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History of the United States Since 1877

by: Chet Dach

History of the United States Since 1877 HIST 2301

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > History > HIST 2301 > History of the United States Since 1877
Chet Dach
GPA 3.8

Jorge Iber

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Jorge Iber
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chet Dach on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2301 at Texas Tech University taught by Jorge Iber in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/226492/hist-2301-texas-tech-university in History at Texas Tech University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
History Final Review Bretton Woods World Monetary Fundestablished the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world s major industrial states The first example ofa fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent nationstates Set up a system of rules institutions and procedures to regulate the international monetary system Fair Deal Harry Truman A 21 point program President Truman outlining a series ofproposed actions in the fields of economic development and social welfare The continuation and extension of the New Deal that called for civil rights legislation a national health program aid for public education and support for lowincome housing George Keenan the father of containment policy State Department aid stated quotThe main element of any US policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a longterm patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies Argued that the USSR contained internal political and economic contradictions that it could not stand over the long haul If the US would merely contain the USSR it would eventually crumble from within due to the internal contradictions Said that the USSR was not a legitimate government to its people and therefore could only rule by massive coercion Also argued that the Soviet economy was untenable partially due to the command nature of the economy that ignored the demanddriven principle Truman Doctrine the pledge to aid nations resisting aggression or subversion President Truman urged the US to take up the burden to aid Greece and Turkey Called for 400 million in economic and military aid for the two beleaguered countries to save them from aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes TaftHartley Actattempted to meet two public complaints against labor The act empowered the president to force a union to accept a 60day quotcoolingoffperiodquot before striking If at the cooling offperiod the dispute was not settled the employer s last offer would have to be presented to the workers for a secret vote The act was also intended to reverse the alleged favoritism of New Deal legislation toward labor by listing a number of unfair union practices It banned the closed shop permitted employers to sue unions for broken contracts or strike damages required unions to make their financial statements in public forbade union contributions to political campaigns limited the quotcheck off system whereby employers collected union dues and required union leaders to take oaths that they were not Communists HUAC House UnAmerican Activities Committee anticommunism investigative committee of the US House of Representatives Created in response to the Great Fear NSC Memo 68National Security Council predicted that the Soviets could launch a nuclear attack on the United States by 1954 and recommended am increase in US spending for nuclear and conventional arms McCarthyism the practice of making accusations of disloyalty subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence Heightened the fears of communist in uence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents During this time thousand ofAmericans were accused ofbeing Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questions before government or private industry panels committees and agencies International Security Act Act that Congress created in response to McCarthyismrequired Communists and Communistfront organizations to register with the government and to identify as Communist all their mail and literature Forbade employment of Communists in defense work and barred anyone who had belonged to a Communist or fascist organization from entering the country McCarranWalter Immigration Actrestricted immigration into the US The Rosenberg s 1953 American communists who were executed for conspiracy to commit espionage during a time ofwar The charges related to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in US history Highway Act of 1956 Originally the act was intended to help people move from the urban areas to the suburbs Was supposed to construct 41000 miles ofInterstate Highway System over a 20year period by President Dwight D Eisenhower Billy GrahamDuring the 1950 s people started to get closer to religion because it was the time of the Cold War when contrasts between atheistic communism and religions America served political as well as religious purposes Graham argued that Americans must convert to Christianity in order to stave off the threat from godless communism Brown vsTopeka Board of EducationThe Supreme Court unanimously concluded quotThat in the field ofpublic education the doctrine if separate but equal has no place Overturned the decision in Plessy v Ferguson on which all Southern states rested the validity of their segregated public facilities the court opened a new chapter in history of African Americans in the United States Montgomery Bus Boycott A political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 intended to oppose the city s policy ofracial segregation on it public transit system The boycott resulted in a crippling financial de cit for the Montgomery public transit system because the city s black population who were the drivers of he boycott were also the bulk of the system s paying customers MLK Civil rights leader that followed the teachings of Gandhi Led the Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Leadership Conference Marshall Plan the fouryear economic program of cash grants to Europe with no repayment The goal of the US was rebuilding a wardevastated region removing trade barriers modernizing industry and making Europe prosperous again Never carried out because the Korean War intervened Integration of Little Rock Central High Schoolon Sept 23 1957 nine African American high school students faced an angry mob of over 1000 White Americans protesting integration in front of Central High First form ofintegration ofpublic schools in the South Cuban Missile Crisis a confrontation among the Soviet Union Cuba and the US US planes captured photos of the Soviets constructing mediumrange missiles on Cuban soil President Kennedy