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by: Marcella Lebsack


Marcella Lebsack
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Nancy McIntyre

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Nancy McIntyre
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marcella Lebsack on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 4310 at Texas Tech University taught by Nancy McIntyre in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/226499/biol-4310-texas-tech-university in Biology at Texas Tech University.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
Landscape Ecology Applications reserve design Termspeople Reserve design and placement network Umbrella concept William Newmark Diamond s design principles GAP analysis Scott et al 1993 Reserve selection algorithms greedy rarity annealing Why landscape ecology is imp01tant to conservation Consider this only about 115 of the Earth s land surface is protected with the world s largest protected area being in Greenland but most 65 of that 115 is in areas where resource extraction is allowed In the US there are 91 million acres that are designated wildemess 59 of these are smaller than Disney World A landscape ecology approach is necessary to alleviate the pressures put upon these wildland remnants by the everburgeoning population Conservation biology has a natural affinity for landscape ecology Conservation biology s raison d etre is the conservation of diversity usually species diversity esp species richness However there is much to recommend taking a landscape approach to conservation We shall discuss 3 such reasons 1 The quotumbrellaquot concept quotumbrellaquot species keystone species for more info on keystone species check out my Community Ecology BIOL 43105310 lecture on them by clicking here This concept has been extended to consider landscapes as umbrellas for all species contained therein see eg Franklin 1993 Noss 1996 Because it is necessarily less narrowly focused that traditional singlespecies conservation this approach is also less precise or speci c This quotfuzzinessquot is forgiving to some 39 J 39 39 in ourk 39 J and J J39 quot and it can accommodate changing wants and needs in the future however it also hides a multitude of sins such as illdefined goals inappropriately applied models etc 2 A regional perspective Reserve or habitat network dissertation work of William Newmark 3 The importance of the matrix The in uence of the matrix or the mosaic if you will has already been discussed in this course re context To recap a patch s or a reserve s context within the matrix has profound implications on the patterns observed within the patchreserve see e g Ricketts 2001 William Newmark s PhD work above also makes some strong suggestions about the importance of park context Although Newmark did not examine outside effects explicitly himself this is work that needs doing another great PhD project idea Intersections between landscape ecology and conservation biology Landscape ecology focuses on two issues that are central to conservation biology metapopulation dynamics and factors affecting communities in spatially heterogeneous landscapes McCullough 1996 and the role of disturbance in creating landscape dynamics especially habitat dynamics Pickett and Thompson 1978 Pickett et al 1997 These two foci come together in the design of nature reserves or systems networks of nature reserves eg Murphy and Noon 1992 Principles from landscape ecology that are applicable to conservation biology There is a threshold response to habitat loss Connectivity must be assessed from an organismal perspective and we must recognize that different organisms may perceive different levels of connectivity or fragmentation Habitat area or connectivity alone are not sufficient for population persistence Corridors may not be strictly necessary to enhance connectivity Think of stepping stones The protection of highquality habitat may be as importance as enhancing connectivity Remember the Summerville and Crist 2001 paper from the fragmentation lecture There are usually positive relationships between diversity and habitat area the speciesarea relationship and between diversity and landscape heterogeneity The management of large patches is thus usually seen as preventative management whereas the management of small patches is crisis management Landscape ecology and the design of nature reserves Both landscape ecology and conservation biology have come a long way from SLOSS yet the design of nature reserves or more commonly reserve networks remains a touchstone for methodological challenges of both disciplines This design debate has matured from single large or several small to consider a variety of criteria in site selection and reserve design There are thus two aspects of reserve formation that are used to preserve biodiversity design and location placement These two aspects design and location are not mutually exclusive For example The Nature Conservancy embraces four main criteria in reserve selection that combine aspects of both 0 Ecological uniqueness which emphasizes rarity of the taxa but also considers endemism or other ecological factors that would generate special concern for the species or site Viability which considers the likelihood that the species would persist on the site if protected Factors contributing to viability include reserve size site connectedness and edge effects or other agents effecting net recruitment Threats which broadly encompasses any natural or anthropogenic agents that might reduce the site39s longterm viability or value as a reserve Development pressure or impacts from surrounding land uses are often cited as primary threats Feasibility which includes a range of factors related to the likelihood that the site can be acquired and protected This category includes economic as well as administrative criteria Which of these criteria receives the most weight in any particular application of course depends on issues or