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Introduction to Mass Communications

by: Mrs. Otha Langosh

Introduction to Mass Communications MCOM 1300

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > Mass Media Communication > MCOM 1300 > Introduction to Mass Communications
Mrs. Otha Langosh
GPA 3.91

Elizabeth Watts

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Elizabeth Watts
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Otha Langosh on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MCOM 1300 at Texas Tech University taught by Elizabeth Watts in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 508 views. For similar materials see /class/226508/mcom-1300-texas-tech-university in Mass Media Communication at Texas Tech University.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Review Chapters 38 Chapter 3 1 The Association of American Publishers is an example of an Trade organization 2 A Monopoly is a single company that dominates production and distribution in an industry either nationally or locally 3 The company headed by Rupert Murdoch is called News Corporation 4 Capitalism is an economic system with private owners operating trade and industry for pro t 5 The process of companies being brought into common ownership but remaining distinct entities is called conglomeration 6 When a media chain sells some of its assets in troubled economic times it39s called divestiture 7 Christian Science Monitor is the national daily newspaper sponsored by the Christian Science church 8 The Associated Press is an example of a nonpro t business model 9 What is form of journalism that is being abandoned by budgetstrapped traditional media companies Investigative reporting 10 Is Family ownership of newspapers is decreasing 11 Who distributes funding to PBS and NPR Corporation for public broadcasting 11 What does it mean for the news media to be a watchdog of government Monitor of government performance on behalf of citizens 12 What new models of news media nancing have been suggested Government funding philanthropy underwriting fun drives micropayments 13 Why don39t media conglomerates improve the quality of journalism They want to make pro ts 14 According to Andy Grove the nal stages of an aging industry follow a predictable threestage course In what order are those stages Ignore new challenges resist change and radical reforms 15 What is the trend in media ownership Entrepreneur and change in conglomerates Chapter 4 1 What is the name for an exclusive legal right to reproduce original works Copyright 2 What is the magazine innovations described in the text Essays investigative reporting personality pro les and photojournalism 3 What is muckraking A form of investigative reporting that publishes facts exposing wrongdoings 4 What is the descriptor for magazines that have intellectual appeal Highlow slicks 5 What industry innovated longform journalism which includes thoughtprovoking commentary essays and ction Essays 6 What activities do magazines outsource Staffing circulation and printing 7 Which types of magazines are increasing in advertising and circulation despite the slippage in the industry as a whole 8 About how many magazines are published in the United States 12000 9 What is an Internet site called that collects and repackages content from other sources Aggregator 10 What is Daniel Defoe39s contribution to journalism Essays 11 What is investigative reporting A form of muckraking 12 What is the watchdog function of journalism It monitors of the government performance 13 What were the Pentagon Papers Secret government generated Vietnam War military documents revealed by the New York Times 14 According to a lecture what preliminary work did Dewitt Wallace do to start the Reader s Digest Research in the library 15 Which magazine pioneered the photo essay Life 16 CPM is an advertising term for cost per thousand 17 Magazines survived the assault of television by reinventing themselves and appealing to a narrower or focused audience This process is called demassi cation 18 What is the name for the book genre that includes encyclopedias dictionaries and atlases Reference books 19 What is a trade book Genera interest titles including non ction and ction 20 What percentage of trade books loses money 60 2 1 What is the name for an exclusive legal right to reproduce original works Copyright 22 What is POD in connection with book publishing Printing and binding of books in low volumes even a single copy 23 Which newspaper is considered the newspaper of record New York Times 24 When did newspaper circulation peak 1988 25 What concerns newspaper chains more content or pro t Pro t 26 What percent of magazines produced in the United States are sold on newsstands Less than 10 27 What department creates content for newspapers Production 28 What is the largest US based newspaper chain Gannett 29 Which newspaper was a graphics innovator establishing newspapers as a strong visual Medium with color and graphics USA Today 30 What is a freelancer A non staff writer or photographer who submits work on speculation or takes a speci c one time assignment 31 What does alliterate mean A nonreader who can read but doesn39t 32 What role did newspapers play in the development of and continuation of democratic Principles Watchdog function free expression and government openness