripture and Military Service Official status of Christianity after Constantine Division of Christian thought 0 Augustin of Hippo Just War vs quotHoly Warquot 0 There is no direct connection between a Just war and Holy war Force Forced Conversion Struggle against successful pagan barbarians o Charlemagne 0 Fighting in Iberia Powerful nobles quotFeudalismquot 0 Role of Church in Mitigating Violence Increasing Violence Peace of God 0 Established around churches 0 About 30 KM circle around the church 0 Could not fight in this area otherwise your excommunicated I Truce of God 0 Times you couldn t fight 0 Friday Saturday Sunday days were considered holy I Church instigated violence against violent warlords I Not used by military forces for religiousholy war I Sunni and Shia I Means struggle I Different Kinds ofJihad o Jihad against yourself 0 Jihad against your tongue 0 Jihad against your hands 0 Jihad against the sword o If a non Muslim country is attacking your country you can engage in jihad 13111 Turkish Threat o 950 Byzantines were most powerful of all three Roman successors o Turks fierce fighters employed as mercenaries by anyone who would hire them 0 Turk had captured Baghdad by 950AD didn t kill Caliph 0 Take over Abbasid Caliphate becomes Seljuk Sultanate Comneni 0 Isaac Comnenus o Constantine Doukas I Wasn t very popular I Didn t pay his army very much I His son is not interested in being emperor Tancred De Hautville 0 Norman 0 One of the warlords that says in South Italy to fight Norman 0 All of Sicily ends up in Norman hands along with south Italy Romanus Diogenes o Leads army from Byzantines to the Fatamids 0 However Seljuk wants to fight Byzantines and runs into Romanus on his way 0 Huge battle at Manzikert o 10 years of disaster in the Byzantines o Turks set up Sultanate of Rhum 0 Robert Guiscard tries to attack Byzantine from across the Mediterranean Sea from Italy 2711 0 Church Reform 0 Noble ed reforms Cluny I Back to Benedictine rule and standards 0 Imperial reforms I Organization shaped by church Ecclesiastical vassals o Cluniac reforms Anti simony clerical marriage I MotherDaughter houses Rapid Spread 0 Roman reforms I Three reforming popes 0 Leo IX International role of pope promoter of Cluny 0 Gregory VII quotGregorianquot reforms Lay investiture crisis 0 Urban II 1St Crusade 0 Urban II 1089 1099 0 Was a prior at Cluny o Involved in Investiture Controversy I Travelled extensively like Leo IX 0 1095 Council at Piacenza o 1095 Council at Clermont o Byzantine Latin West Timeline 0 1054 quotFilioquequot dispute I Mutual excommunication of clerics o 1074 Gregory VII already interested in helping Byzantines I But when Michael deposed 1078 o Excommunicates successors Alexius Comnenus o 1085 Gregory dies Alfonso VI captures Toledo 0 1088 Urban becomes pope o 1095 Council at Piacenza 0 Council of Piacenza March 1095 0 Huge council 0 Vast scope of agenda items Royal excommunications o Byzantine request for help Alexius Comnenus o Excommunication lifted in 1088 by Urban 0 Clermont November 27th 1095 o What did Urban say 0 Deus le Volt 0 Who is the leader 0 The Peasants Crusades o People s Crusades First response to Urban s Call to arms Charismatic leadership of Peter the Hermit Mass movement Mob not Army Massacre of Rhenish Jewry Soured attitudes in the East Ineffective 0 Key Players in People s Crusades The Crusaders 0 Peter the Hermit and disciples 0 Few German nobles Intended Targets o All Slejuk Turks Kilij Arslan 0 Key Players The quotPopularquot Crusaders Peter the Hermit and disciples 0 Walter Sansavoir o Volkmar o Gottschalk Few German nobles 0 Three counts and some sons of counts 0 Hugh of Tubingen o Monasticism and Church Reform Carolingian monasteries NOT hermitages Cluniac reforms Gregorian reforms Appeal of quotholy hermits o Christ like in appearance 0 Could have huge following O O O O O O o Pre cursor to later mendicant friar movement Peter s army I Poor command and control 0 Leadership based on charisma not oath I Great passion small plan I Little if any military experience 0 Mostly peasants very few minor nobles I No logistical supply I Peter begins losing control at Cologne Hungary Christian since 998 I King and Saint Stephan 1001 1038 o Defeated last pagan ruler of Magyars o Christianized Hungarians o Patron saint of Hungary I Expansionist under House of Arpad 0 King and Saint Ladislaus 1077 1095 o Conquered Croatia 1091 o Defeats Cumans who fight for Byzantines 0 King Coloman quotthe