declared a naval quarantine of Cuba broadcasting to the world that the US intention to riskwar rather than to permit a buildup of Soviet missile power in Cuba Gulf of Tonkin Resolutionauthorized the President to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression Became known as Iohnson s quotBlank Check from Congress to do whatever he wanted in Vietnam Sixday War impact of US support of Israel 1967 ArabIsraeli War fought between Iune 5 and june 10 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt Iordan and Syria Expansion of US Role in Vietnam Teach ins and the AntiWar Movementthe refusal to limit the discussion to a specific frame of time During the Vietnam War at the University of Michigan students discussed the Vietnam war draft and ended with the logistics of a takeover of the University The largest teach in was at UC Berkeley Lasted 36 hours with a turnout of about 3000 people Counter Culture Revolt the rejection of the values of society The dress that many young people assumed pseudo proletarian blue jeans denim shirts and work boots fringed jackets and Indian headbands amboyant colors and designs set them apart from the quotstraightquot world even as it created a new uniformity An even bolder rejection of contemporary mores by young men was the wearing oflong hair a practice that developed in the mid60 An emphasis upon equality and a denial of deference rank and hierarchy SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee started by Stokely Carmichael in 1966 Slogan of quotBlack Power aroused a new sense of self awareness and pride among young blacks and a sense ofidentification and cohesion among blacks of all ages Didn tlast into the 1970 s but left a sense ofpositive identity among darkskinned Americans in regard to their blackness and their African origins Free Speech Movement a student protest that took place during 64 65 on the campus of the University of California Berkeley Students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of oncampus political activities and acknowledge the students right to free speech and academic freedom Black Panthers African American revolutionary organization Initially set forth for the protection ofAfrican American neighborhoods from police brutality Tet Offensive a military campaign during the Vietnam War The People s Army ofVietnam fought against the Republic ofVietnam and the US and their allies The purpose of the offensive was to strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam and to sparka general uprising among the population that would then topple the Saigon government thus ending the war in a single blow George Wallace governor of Alabama that had prosegregation attitudes during the American desegregation period President Johnson had to send federal troops into the South to provide the protection that he would not The Great Society a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the US on the initiative of President Johnson Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination ofpoverty and racial injustice New major spending programs that addressed education medical care urban programs and transportation were launched during this period Resembled the New Deal Voting Rights Act of 1964 amp 1965 provided for federal officers to register back voters in any country in which the Justice Department found less than 50 percent of the eligible voters actually participating in the presidential elections Outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the US D tentepermanent relaxation in international affairs during the Cold War rather than just a temporary relaxation The best way of containing communism The massive cost ofweapons production and maintaining a huge armed fore A peaceful relationship with the USSR would be very beneficial to USA especially after the cost of the Vietnam War Stag ation situation in which the in ation rate is high and the economic rate is low It raises a dilemma for economic policy since actions designed to lower in ation may worsen economic growth and vice versa Southern Strategy Nixon and the Republicansled to the electoral realignment of Southern states to the Republican Party but at the expense of losing more than 90 percent of black voters to the Democratic Party The republicans began trying to appeal again to black voters though with little success Proposition 13 decrease property taxes by assessing property values at their 1975 value of real property to an in ation factor not 0 exceed 2 per year It also prohibited reassessment ofnew base year value except for a change in ownership or completion ofnew construction School Busingeven though schools were desegregated the busing system bussed students to different cities and school districts to promote equal distribution of different races of children sometimes miles away from their homes which presented problems to families Many families were angry about having to send their children miles to another school in an unfamiliar neighborhood when there was an available school a short distance away Many whites moved their children to private and magnet schools Milliken vs Bradley ruled that students could be bused across district lines only when evidence of dejure segregation across multiple school districts existed Bakke Decision in 1978 a white student Allan Bakke was denied admission into a California medical school because they had a certain number of spots for minorities which violated his civil rights because of this Bakke was denied admission The Supreme Court struck down the quota system but did not rule out some kind of preference for minority students in admission to state educational institutions Title IX prohibited sex discrimination in educational programs receiving federal funding This law has remade the nature of athletics for women creating scholarships and other opportunities that were unheard of for earlier generations Stonewall Riot Symbolic launching of the gay rights movement Police raided a bar with a reputation of being frequented by gays the Stonewall Tavern At that time such a bar constituted an illegal assembly of homosexuals under the New York law but on this occasion the patrons fought back and there was a new slogan quotGay Power Christian Righta term to describe a quotrightwing Christian characterized by their strong support of public polices of social conservatism ie prolife no gay rights Supplyside Economics type of economy that is based on creating lowering barriers for people to produce goods and service such as lowering income tax and capital gains tax rates and by allowing greater exibility by reducing regulation Yuppies Young Urban Professionals term that refers to a member of the middle class in their 20s or 30s Savings amp Loans Collapse SampL s were to encourage highrisk investments because government oversight