History of the United States to 1877
History of the United States to 1877 HIST 2300
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chet Dach on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2300 at Texas Tech University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/226493/hist-2300-texas-tech-university in History at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
39239 Debates surrounding Constitution gt Slavery gt Bill of rights gt State power vs national power gt Checks and balances I The state is divided into branches each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no one branch has more power than the other branches gt Virginia plan I A legislative branch consisting of two chambers bicameral legislature with the dual principles of rotation in office and recall applied to the lower house of the national legislature Each of the states would be represented in proportion to their llQuotas of contribution or to the number of free inhabitants gt New Jersey Plan I a singlechamber legislature in which each state regardless of size would have one vote as under the Articles of Confederation gt Great Compromise I An agreement between large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution t proposed a bicameral legislature resulting in the current United States Senate and House of Representatives o o 39 First 2 party system gt Jefferson RepublicansAnti Federalists I Dictate that the central governing authority of a nation should be equal or inferior to but not having more power than its subnational states state government V Federalists The Federalist policies called for a national bank tariffs and good relations with Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794 Their political opponents the Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison denounced most of the Federalist policies especially the bank and vehemently attacked the Jay Treaty as a sellout of republican values to the British monarchy The Jay Treaty passed and indeed the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s They held a strong base in the nation39s cities and in New England 39239 Era of good feelings I Started in the euphoric moment after the Americans claimed victory in the War of 1812 National pride and a nationalistic spirit surged in the wake of victories over the British invaders In the election of 1820 Monroe was reelected with near unanimity 39239 Missouri Compromise Why was it necessary I An agreement passed in 1820 between the proslavery and antislavery factions in the United States Congress involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories I It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36 3039 north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri I Prior to the agreement the House of Representatives had refused to accept this I and a was appointed The United States Senate refused to concur in the amendment and the whole measure was lost 39239 Jacksonian Democracy I Promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress while also seeking to broaden the public39s participation in government I They demanded elected not appointed judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values I In national terms the Jacksonians favored geographical expansion justifying it in terms of Manifest Destiny 39239 Whigs VS Democrats gt Democrats I The party of tradition I Looked backward to the past I Spoke to the fears of American I Opposed banks and corporations as statelegislated economic privilege I Opposed statelegislated reforms and preferred individual freedom of choice I Were Jeffersonian agrarians who favored farms and rural independence and the right to own slaves I Favored rapid territorial expansion over space by purchase or war I Believed in progress through external growth I Democratic ideology of agrarianism slavery states rights territorial expansion was favored in the South gt Whigs I The party of modernization I Looked forward to the future I Spoke to the hopes of Americans I Wanted to use federal and state government to promote economic growth especially transportation and banks I Advocated reforms such as temperance and public schools and prison reform I Were entrepreneurs who favored industry and urban growth and free labor I Favored gradual territorial expansion over time and opposed the Mexican War I Believed in progress through internal growth I Whig ideology of urbanization industrialization federal rights and commercial expansion was favored in the North 39239 Antebellum America 39239 Mexican American war What influence on military WestPoint gt Major battles I Battle of Palo Alto I Battle of Vera Cruz I Battle of New Mexico I Battle of Cerro Gordo u v V v v V VV I Battle of California I Battle of Mexico City Turning Points I GEN Taylorwas first into Mexico after his scouts were bushwhacked at Pa lo Alto and Taylor delayed de Santa Anna and the bulk ofthe Mexican army at Buena Vista as GEN Winfield Scott landed at Veracruz I From there it was a runningfight to the gates of Mexico DF My guess Buena Vista as de Santa Anna unaware ofthe U S naval force westbound and down on the Gulf with an entire army aboard marched off to shut down Taylor Got Texas Set borders for Texas Duke of wellington said we were goingto lose North west ordinance of 1787 I An act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States I The primaw effect ofthe ordinance was the creation ofthe Northwest Territow as the first organized territow of the United States out ofthe region south of the Great Lakes north and west ofthe Ohio River and east ofthe Mississippi River Mmmm new 7 VNorthwertT mtory 1787 War of 1812 0nis Treaty I Settled a borderdispute in North America between the United States and Spain The item was the result of increasingtensions between the US and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power in the New World I In addition to ceding Florida to the United States the treaty settled a boundaw dispute alongthe Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundaw of US territow and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange forthe US paying residents claims against the Spanish government up to a total of 5000000 and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west ofthe Sabine River and other Spanish areas underthe terms of the Louisiana Purchase Southern Ladies I Epitomized Southern hospitality cultivation of beauty and a flirtatious yet chaste demeanor Kansas and Nebraska act1854 I Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska opened new lands repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries 39239 Stephen A Douglas I Largely responsible for the Compromise of 1850 that apparently settled slavery issues However in 1854 he reopened the slavery question by the highly controversial Kansas Nebraska Act that allowed the people of the new territories to decide for themselves whether or not to have slavery which is known as llpopular sovereignty The protest movement against this became the Republican Party 39239 John Brown I A radical abolitionist from the United States who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to abolish slavery for good I He led the Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856 in Bleeding Kansas and made his name in the unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859 I He was tried and executed for murder later that year 39239 Compromise of 1850 I An intricate package of five bills passed in September 1850 defusing a fouryear confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North that arose following the MexicanAmerican War 1846 1848 The compromise drafted by Whig Henry Clay and brokered by Democrat Stephen Douglas avoided secession or civil war at the time and quieted sectional conflict for four years 0 Texas 0 Organization of two new territories 0 California 0 Fugitive Slave Law 0 Banning of slave trade in Washington DC 39239 TelegraphMorse code I An electrical telegraph was independently developed and patented in the United States in 1837 by Samuel Morse His assistant Alfred Vail developed the Morse code signaling alphabet with Morse America39s first telegram was sent by Morse on 6 January 1838 across two miles 3 km of wire at Speedwell Ironworks near Morristown New Jersey 39239 Election of 1824 I In this election the DemocraticRepublican Party splintered as four separate candidates sought the presidency Such splintering had not yet led to formal party organization but later the faction led by Andrew Jackson would evolve into the Democratic Party while the factions led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay would become the National Republican Party and later the Whig Party I Andrew Jackson I John Quincy Adams I Henry Clay I William H Crawford o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 Trail of tears I the forced relocation and movement of Native Americans including many members of the Cherokee Muscogee Creek Seminole and Choctaw nations among others in the United States from their homelands to Indian Territory present day Oklahoma in the Western United States 10 h amendment I states the Constitution39s principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states by the Constitution of the United States are reserved to the states or the people Industrial revolution gt Three important developments I First transportation was expanded I Second electricity was effectively harnessed I Third improvements were made to industrial processes such as improving the refining process and accelerating production Daniel Boone I An American pioneer explorer and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States I Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky which was then beyond the western borders of the settled part of Thirteen Colonies This region legally belonged to both the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the American Indian Tribes Split in north and south economy I North Industry I South Agriculture Gold Rush I Began on January 24 1848 when gold was found by James W Marshall at Sutter39s Mill in Coloma California I News of the discovery brought some 300000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad I Of the 300000 approximately half arrived by sea and half walked overland KnowNothing Party Free soil party
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