extenuating circumstances for that case There can be no global general recipe for reserve design The actual process is rather involved Check out The Nature Conservancy39s website httpwwwnatureorg for more info and for some real examples The location of a nature reserve can mean success or failure in conservation Therefore reserve placement is a key issue in conservation Many decisions about where to place a reserve are made for rather mundane reasons somebody leaves a parcel of land in hisher will to The World Wildlife Federation or The Nature Conservancy for the express purpose of creating a nature reserve for example That is a gift horse that shouldn t be looked in the mouth Other reserves occur where they do because the habitat or organism they preserve are very restricted in distribution e g TNC s Forty Acre Rock Heritage Preserve in South Carolina Sometimes however we do have a more active choice in where to concentrate our conservation efforts In these circumstances we must take a systematic approach to make prudent decisions from Margules and Pressey 2000 1 Compile data on the biodiversity of the planning region 0 Review existing data and decide on which data sets are sufficiently consistent to serve as surrogates for biodiversity across the planning region If time allows collect new data to augment or replace some existing data sets Collect information on the localities of species considered to be rare andor threatened in the region these are likely to be missed or underrepresented in conservation areas selected only on the basis of land classes such as vegetation types 2 Identify conservation goals for the planning region 0 Set quantitative conservation targets for species vegetation types or other features for example at least three occurrences of each species 1500 ha of each vegetation type or specific targets tailored to the conservation needs of individual features Despite inevitable subjectivity in their formulation the value of such goals is their explicitness 0 Set quantitative targets for minimum size connectivity or other design aspects 0 Identify qualitative targets or preferences for example as far as possible new conservation areas should have minimal previous disturbance from grazing or logging 3 Review existing conservation areas 0 Measure the extent to which quantitative targets for representation and design have been achieved by existing conservation areas 0 Identify the imminence of threat to underrepresented features such as species or vegetation types and the threats posed to areas that will be important in securing satisfactory design targets 4 Select additional conservation areas 0 Regard established conservation areas as focal points for an expanded design of an existing system 0 Identify preliminary sets of new conservation areas for consideration as additions to established areas Options for doing this include reserveselection algorithms or decisionsupport software to allow stakeholders to design expanded systems that achieve regional conservation goals subject to constraints such as existing reserves acquisition budgets or limits on feasible opportunity costs for other land uses 5 Implement conservation actions 0 Decide on the most appropriate or feasible form of management to be applied to individual areas 0 If one or more selected areas prove to be degraded or difficult to protect return to stage 4 and look for alternatives 0 Decide on the relative timing of conservation management when resources are insufficient to implement the whole system in the short term the usual case 6 Maintain the required values of conservation areas 0 Set conservation goals at the level of individual conservation areas Ideally these goals will acknowledge the particular values of the area in the context of the whole system Implement management actions and zonings in and around each area to achieve the goals Monitor key indicators that will re ect the success of management actions or zonings in achieving goals Modify management activities as required Reserve selection algorithms greedy algorithms rarity algorithms annealing algorithms There is much debate about how to select a design and location for a reserve see Prendergast et al 1999 and Pressey and Cowling 2001 There are several ways of implementing these steps to prioritize areas for potential reserve placement We will discuss one of the main ones used in the US GAP analysis GAP analysis Scott et al 1993 Used in determining location of nature reserves Is especially useful in the hierarchical quottriagequot process that modern conservation efforts usually entail Gap analysis was designed to be a proactive approach to conservation that identifies important habitat areas or species before they become threatened by habitat degradation or loss GAP is not really an acronym although it is sometimes used to refer to quotGap Analysis Proj ectsquot the term quotgapquot is actually much more mundane and refers to actual gaps holes in existing protection for a given species of concern Process Step 1 Obtain data eg GIS coverages maps aerial photographs Since most GAP analyses now use GIS digitize nonGIS data Types of data commonly used in GAP vegetation soil types land use elevation slope precipitation protection status e g from existing reserves land ownership species distributionshome ranges Step 2 Overlay layers of data Step 3 Visualize gaps Step 4 Prioritize gaps with respect to not listed in any particular order maximal diversitymaximal numbers of rare taxa proximity of threats e g urban boundaries proximity to existing reserves to create reserve networks feasibility of preserving land ie is owner willing to donatesell thereby creating a ranking of potential reserve locations Because there are so many features that can be used in prioritization and different ways of hierarchically ordering them this step is the most crucial and yet the most subjective Step 5 Using the rank list generated in step 4 make recommendations to landuse planners conservation groups