Chapter 5 1 How many global companies dominate the music industry with corporate tentacles in other media 4 2 Historically what becomes of successful independent record companies Bought by major ones 3 How did the US Supreme Court settle the lesharing issue It acted against file opping in hobble business as usual among swap services that RIAA was confident it had largely stopped the free swapping drain on its revenue 4 What are AampR or Artist and Repertoire Units a recording company responsible for talent 5 What made garage bands grow in numbers during the 1980s Low cost recording and mixing equipment 6 Downloading music without paying is considered illegal 7 Which businesses have suffered nancially because of digital music Which has not suffered Suffered record industry I tunes D 8 How does the Federal Communications Commission have indirect control over some recorded music Keeps some records of the market and it can take dim view of stations that air objectable music 9 What is the purpose of the Parents Music Resource Center Regulates explicit albums and radio friendly albums 10 How long have the radio and record industries been connected Since the 1920s 11 What is the greatest value radio provides to the music industry Airplay 12 How does a Grammy award affect sales Boost sales 13 Which medium has become a ubiquitous mass medium available anytime everywhere Radio 14 Which key radio audience has fallen off dramatically Ages 18 24 15 On a weekly basis how much time does the average teenager or adult spend listening to the radio 22hrs 16 How many radio stations are there in the United States More then 13000 17 During which decade was the recordingplayback device invented Phonograph 18 Can we say the radio industry is growing It has stopped growing its stagnant 19 Comedies dramas variety shows and quiz shows which once dominated network radio Programming migrated to television during which decade 1950s 20 During the 1970s what caused AM stations audiences to decline Fm technology had superior sound and these became the stations for music of choice 2 1 What is leading radio format in the US Countrywestem 22 What set apart National Public Radio which includes its agship program called All Thing Considered from other radio programming Pg 130 23 Why did radio stations begin dropping their expensive news operations during the 1990s Because the FCC dropped public service as a condition for license renewal 24 Who listens to political talk shows on radio White males republican and financially well off 25 What is the rationale behind government regulation of the radio industry Pg 133 26 By licensing stations to operate in speci c service areas and limiting individual ownerships the government intended to foster localism 27 Why did early radio stations shift away from local news and culture 28 Following deregulation in 1996 the Federal Communications Commission lifted nearly all limits on ownership of radio stations except it does limit a single entity from owning 8 stations 29 With the 1996 deregulation of radio stations the government moved from a trustee concept of regulation to a marketplace concept 30 The system that allows a handful of announcers to prerecord music intros and outros in a central location for use by multiple radio stations is called voice tracking 31 What is radio roboprogramming Everything is computerize 32 The average NPR af liate produces how much of its own content 49 33 Sending multiple messages in bundles on the same channel is called multiplexing 34 What company surveys radio listenership Arbitron Chapter 6 1 In what decade did movie and television industries first engage in a rivalry that started when television began drawing huge audiences 1950s 2 What are the major components of the movie industry Production and Distribution and Exhibition 3 What TV show borrowed the innovative movieproduction technique of using three cameras to lm episodes I love Lucy 4 When did US movie attendance peak 1946 5 Why is the movietheater experience different fromwatching television or reading a magazine Being among fellow viewers to reinforce emotion is something that can39t be matched to watching TV alone at home 6 Regarding US nances how does the movie industry affect the balance of trade Positively 7 What percentage of US films is exported to Europe 60 8 What is lm literacy Ability to appreciate artistic techniques used for telling a story 9 For what is The Black Pirate known The first feature film in color 10 Which movie was rst to use computergenerated imagery Future World 11 Who pioneered animated films Walt Disney 12 What is a documentary A video examination of a historical or current event or a natural or social phenomenon 13 What is the star system Making actors into celebrities to increase the size of movie audience 14 What is vertical integration One company owning multiple stages of production to the determent of competition 15 The US movie industry is dominated by how many major studios 6 16 In what ways do movie studios try to reduce nancial risk Minimize the amount of money for production 17 How have movie theaters adapted to the changing demands of the audience Multiplexes 18 What was once described as a molder of the soul s geographyquot TV 19 On average how many hours a day is the television on in US households 7 20 What did a2005 study by the Kaiser Family