book lover 1095 1116 o Famed for education 0 Conquered Dalmatia 1105 Walter Sansavoir leads mob to the border of Hungary I Peter is 5 days behind with his mob I There is no food along the way They take from any barn they pass along the way I Fight starts North of the Danue river in the town of Maelvilla 0 They quickly get across the river to Belgrade 0 They eventually get to Nish and all the way to the Seljuk Empire in Constantinople Peter has similar problems that Walter had I Mob kills about 4000 Hungarians for no reason I Mob has to fight their way across the river and into Belgrade 0 Governor was trying to push them back I Mob gets into Belgrade sack the city and burn everything down After Belgrade the Byzantines finally start taking some high priority Hostages from the mob Peter lost about of his mob along the way O Eventually meets up with Walter in Constantinople with 2 weeks left before the date of the battle August 15th Emperor of the Byzantines ferrys the Mob across the river to Nicomedia and get them into a fortification called Civetot Aug Oct split up and disaster I Walter loses control of the Army 0 Germans and taiansLook at Blackboard I French 0 Ravage outskirts of Nicaea o Brag to the Rest I GermansItalians o Jealous of French success at NicaeaBlackboard I French 0 March to rescue Xerigordon I Too Late 0 Xerigordon captured 0 Defenders have to convert to Islam or die I March into Ambush o Wiped out Key Players Actual Victims I Christian Hungary 0 King Coloman I Christian Byzantium 0 Isaac Comnenus I Christian Greeks in Asia Minor 0 Under Seljuk dominion I Rhenish German Jewry 0 Many communities in the Rhine Jews in the medieval world I Widely scattered during diaspora following conquest ofJerusalem 60 s AD I Decline in status after Constantine I Persecution by Visigoths I Traditional role as mechants lenders international contacts 0 Many nobles and crusaders in debt to Jews 0 Borrowed money to buy weapons and armor I Official protection by church and monarchs I But also identified as murderers of Christ I Easy target for armed plunderers 0 quotProtection Moneyquot 0 End of Peoples Crusades I German crusades of Volkmar Gottschalk Emmich destroyed in Hungary by Oct 1196 I Peasants led by Peter and Walter destroyed in NW Anatolia by Oct 1196 I Peter and few 21411 0 Why weren t there kings on First Crusade 0 Emperor Henry IV I Was ex communicated so he could not lead it 0 King Philip I of France I Ex communicated at the Council at Clermont 0 King William Rufus of England I William the Conqueror had just died his son Rufus took his spot and was fighting with his brother over rights to rule 0 Key Leaders of First Crusade o Godfrey de Bouillon 0 Hugh of Vermandois o Behemond of Tranto 0 Raymond Count of Toulouse 0 Robert Duke of Normandy o Ademar Bishop of Puy o The First Crusade The Nobles o Godfrey of Bouillon travels down Danou river I Through Hungary has to negotiate and Gives his brother as a Hostage to the King of Hungary they pass Belgrade 0 Hugh of Vermandois I Goes down the Danue Through Italy Crosses to the Byzantine Empire at Darachan ship wrecks before he can land and is rescued by some Byzantines I Governor arrests Hugh of Vermandois 0 Holds him hostage till he is ready to swear allegiance to the Empire I Swears Allegiance and gets his army to Constantinople o Bohemond of Taranto I Cross over the Adriatic goes through southern area of Byzantine empire and then goes to Constantinople without much controversy 0 Raymond of Toulouse I Followed a route that was not much used got to Byzantine and followed the west coast of it to Darachan faces small opposition gets to Constantinople in April 0 Robert of Flanders and Robert of Normandy I Head through Rome cross Adriatic and get to Constantinople o Constantinople 0 None of the Nobles or their people had seen such a place like this before 0 Defenses were beyond anything they had seen 0 Alexius Comnenus 1081 1118 0 Good Emperor o 10 years after Manzikert Bari I Re establishes control 0 Peace with Seljuks o Fights off Normans till 1091 0 Ready to fight Turks I Needs troops 0 Council of Piacenza 1095 o Asks for help but gets mobs I Concerned about safety of Constantinople 0 Who will be in control 0 He insists that he should be in control 0 Restore all the land that he had lost 0 Require all ofthe Crusade Nobles to swear allegiance to him and return all the land that he had lost 0 Army 0 First target is Nicaea I Surrounded on one side by a lake