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Introduction to Atmospheric Science

by: Jarod Swift IV

Introduction to Atmospheric Science ATMO 1300

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > Atmospheric Science > ATMO 1300 > Introduction to Atmospheric Science
Jarod Swift IV
GPA 3.91

John Schroeder

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John Schroeder
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jarod Swift IV on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATMO 1300 at Texas Tech University taught by John Schroeder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/226503/atmo-1300-texas-tech-university in Atmospheric Science at Texas Tech University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 739 Precipitation Processes UnderSlandz39ng Weather and Climate Aguado and Burt ATMO 1300 Precipitation Why Cloud Droplets Don t Fall 0 Gravity vs Updraft Terminal Velocity The final speed obtained by an object falling through the atmosphere A balance between gravity and the frictional forces drag on the object ATM01300 How Large is Large Enough pioal ramdro 2millimelers pical oud droplet 0 02 millimeters Con densalion nucleus V 000 millimeters ISSS Wadsworth Publlihlng CompanyNF ATMO 1300 Growth of Cloud Droplets Condensation 0 Warm Clouds Collision and Coalescence Cool and Cold Clouds Bergeron Process Riming and Aggregation ATM01300 Condensation 0 Can lead to quick growth for small water droplets Once radii of 20 microns is passed the efficiency of condensation is reduced 0 By itself condensation would produce few raindrops ATMO 1300 Collision Collisions between drops 7 Dependent on absolute size of the collector drop and relative size of the droplets below 7 Most ef cient when droplets are slightly smaller than the collector drop ATM01300 Coalescence 0 When droplets stick together after colliding Coalescence efficiencies are usually assumed to be near 100 ATM01300 Bergeron Process Depends on the coeXistence of supercooled water and ice in the same cloud Saturation vapor pressure over ice is less than that over water at the same temperature Leads to a continuous transfer in which supercooled droplets surrender water vapor which is subsequently deposited onto the ice crystals ATMo 1300 T Bergeron Process Condensation yamLI Evaporation vale Sublimation Depasmon late 1 quotF s ATM01300 T Riming Analogous to droplet collision Riming is the collision of ice crystals and supercooled water droplets 0 Causes rapid grow of ice crystals and acceleration of their fall speeds ATM01300 Aggregation The joining together of two ice crystals to form a single larger crystal ATMO 1300 Types of Precipitation Snow Rain Graupel Hail Sleet Freezing Rain ATM01300 Snow Results from the growth of ice crystals through deposition riming and aggregation A snow ake s structure depends on the temperature and moisture conditions that eXist when the crystal is formed Warmer conditions provide for riming and a wet snow pack Colder conditions provide for less adhesion riming and a powder ATMO 1300 T Average Annual Snowfall cm in Over mm over 150 nu Icw 50409 30753 549 Under 15 name OCE N 9 5 n mm mm M95 x x 0 am 360mm 4 a Ami 1300 Raindrop Shape 9 Not tear drop shaped ffffff ATM39O 1300 39 US Precipitation r ATLAN TIC OCEAN Graupel When riming coats an ice crystal and its 6 sided sharp edges are lost into a milky White spongy texture Graupel can fall to the ground or remain in the cloud providing a nucleus for hail ATM01300 Hail 0 Ice pellets forms in roughly concentric layers 0 Formed by a repetitive sequence Where ice falls into a region with liquid droplets and provides a liquid coating upon lifting the ice crystal higher the coating freezes and the process restarts Figure 613 in text book ATMo 1300 T average Incldenca of hailstorms 0 2m Eg nMues quot o no Abaxilummm m Sleet 0 Raindrops freeze in the air While falling to the surface 0 Must have a layer in the lowest portion of the atmosphere with a temperature below 0 C Requires an inversion aloft ATM01300 Sleet Temp 1 lt a vq xx quot391mp Warm ilr gt 0 cc Temp lt 0 quotG Cold alr ca pellets ATMO 1300 Freezing Rain 0 Light rain or drizzle of supercooled water droplets fall through air at or slightly below 0 C It freezes when it hits the ground ATM01300 Measuring Rainfall Raingauge A instrument which collects the rain and enables its measurement Tipping Rain Gauges WeighingBucket Gauges ATMO 1300 Measurement Errors 0 Rain gauges only represent a point measurement 0 Errors Wind generated turbulence can de ect precipitation from entering the gauge Splashing Snow drifts ATM01300 Snow Measurement Measure depth Water equivalency depth of water which would result if all of the snow was melted Conversion factors 101 Snow pillows big mattresses lled with antifreeze liquid and connected to a pressure regulator ATMO 1300 Measuring Precipitation by Radar Intensity of backseattered radiation to the radar indicates the size of the particles droplets snow akes gruapel or hailstones ATM01300 T Radar Estimates 7 f ATM01300 T The raw score is before the 18 point curve is applied The curved score is the grade that will be used towards our final rade


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