ofinvestment practices was terminated By the time the dust settled in the 3990s some 1300 institutions failed but no one lost money because SampL s were federally insured However American taxpayers were left with a bill of 160 billion to make up the loses AIDS quotgay cancer Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Known as quotGod s punishment for the sin of their gay men sexual orientation Mass hysteria rose in the US President Reagan refused to even use the term AIDS in public until 1985 Many religious people called for a quarantine ofquotall homosexual establishments and wanted to quotwipe them off the face of the earth Clarence Thomas an African American conservative nominated by President Bush to serve on the United States Supreme Court Democrats did not approve of this nomination but did not want to seem racist against the decision but the NAACP also opposed Thomas confirmation Even though University of Oklahoma Law School professor Anita Hill had come forth to testify against him the Senate till confirmed his nomination by a vote of 52 to 48 Recession of 1990started within the Reagan administration and carried over into the Bush administration There was a Federal deficit of 221 billion because Reagan was trying to build a bigger and better army and the Savings and Loans Crisis Unemployment was 78 Bush tried to stimulate the economy through tax cuts GulfWar Ithe invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein in an effort to access the oil that Kuwait produced The takeover would solve his 98 million international debt and give him better Gulfaccess and allow him to shut down Kuwaiti overproduction of oil thus forcing an increase in oil prices President Bush demanded that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait and when Iraq did not do so immediately began quotOperation Desert Shield building US troop strength in Saudi Arabia in preparation for an invasion In an attempt to get Israel into the war and divide the Arab coalition that had joined the US they fired 12 SCUD missiles On February 23 Iraq announced the acceptance ofa Soviet peace plan that called for immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait That same day Saddam ordered withdrawal from Kuwait and then set 640 Kuwaiti oil wells ablaze in one of the worst environmental disasters in human history New Democrat definitely on the final look for more detailsemerged after the victory of George HW Bush in the 1988 presidential election Democratic views toward social issues but republican views toward the economy Newt Gingrichthe republican s choice as the new Speaker of the House 1995 from Georgia Brought 10 items of the Contract with American up for votes within the first 100 days of the new Congress Few of the items became law and Congress failed to pass the balanced budget or term limits constitutional amendments Passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act a bill aimed at reconstructing the welfare system balanced the federal budget NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement endorsed by President Bill Clinton an agreement signed by the governments of Canada Mexico and the US creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America Organized labor officials charged that NAFTA would accelerate the loss ofjobs to Mexico while environmentalists pointed to dangers posed by heavily polluting Mexican factories Election of 2000 Bush vs Gore During the 2000 election vs republican candidate George W Bush and democratic candidate Albert Gore there was controversy about the votes in liberal Palm Beach County In the summer of 1999 Florida Republican Secretary of State Katherine Harris arranged for the state of Florida to pay 4 million to a company to electronically remove the votes of felons from the approved voters list problem was that many minorities shared the same name nonfelons and their votes were removed The Gore campaign also alleged that the voting machine problems in several counties affected the outcome and called for a History Review 2 Alfred Mahanpublisher of The In uence of Sea Power upon History Argued that only a large navy could protect the trade that would be the lifeblood of the new American empire The Maine battleship that President McKinley dispatched to Havana in a gesture designed to display the American government s resolve to force a settlement between Cuba and Spain Exploded on February 15th killing 260 Americans The cause was never determined but the blame was placed on Spain and called for war Dollar Diplomacy The use of private American capital often against both the desire and the judgment of the bankers concerned to displace European bondholders and concessionaires in Latin America The idea ofDollar Diplomacy was to wield in uence in Latin America through trade and investment rather than direct military control Roosevelt Corollary an extension of the Monroe Doctrine which asserted a right of the United States to intervene in order to stabilize the economic affairs of the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts Election of 1916The election took place while World War I was occurring Despite the ties with Europe most Americans felt the need to remain neutral Woodrow Wilson democrat had the campaign theme of quotHe kept us out of war and his opponent republican and former justice Charles Evan Hughes was forced to call for a hard policy towards Germany that would assure peace The republicans were favored to win but Woodrow Wilson won every state west if the central time zone and declared the winner the next day Zimmerman Noteproposal from Germany to Mexico to make war against the United States and in return they would help give Mexico land they lost to the United States Mexico declined but this angered the Americans and led in part to a US declaration ofwar War Industries Boarda government agency established during World War I to coordinate the purchase ofwar supplies The organization encouraged companies to use massproduction techniques to increase efficiency and urge them to eliminate waste by standardizing products The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials Espionage Act 1917 made it a crime to quotaid the enemy or quotobstruct the United States war effort Seemed like everything was going good to the eye but in practice they became launching pads for oppression and the erosion of freedom Sedition Act of 1918 Forbade the use of disloyal or abusive language about the United States government its ag or its armed forces or that cause others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt communist and social parties who criticized the United States government effort in war were effectively silenced and over 500 communists were deported League of Nationsan intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference Keynesian