huge city 4 miles of roman built walls with many towers I Kilij Arslan wants to take his city back I The Crusader Army had fortified around outside of the city and had it under siege had not gone into the city yet I Alexius Comnenus had blocked off anyway for Arslan to flank them 0 Alexius Comnenus sends his ambassadors to meet with Kilij Arslan I Didn t trust the Crusaders at all I Made a deal that he would protect Arslan s family and the crusaders wouldn t sack the city if Arslan would give up the city Arslan agreed with the deal 0 Comnenus hangs Byzantine banners around the walls of the city and the Crusaders realize they have been betrayed 21811 0 Antioch o Siege on the city by the crusaders o On the 28th ofJune they lead the force against Kerbogha Turk o Kerbogha starts to withdraw from the city and the Crusaders win 0 August 1098 Key Leaders of First Crusade Godfrey de Bouillon True Warrior Hugh of Vermandois Back in Constantinople Bohemond of Taranto in control of Antioch Raymond Count of Toulouse fighting with Bohemond Robert of Normandy OOOOO Ademar of Puy Dies in epidemic after taking Antioch 0 Aug 1098 Jan 1099 o Leaders fight on who is gonna control the different territories 0 Raymond loses arguments with Bohemond over what to do with Antioch 0 Nov 1098 Dec 1099 0 Raymond and his knights leave Antioch 0 They head down toward Damascus and get to a town called Marat an Numan I Soldiers are desperate for food and water I Started slaying inhabitants of the town and eating them 0 Many Muslims are scared of these people 0 Jan June 1099 o The army is now feared o The coast cities Tripoli Beirut Tyre Acre etc have much less of a military force I They agree to supply the soldiers as long as they keep moving and leave the city 0 The Turks get into Jerusalem and kick out all the Christians I They gather all the food in the surrounding area and burnpoison everything else 0 Crusaders finally make it to Jaffa I Closest port to the city ofJerusalem o 7June 15mJuly1099 0 Set up camp outside the NW of the city I Desperate for supplies again I Run into another hermit 0 They will be able to take the city of they directly attack the walls 0 A fleet of ships traveled down the coast and were able to take the city ofJaffa I The crusaders now have a way to be supplied I The ships also brought equipment that would help with the siege of Jerusalem 8 July 1099 0 Soldiers walk barefoot around the wall of the city ofJerusalem o Believed in it Raymond o Builds siege towers on the south side of the city Godfrey 0 Established camp on the NE side of the city Robert of Normandy and Robert of Flanders o Assaulting the NW side of the cities failing in the assaults Godfrey o Siege Towers are built and he is the first one over the wall 0 Army breaks for Dome of the Rock Raymond o Completes his siege tower also and they make for the Citadel in Jerusalem David s Gate Roberts Army 0 Use the siege towers of Raymond and Godfrey Slaughter Begins 0 Thousands of Muslims are slaughtered o The remaining ones are in the Citadel I They are promised safe passage by Raymond if they surrender to him Crusaders Problems 0 Do they give the city back to the Byzantine Empire Do they keep it How do they defend it Offer the crown to Raymond he doesn t want it 000 Godfrey doesn t want the crown either I Refuses to wear a crown of gold in the city where Christ wore a crown of thorns I Only title he will take is Protector of the Holy Sepulcher 0 Raymond is jealous after the other leaders seem to get their cities to rule 0 Battle of Ascalon o Fatamids had an army to relieve the city ofJerusalem but they did not get there in time o Crusaders only hope is a preemptive strike on Ascalon wouldn t survive a Fatamid siege on the city 0 All the leaders get to the city I Crush Fatamid army at Ascalon TEST 2 Notes 22311 0 After they took Jerusalem The divided the city and put soldiers into housing 0 Raymond is in the southwest corner of the city where the Citadel is o A monument s being built where Godfrey got over the wall 0 Soldiers want to go home but they know Fatamids are organizing a counter attack 0 Fatamids send ambassador that demands the return of the city and the soldiers just blow him off 0 Question as to who should rule Jerusalem o A king 0 Or a Patriarch 0 Robert of Normandy and Robert of Flanders want to go home so they take themselves out ofthe running to rule Jerusalem 0 Raymond of Toulese o Wants to rule 0 However takes oath to Byzantine empire seriously