Foundation nd about children s use of TV 83 of children under the age of 6 watch TV for about 2 hours 21 Which TV network was launched in 1986 Fox 22 Why was cable TV systems created To get TV to small town enterprises 23 What was the rst cable network to use satellites to deliver programming HBO 24 How do timeshifting devices such as TiVo affect regular TV People don39t need to schedule their regular activities to watch regular TV reduced the tyranny TV use to have 25 Why did government nancial support of noncommercial television begin in the 1960s Out of the concern that TV was a vast wastelandquot of lowbrow content 26 What is a Webisode An n episode in a web series 27 What entity is a quasigovernmental agency that channels tax generated funds into a US Noncommercial television and radio system Corporation of public broadcasting 28 PBS is an acronym for Public Broadcasting station 29 What topic ofa documentary series produced by Ken Burns drew more viewers to PBS than any other program in its history The War 30 What is space shifting What has TV done in response Chapter 7 1 How did Twitter impact the 2009 elections in Iran Showed what was really going with the elections 2 When did the Internet emerge as a major mass medium 1990s 3 What are walled gardens Early business model for online portals with access limited mostly to proprietary content 4 What was the rst Internet browser called Netscape 5 on average how many US mobilephone users text message 87 6 What television show attracted 178 million text messages in 2008 American Idol 7 What did Philip Rosedale create in 1999 Second Life 8 How does Ashton Kutcher use social media and at what was he rst Twitter rst to have 1 million followers 9 A social networking site primarily used for posting photos is Flickr 10 How do social networking sites differ from the America 0nline concept That the public can make websites not just businesses 11 What are passed links References to web sources shared among computer users 1 1 What strategies are book publishers using on social networking sites Make a fan page or a group on FE and put book promo videos out for the public 12 How many videos are viewed daily on YouTube 100million 13 Who purchased YouTube for 17 billion in 2006 Google 14 How have authoritarian governments responded to social networking sites Tried to block it found YouTube as vexatious 15 Why did the country of Turkey cut off access to YouTube The grounds of morality and decenc 16 During the early development of the Internet did its creators envision a commercial system Commercial free communication network 17 Which is the chief oversight agency for the Internet Corporation for assigned names and numbers 18 Which site was the pioneer online auction site EBay 19 What has been the impact of Amazoncom and the iTunes store on traditional music and book retailers The market shrank 20 What is targeted marketing Matching advertisers with potential customers with relative precession 2 1 What is behavioral marketing and which site would be likely to use it Facebook using personal info and patterns in activities to match advertisements with potential customers 22 How many hours a week do garners play games 65 hours 23 Why are online garners attractive to advertisers Lots of playing time and they include a large range of people 24 What is he godfather of microprocessing Gordon Moore famous for predicting 25 What is the name of the project to put online all books ever produced The Google Print Library 26 Is Email generally considered mass communication No 27 How has the Internet democratized the mass media It reaches a mass amount of people 28 What is the importance of Yahoo 29 What is an aggregator Chapter 8 1 When was the rst paper published in the original colonies that became the United States 1690 2 john Peter Zenger de ed authorities in New York and founded a newspaper that was in competition with the Crown sponsored newspaper This paper antagonized the governor and the publisher was ultimately arrested though later he was freed 3 What are the ongoing journalism traditions from the Colonial Period Pg 2 12 green bullet points 4 What did the Alien and Sedition acts prohibit False scandalous maliciousquot statements about the government 5 What did Iames Gordon Bennett contribute to journalism Organized the rst methodical news coverage 6 Why is the inverted pyramid style of writing important What are the characteristics of this style Most important information first 7 During what period did journalists start using the inverted pyramid writing style The Civil War 8 What period of journalism during the late 1800s was marked by sensationalism that often Included untrue stories Yellow Period 9 Some historians argue that yellow journalism may have helped to precipitate which war SpanishAmerican War 10 What factors are used in determining newsworthiness of a story Proximity to the audience prominence of people involved timeliness impact on society even the socalled geewhiz factor 11 How did the Associated Press affect journalism standards A factdriven journalism devoid of even a hint of partisanship 12 What were Herbert Gans39 findings in his study of values Concluded that journalists have mainstream values 13 Seeing things on the basis of personal experience and values is known as ethnocentrism 14 Why do journalists see themselves as