Economics Theoretical formulation by John Maynard Keynes Idea brought about the first major revision of economic theory in the twentieth century and they offered a more realistic view of the operation of the entire economy Most important conclusions were I that increasing the income of the poor stimulates demand while increasing the income of the rich promoted saving II that increased demand not increased saving led to new business investment 111 total income could increase only from such investment IV if the functioning of the undistributed free market did not provide adequate business investment to maintain a sufficient ow of income government was the only agency with sufficient spending power to see that this result was achieved it AmendmentAim was to allow Sates to maintain an effective and uniform system for controlling liquor by regulating its transportation importation and use Repealed the Eighteenth Amendment Ku Klux Klan KKK Immigration Restriction1921 limited the annual numb er of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3 1924 limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2 of the number ofpeople from that country who were already living in US Law was aimed at further restricting the Southern amp Eastern Europeans who were immigrating in large numbers Great Depression0ptimism abounded during the 1920s Capable man at the helm of the nation 3 ofpeople in the market rose to 45 High levels of speculation Margin Black Thursday amp Black Tuesday Panic spending thousands of small investors wiped out unable to pay debts Huey Long Senator of Louisiana who believed the depression could be cured by government spending advocated a guaranteed minimum income and a capital levy on the rich to provide every family with a home car and a radio Ran by the slogan quotEvery man a king which made him a threat to Roosevelt s control of the Democratic party until he was killed by a personal enemy Court packing Plan Roosevelt s plan to pack the courts with people that agreed with his views and supported him and his New Deal programs Dust Bowl A drought during the mid and late 1930s in the Midwest and Southwest Compounded by summer heat waves and poor agricultural practices Converted once fertile farmland into desert Threefifths of the farmers went bankrupt Dust storms occurred as millions of tons of topsoil was carried into the atmosphere by the wind dropping dust even on coast cities Finally came under control in 1941 when the demand for agricultural products increased rain returned and the land became cultivated again Because of the dust bowl 300000 people migrated to California FERA Program set in place by FDR for the direct relief for the unemployed The first time that benefits for unemployment was performed Cash for unemployment Main goal was to alleviate household unemployment Civilian Conservation Corps public work relief program for the unemployed unmarried men Provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal state and local governments Agricultural Adjustment Act restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill excess livestock Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops NIRA National Industrial Recovery Act authorized the president to regulated industry and permits cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery and established a national works program m Public Works Administration concentrated on the construction of largescale public works dams and bridges with the goal of providing employment stabilizing purchasing power and contributing to a revival of American industry Focused on saving natural resources m Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation provides depositinsurance which guarantees the safety of deposits in banks Social Security Act created a social security board to administer unemployment compensation oldage security and various social services Neutrality Actprohibited the export of arms or ammunition to belligerents and required the President to forbid American citizens to travel on the ships of the belligerents except at their own risk Restricted loans and munitions in time of war LendLease bill that Roosevelt drew up in order to aid England in the war It called for munitions ofwar and supplies of many kinds to be turned over to those nations which were in war with aggressor nations In the bill we were to be paid backin goods and services at the end of the war The passage of this bill ultimately broke the law ofneutrality The bill committed American industrial power nearly equal to that of all the rest of the world to the defeat of Germany Executive Order 8802Fair Employment Act prohibited racial discrimination in the nation defense industry The first federal action that promoted equal opportunity and prohibited employment discrimination in the US Home Front During WWII Economic Impact government spent between 320 Billion between 1940 amp 1945 Pressure was put on prices Income tax raised to up to 94 By 1944 42 Million Americans filed income tax returns 100 billion in war bonds The creation of Office of Price Administration 10 increase in consumer prices GNP doubles Society Impact Dramatic increase ofwomen working African Americans left the South to go to the North amp West Race Riots Creation of the Office of War Information way to spread national message Development of radar proximity fuses better methods of fighting Malaria and freezedried plasma Fair F Practices f 39 39 required that companies with government contract not to discriminate on the basis of race or religion It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the homefront industry Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hiroshima The first use of the atomic bomb Nagasaki the second use of the atomic bomb The reason behind the use of the atomic bomb was never made 100 clear The bomb could be used to end the war and spare the lives of US soldiers Also used to frighten the Soviets into recognizing US hegemony and the need for cooperation with US GI Bill of Rights benefited about one half of the returning veterans were able to achieve at least some higher education The bill had a powerful impact in democratizing access to college and thus in helping millions of families into the middle class TaftHartley Act LaborManagement Relations Act act empowered the President to force a union to accept a 60day quotcoolingoffperiod before striking If at the end of the coolingoff period the dispute were not settled the last offer would have to the workers for a secret vote Truman Doctrine stated that the US would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere 400 million Marshall Plan economic program of the United States for rebuilding and creating a strong economic foundation for the countries of Europe


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