I Soldiers don t like that 0 Holds most important site in Jerusalem Citadel 0 However didn t get over the wall till after Godfrey 0 He was offered crown by the council I He said no 0 Godfrey de Bouillon 0 He is next offered crown o Refused to wear it as a king 0 Only accepted it if he was named the protector ofJerusalem not the King 0 Divide Jerusalem into 4 different Archbishop sections 0 No mass only Latin rights 0 Army doesn t have enough food or supplies to withstand a siege from the Fatamid s 0 Raymond both Roberts and Godfrey move to Ascalon as a surprise attack 0 They crushed the Fatamid camps outside the walls of Ascalon 0 Long running battles between Fatamid s and Crusaders o Waves of crusaders start showing up to Jerusalem to replenish Godfrey s depleting army 0 Bohemond of Taranto had been captured by Danishmen 0 Subsequent crusaders had gone to rescue him but got crushed 0 Bohemond eventually gets there in 1100 o Godfrey dies on Christmas day of 1100 0 Baldwin was sent a letter to rush to Jerusalem to be King 0 1100 118 0 He was Baldwin 0 Baldwin II was his successor 0 1118 1131 0 Last major player from the First Crusade that s still around 22511 0 Organizing the Crusader States 22811 0 Church in Jerusalem was THE church 0 quotMother Church o Destroyed by Hadrian and Titus 0 Jews was expelled O Tore everything down and rebuilt the city 0 Hadrianopolis 0 To be a bishop in the west 0 Younger son of nobility 3211 0 Military Religious Orders 0 Clerics forbidden from fighting 0 Saint Benedict of Nursia 480 547 I Doctor of the Church I Founder of religious communities at Subiaco 0 Later famous for St Francis I Founds monastery of Montecassino o Writes quotthe Rulequot 0 Based on earlier writings about contemplative life 0 Chastity Poverty and Obedience Hospitallers 1113 I First order that s organized I Start off as a hospital caring for the pilgrims before the first crusade 0 Established by Pope Gregory around 600 o Destroyed by the Fatamids o Rebuilt when relations between Fatamids and Byzantines improved I Knights that were left over from the first crusade 0 Wanted to help in some way 0 Escorted pilgrims Templars 1119 I First officially to form a military structure centered around religious life I Temple of Solomen Council of Troyes I Hugh s Grand European Tour I The Council I Date 11281129 I The Latin Rule 0 Based upon the rule of St Benedict o Crafted by Bernard De Laude Novae Militiae In Praise of the New Knighthood I Written at the Urging of Hugh de Payns o In response to a letter I Praised the New Knight 0 The MonkWarrior Hybrid 0 The Templar I To fight and kill the infidel for the sake of Christendom was permissible and meritorious I Protect the weak 0 Beginning of concept of Chivalry Papal Power I Omne Datum Optimum 1139 by Innocent 0 Granted Papal Protection 0 Order exempt from tithes and taxes 3411 0 Women and Crusades 0 When it came time to defend the wall against attack women would throw rocks and shoot arrows at them 0 Powerful Women I Hildegard of Bingen 1098 1179 0 Parents gave her to the church to be a nun I Anna Comnena 1083 1153 0 Watched her father fight the crusaders 0 15 16 when the crusaders arrived I Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122 1204 0 Goes on the 2nd crusade o Leads 300 women 0 Sides with her uncle Raymond of Antioch and goes against her Husband King Louis VII 0 Divorces him and marries Henry II o Melisende ofJerusalem 1131 1153 3711 0 Participation Class 3911 0 The Muslims Strike Back 0 Dissention I Aleppo is mostly Shi ite I Mosul Damascus and Baghdad are Shia I Aleppo is looking to find alliances 0 Try to align with assassins 0 Battle of I Aleppo destroys Antioch I The Antioch army leaves fortified position and sets up a camp in the woods I Muslims surround camp in the night 32111 0 O O O O 0 00000 O 0 1123 1125 I Christians try to besiege Aleppo I Aleppo appeals to Mosul for protection but ruler of Mosul is weak I Christians fail to take Aleppo Muslims appeal to Caliph to appoint new ruler in Mosul Zengid Dynasty I Imad ad Din Zengi 1128 1146 0 Mosul o Aleppo I Nur ad Din Mahmud 1146 1174 0 Aleppo o Damascus Damascus I Aligns with Assassins when the ruler dies I Try to send them after Zengi In 1144 Zengi takes Edessa By now his dynasty includes Edessa Aleppo and Mosul Decides not to destroy Edessa for strategic purposes I Zengi restores the positions of the Locals before the Westerners took over 0 Go back to working at their previous businesses