neutral The journalism code of ethnics 1Review MCOM 1300 Chapter 13 1 Who argued that we see the world as pictures in our heads shaped by the mass media Walter Lippman 2 The idea that media have immediate direct in uence on individuals is known as Powerful Effects Theory 3 Who developed a model of mass communication who says what in which channel to whom with what effect Harold Lasswell 4 Looking at the media as a kind of hypodermic needle injecting concepts into its viewers is called the bullet model 5 Scholars thought that people absorb messages like sponges Why was this incorrect Individuals read hear and see things differently media doesn t effect everyone the same way 6 What is the twostep ow model and how does it differ from the other models discussed Media affects individuals through opninon leaders It differs from the other modles cause it shows media can effect in interpersonal as well as mass com 7 What is aggressive stimulation theory Theory that people are inspired to violence from media depictions 8 What is consistency theory Theory that media in uence is gradual overtime 9 What is the thirdperson effect One person overestimating the effect of media messages on other peo 1e 10 The Lazarsfeld studies in the 1940s found that most voters valued other peoples opinions 11 According to the twostep ow model we are motivated less by the media and more by people we know personally and respect These contacts are known as opinion leaders 12 What is status conferral Media attention enhances attention given to people subjects and issues 13 What theory states that the media tell people what to think about not what to think Minimalist effects theory 14 What is the narcoticizing dysfunction People deceive themselves into believing they are involoved when actually they are only informed 15 What is the cumulative effects theory Theory that media in uence is gradual over time 16 What is the spiral of silence theory Vocal majority intimidates others into silence 17 What media function is served when people use the media to learn about how to t in with other people socialization h What is intergenerational eavesdropping the media even in kids shows has discrete adult messages in t ere 19 What is stereotyping Using broad strokes to facilitate storytelling 20 What is historical transmission Communication of values to later generations 21 What is contemporary transmission Communication of cultural values to different cultures 22 What is diffusion of innovations Process through which news ideas values and information spread 23 What is the term for the dominance of one culture over another Cultural imperialism 24 Which theory dates back to Greek philosopher Aristotle and says that people who watch violence actually release their violent 1nclinatlons by seeing them portrayed Catalytic theory 25 The theory that media effects are mostly indirect is called minimalist effects theory 26 The cumulative effects theory suggests that media do not have powerful immediate effects but rather produce profound effects over time 7 someone wears the same type of clothing as a popular pop smger it is an example of role in 28 A sub imma message is one that cannot be consciously erceived 29 The catalytic theory holds that mediadepicted violence as a numbing effect on people Chapter 1 1 According to researchers at Ball State University how much of a person s waking time is spent on media act1v1ty 30 2 To what does the word mass refer in the term Mass Communication huge audience 3 What is media multitasking Simultaneous exposure to messages from different media 4 What does Ubiquity mean Everpresent 5 What are the four media functions Administration listening and learning thinking and planning and engagement and managment 6 In relationship to media usage for what is John lIilton known Made an eloquent case for free expressron individuals can use their power of reasoning to improve their Situation and come to knoe great truths bt exchanging ideas freely 7 Why is it important for media to deliver an audience to advertisers Ifthey don t get advertising the station doesn t make money which means no tv 8 Define Media literacy Competence or knowledge about the mass media 9 Is most of our media exposure conscious or unconscious unconscious l0 What is the watchdog function of media Regular and independent inspection of those in power including supply of trustworthyinformation about their activ1t1es The main concern to the watchdog role is to do e myestigatrve Journalism By doing this the media cons1der themselves as a representative of the Wide public and of course the opponent of government ll What characteristics distinguish mass communication from interpersonal communication one to one compared to one to billions 12 How do mass media connect communities It gives them the same info all over the world 13 What is an example of using the media to unify the country through messages of shared experiences Showmg a united states program to afi rcans 14 How can television be a societal uni er People can relate to each other better 15 What is the revenue stream for American media Advertising 16 When an advertiser buys an advertisement what is she paying for A commercial slot for them to advertise their product to the mass audience 17 What makes the book industry different from other major media companies Books are direct sells