etc Criticisms of GAP Short and Hestbeck 1995 Conroy and Noon 1996 base map usu vegetation or soil may be too general overall scale may be too coarse to see small but important gaps no distinction made between hard and soft patch boundaries overlaying layers compounds errors Defenses of GAP Edwards 1996 Edwards et al 1996 is useful at a broadlandscape scale groundlevel work often too expensive or timeconsuming and conservation is often done on a snapdecision triage pace Most US states and some other countries support statewide GAP projects Check out the national website coordinated by USGS httpwwwgapuidahoedu The Texas GAP project was completed in 2004 http www gapuidahoeduProjectsStatesDetailaspState x Once reserve locations are determined then the design of reserves comes into question Reserve design Diamond 1975 derived quotdesign principlesquot click here for another version for preservation of maximum richness a large reserve is preferable to a small one a cluster of reserves is preferable to isolated ones connected reserves are preferable to separated ones round preserves are preferable to linear ones The future of landscape ecology39s involvement in conservation biology will likely lie in addressing the following questions To what extent can careful landscape planning compensate for habitat loss In other words can we use high habitat quality to compensate for low habitat area No patch is an island meaning that reserves are affected by things going on outside of the reserves themselves ie landscape context matters This calls for integrative management of both the reserves and the surroundings in which they are embedded Christensen et al 1996 How can the logistical difficulties of sampling and monitoring landscapes be reconciled with the pressing urgency of most conservation efforts Given the urgent need for information on most species and landscapes yet faced with the logistical difficulties of conducting experiments on landscapes how can landscape ecologists provide data that are obtainable and yet useful References Ahern J 1999 Spatial concepts planning strategies and future scenarios A framework method for integrating landscape ecology and landscape planning Pp 175201 in Landscape EcologicalAnalysz39s Issues and Applications J M Klopatek and RH Gardner eds SpringerVerlag New York NY Arnold GW 1995 Incorporating landscape pattern into conservation programs Pp 309337 in Mosaic Landscapes and Ecological Processes L Hansson L Fahrig and G Merriam eds Chapman and Hall London UK Bissonette J A 1997 Wildlife anal Landscape Ecology E ects of Pattern anal Scale SpringerVerlag New York NY Brussard PF 1991 The role of ecology in biological conservation Ecol Appl 1612 Cabeza M and A Moilanen 2001 Design of reserve networks and the persistence of biodiversity Trends Ecol Evol 16242248 Christensen NL AN Bartuska JH Brown S Carpenter C D39Antonio R Francis JF Franklin JA MacMahon RF Noss DJ Parsons CH Peterson MG Turner and RG Woodmansee 1996 The report ofthe Ecological Society of America Committee on the scienti c basis for ecosystem management Ecol Appl 6665691 Conroy MJ and BR Noon 1996 Mapping of species richness for conservation of biological diversity conceptual and methodological issues Ecol Appl 6763775 Csuti B S Polasky PH Williams RL Pressey JD Camm M Kershaw AR Keister B Downs R Hamilton M Huso and K Sahr 1997 A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon Biol Conserv 8083 97 Diamond JM 1975 The island dilemma lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design ofnature reserves Biol Conserv 7129146 Edwards TC 1996 Data defensibility and GAP analysis BioScience 467577 Edwards TC ET Dechler D Foster and GG Moisen 1996 Adequacy of wildlife habitat relation models for estimating spatial distributions of terrestrial vertebrates Conserv Biol 10263270 Levins R 1969 Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control Bull Entomol Soc Am 15237240 Margules CR ID Cresswell and A0 Nichols 1994 A scienti c basis for establishing networks of protected areas Pp 327350 in Systematics anal Conservation Evaluation PL Forey CJ Humphries and RI VaneWright eds Oxford University Press Oxford UK Margules CR and RL Pressey 2000 Systematic conservation planning Nature 405243253 McCullough DR ed 1996 Metapopulations anal Wildlife Conservation Island Press Washington DC Meffe GK and CR Carroll 1994 Principles of Conservation Biology Sinauer Sunderland MA Murphy DD and BR Noon 1992 Integrating scienti c methods with habitat conservation planning reserve design for the Northern Spotted Owl Ecol Appl 2317 Pickett STA RS Ostfeld M Shachak and GE Likens eds 1997 The Ecological Basis of Conservation Chapman and Hall New York NY Pickett STA and JN Thompson 1978 Patch dynamics and the design of nature reserves Biol Conserv 132737 Poiani KA MD Merrill and KA Chapman 2001 Identifying conservationpriority areas in a fragmented Minnesota landscape based on the umbrella species concept and selection of large patches of natural vegetation Conserv Biol 15513522 Prendergast JR RM Quinn and JH Lawton 1999 The gaps between theory and practice in selecting nature reserves Conserv Biol 13484492 Pressey RL and RM Cowling 2001 Reserve selection algorithms and the real world Conserv Biol 15275277 Pressey RL CJ Humphries CR Margules RI VaneWright and PH Williams 1993 Beyond opportunism key principles for systematic reserve selection Trends Ecol Evol 8124 128 Pulliam HR 1988 Sources sinks and population regulation Am Nat 132652661 Saunders DA RJ Hobbs and CR Margules 1991 Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation a review Cons Biol 51832 Scott JM F Davis B Csuti R Noss B Butter eld C Groves J Anderson S Caicco F D Erchia TC Edwards J Ulliman and RG Wright 1993 Gap analysis a geographical approach to protection of biological diversity Wildl Monogr 123141 Short HL and JB Hestbeck 1995 National biotic resource inventories and GAP analysis BioScience 45535539


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