and property Zengi dies and his son Nur ad Din Mahmud takes over Aleppo and Edessa Another son Saifad Din Ghazi takes over Mosul The Armenian s that Zengi didn t kill in Edessa revolted against Muslim rule Mahmud kills them all and burns the city to the ground Mahmud attacks Antioch I Keeps pushing them to the coast I Defeats Raymond of Antioch beheads him and sends his skull to Baghdad In 1154 Mahmud captures Damascus I The common citizens see him as the protector of Islam I The rulers and merchants do not see him that way they attempt to align with the Assassins and even the Christians Leading up to the 2nd Crusade Pope was preaching the Crusade I Generating huge force and effort o Nur al Din wants Damascus o Gaining notoriety as the defender of Islam 0 Using concept ofJihad 0 Gets credit for saving Damascus whether or not he was a part of the treachery at the siege 0 Byzantine army crushed by Seljuks at Myriocelphalum o Salah al Din o Becomes the exemplar of Sunni Jihad 0 Well educated o Nephew of Sherka o quotEuro centrismquot I Devil incarnate to the Christians I Hero to the Muslims 32311 0 Salah al Din 0 Names himself sultan of Egypt 0 Builds fleet to control approaches off red sea 0 Captures town of Aqaba I Significant because He can get into Zengid territory without going through Jerusalem 0 Once Nur al Din dies he takes army up and captures Damascus 0 Baldwin IV 0 Takes thrown at the age of 13 0 Has leprosy so he is expected not to rule very long 0 Comes of age to rule in 1176 o Factionalism in Kingdom ofJerusalem 0 quotCourt Faction I Joscelin III of Edessa 0 His Mother Agnes of Courtenay I Raynald of Chatillon I Amalric of Lusignan I Patriarch Eraclius 0 quotOld School I Led by Raymond of Tripoli I House of belin I House of Tripoli 0 Baldwin IV 0 Does not ratify treaty that Raymond of Tripoli formed with Salah al Din 0 Baldwin attacks towards Damascus o Leads army out of Ascalon and gives Salah al Din worst defeat of his military career 0 Salah al Din 0 Turns attention to Zengid territory once he loses to Baldwin 0 Takes about 10 years to capture all the northern cities Aleppo Edessa Mosul 0 Very Powerful 0 Every year he attacks Jerusalem while Baldwin IV is alive 0 Sibylla named Queen after Baldwin dies Sister of Baldwin IV o mumofmumJMy 1m7 O O O O Franks try to push through Muslim line heavy charges with cavalry Franks are too weak to continue fighting no water exhausted Many franks surrender Salah al Din executes everyone that surrenders o Salah al Din captures Ascalon Jaffa and Acre on the coast 0 Tyre is the only city he has yet to capture one ofthe last states to fall 0 Fall ofJerusalem 1187 0 OOO Salah al Din sieges the city brings down part of the wall Belin of Ibelin leads army against Muslims Much of the army is destroyed before the battle even starts Belin says if Salah al Din does not let them leave peacefully he will burn down every building and destroy the entire city Salah al Din agrees and says if the people can not pay the ransom they will be enslaved o Salah al Din takes Jerusalem O 0 32511 Re opens Church of the Holy Sepulcher after a few days Re admits the Jewish to Jerusalem o The Third Crusade O 0 Guy detrys to take Tyre I They block him out I Gets knights to come with him to besiege Acre Acre I Salah al Din comes and traps Guy outside Acre I Disease sweep Guy s army Sevilla Queen ofJerusalem Guys Wife dies along with daughter 0 Third Crusade key Players I HRE Frederick Barbarossa 1152 1190 I France Philip II 1180 1223 I England Richard I quotThe Lionheartquot 1189 1199 I Muslims Saladin 1174 1193 I The Church 0 Pope Urban III 1185 1187 0 Clement III 1187 1191 0 Philip II Augustus 1180 1223 I Gets territories of Anjou and its surrounding territories in this time 0 Richard I quotLionheartquot 1189 1199 I Duke of Aquitaine when Jerusalem fails I Worked together with Eleanor of Aquitaine Mom to go against Henry King to get more territory 0 Frederick Barbarossa dies by drowning in a river outside of Muslim Territory 32811 0 Third Crusade 0 Richard I was supposed to marry Philip II s sister I Richard s mother Eleanor brings another girl that is a good political match and he ends up marrying this women instead of Philip s sister 0 They start the crusade 0 Richard shipwrecks in Cyprus I Cyprus Is the remaining Comnenus property I Isaac of Cyprus captures Richard s wife and sister I Richard battles and captures Isaac I Isaac agrees to let him go if he doesn t chain him up I Richard