along with music 18 What is the nonadvertising part of a medium s product called Merchandise tieends 19 Which media organizations rely in part on government funding 20 How much income do magazines make from subscriptions Fortune 500 21 What types of revenue come from movies Direct sells 22 What controversial media mogul built News Corporation into one of the world s largest media emp1res Ruper1 Murdoc 1 23 What is demassi cation Media s focus on narrower audience segments 24 What is the marketplace of ideas The concept that a robust exchange of ideas with none barred yields better consensus 25 What is editorial content Mass media content other then advertising 26 What is narrowcasting Seeking niche audiences as opposed to broadcasting s traditional audience building concept 27 What is the submass audience A section of the largest mass audience with niche interests 28 The technologyassisted transmission of messages to mass audiences is known as mass communication 29 Simultaneous exposure to messages from different media is called media multitasking 30 The most visible information delivered by mass media is television 31 Beginning with books then newspapers and radio the mass media helped the US create a cultural phenomenon Chapter 2 1 What is lithography and what cartoonist used it Complex machiene with typewriterlike keyboard to set type into line from molten lead 2 What are the characteristics of mass communication technologyenabled process by which messages are sent to large faraway audiences 3 What are the technologies identi ed in the chapter Printing chemical electronic and digital 4 What was the first electronic medium 5 What is moveable type and who invented it Innovated metal alphabet that mad the printing press an agent for mass comm 6 What prevented China from developing mass communication language was too complicated 7 What bene ts derived from moveable type Pulp paperhighspeed printing presses paper eels and typsetting 8 What is a halftone and when was it developed Reproduction of an image in which the various tones of gray or color produced by variously sized dots of ink 1870s 9 Time founder Henry Luce launched this visuallyoriented magazine called National Geographic 10 What technology came of age by the US Civil War and created a new kind of archival record photography 11 What is convergence Delivery of mass messages fragmented into a growing number of digital machines 12 What is a wireless message email 13 What type of orbit is necessary for a communications satellite Have to move the same speed as the earth so they can remain stationary 14 What are the television transmission systems Cables sattleite landlines 15 What is media convergence Melding of print electronic and photographic media into digitized form 16 What was the name of the rst intemet system and who developed it World wide web Time Bemers Lee 17 What did Tim BemersLee invent Internet 18 What is Lasswell s model Who says what in which channel to whom with what effects 19 What are the key elements of Lasswell s model Channel to an effect 20 gatekeepers are media people who make judgments on what to include in news broadcasts newspapers radio newscasts websites and other media products 21 In mass communication theory what does ampli cation mean Giving s message a larger audience 22 If a military censor stops a combat story from being released he is acting in the role of the gatekepper 23 What are the types of noise identi ed in the book and lecture Semantic channel environmental 24 If a CEO slurs his speech when addressing company employees on a Webcast this is called semantic n01se 25 What is a lter Receiver factor that impedes communication 26 If Bob is unable to understand the symbols a communicator uses and therefore cannot decipher the message then Bob is impeded by channel noise 27 If Minnie is drunk when listening to a presidential speech on television she is experiencing environmental noise 28 Web communication shifts much of the control of communication through the mass media to the people 29 Linear communication and mass communication are much different from interpersonal 30 A highcapacity globaltelephone network that links computer is also known as the internet 31 The impediment to communication before a message reaches a receiver is called ampli cation Chapter 3 1 An economic system with private owners operating trade and industry for profit is called conglomeration 2 Mass media industries earn most of their revenue from advertising and sales 3 Who uses reception fees and what do they pay for So you can receive tv in your house and you have to pay them every mot 4 Who uses fees charged on TV sets europe 5 What is an example of the government funded newspaper New York times 6 What is a media chain are companies that own a particular type ofrnediurn typically newspapers 7 What are the characteristics of a media conglomerate Giant enterprises that own a bunch of different media sources 8 What declines because of rough economic times in relationship to media subsidiaries offsetting their losses conglomeration 9 What did media conglomerates do in relationship to the recession that began in 2008 Sold parts of their companies and merged with others 10 When a media chain sells some of its assets in troubled economic times it s called divestiture


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