says he won t but he does anyway 0 Richard is marching south to Jaffa I Going along the beachline I Richard is able to go farther south and take Ascalon 0 People in Europe believe Third Crusade is a failure I They failed to get Jerusalem back which was the main goal I People are starting to lose faith in crusading I 1 crusader is left Son of Frederick of Barbarossa 0 Henry VI o The Fourth Crusade WILL NOT BE TESTED OVER ON APRIL 4TH o Venetian Republic I Government 0 Ruled by a Doge gt Duke 0 War leader head of state not dictator 0 Grand Council of 480 0 Minor Council of 6 after 1175 o Quarentia Supreme Tribunal after 1180 I Maritime power based on tarde 0 Strong navy 0 Pretty strong army I Aggressive o Empire Builders 4111 0 The Fourth Crusade 0 Key Players I Latins 0 Pope Innocent III 0 Conrad of Monferrat Dies early on o Tybalt Count of Champagne Boniface Marquis of Montferrat Count Baldwin of Flanders Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice I Byzantines o Alexius III Isaac II Alexius IV Alexius V 4611 0 Spanish Crusades o Reconquest vs Crusade I Recover lost territory vs religious warfare o Earliest histories paint as war vs infidels 0 Spain leads to 1St crusade or vice versa 0 Historiographicaldebate I What is a Crusade 0 Some criteria change over time 41111 Oath taken by crusader Cross worn by crusader Papal indulgence of penance for sins Protection for crusader interests at home OOOOO Financial support from church 0 The Baltic Crusades and The Children s Crusade o The Baltic Crusades Teutonic KnightsSword Brothers Location Sweden Lithuania Prussia Danzig Konigsberg Riga Estonia Finland 0 Isolated from the rest of the world 0 Catch up while crusading Meinhart o Dies in 1196 Innocent III 0 Pope in 1198 o Blesses the creation of the Sword Brothers 0 Sword Brothers getting all the income 0 Bypassing the Bishop and giving it straight to the Pope o Sword Brothers dominate Estonia 0 About 120 ofthem Mongols are keeping the Russians busy 0 Russians are defending their cities like Novgorod German crusaders wanted to set up their own hospitals for Germans during normal Crusades 0 Set up in Acre beginning of Teutonic Knights 0 As Saladin comes through many go home and set up Teutonic Knights at home 1236 o Teutonic Knights and Sword Brothers merge 0 Group grows to few hundred o Teutonic headquarters were close enough to be able to return to home and come back every winter Fighting Season 0 Different then crusade to the holy land 0 People often went once and either stayed or returned home and never came back I 1240 o Teutonic Knights have been fighting pagans mostly 0 Now they want to fight Christian Russians set their eyes on Pskov Russian City 0 Prince of Pskov has been busy fighting pagan Mongols 0 Alexander Nevsky takes it back after 2 years of occupation by Teutonic Knights I Lands become more and more Christianized in Lithuania and Prussia o Teutonic Knights start becoming a problem mostly everyone is converted to Christianity 0 No one is left to fight I Teutonic Knights kidnap Bishop 1410 0 Army of Pols Poland and Lithuanians crush Teutonic Knights 0 Grandmaster is killed along with many Knights 0 New Grandmaster is elected 0 End ofthe order when Grandmaster converts to Lutheranism o The Children s Crusade 1212 I Little Steven gets a letter from Heaven He claims o If he gathers a group of Children unstained by sin and takes them to Marseille God will part the waters and give them a path to the Holy Land The People who control the holy land will bow down and give up 0 A group of children follow him some people help feed them along the way I They eventually get to Marseille 0 Sea doesn t open up Many go home 0 Merchant ships show up in Marseille 0 They agree to take the kids 0 2 Ships sink 0 The other ships sell the Kids to slavery 41511 0 Fifth Crusade 0 Goal was to get Jerusalem Launched by Innocent III 0 Went to Egypt to cut off supplies to Jerusalem 0 One of the biggest groups is led by Andrew of Hungary I He is not focused on Jerusalem though focused on Constantinople Frederick II Hohenstauffen o Stupor Mundi Amazement ofthe world 000 O I But not of the church 0 Innocent III gt Guardian 0 Honorius III gt tutor then excommunicates 0 Gregory IX gt excommunicates King of Sicily Jerusalem Holy Roman Emperor Crusade Leader Excommunicate quotThe Anti Christquot Frederick s wars in Italy 1230 1250 0 Continually attacks the Italian Cities


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