Chemical Basics CHEM 1305
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Dibbert on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1305 at Texas Tech University taught by Jeremy Mason in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/226514/chem-1305-texas-tech-university in Chemistry at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 1 What is chemistry Chemistry is the study of matter and the transformations it undergoes Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Research 0 There are two types of research basic and apphed Basic research is used to further knowledge about how the natural world operates Applied research uses the information gained in basic research and develops applications for this new knowledge What has applied science done for us Transparent matrix of processed silicon dioxide Chapter 18 Chemically disinfected drinking water Chapter 16 Caffeine solution Chapter 14 Thermoset polymer Chapter 12 Prescription medicines stored in refrigerator Chapter 14 Chloro uorocarbonfree refrigerating uids Chapter 17 Electrical energy from a fossil fuel or nuclear power plant Chapter 19 Metal alloy Chapter 18 Roasting carbohydrates fats proteins and vitamins Chapter 13 Natural gas laced with odoriferous sulfur compounds Chapter 12 Fertilizer grown vegetables Chapter 15 Scientific Method Basic research begins with a process we call the scientific method 0 The scientific method is a way of analyzing the world and compiling the data in an organized and structured way to help us understand nature Terms Scientific hypothesis a testable assumption or guess used to explain an observation A hypothesis must be testable xperiments tests designed to prove or disprove your hypothesis The data collected from experiments will determine whether your hypothesis is correct or not 0 Theory the results of a well tested hypothesis that has show to be true 0 Theories are always taken as law until they are invalidated Scientific Method Observations CD hypotheses 0 Predictions Using the Scientific Method You observe that when you forget to water your plant it dies Law states that all living creatures need water to survive You hypothesize that watering all plants a cup of water a day will allow them to live You water your plant a cup of water a day for a month experiment and your plant survives thus validating your theory More than one experiment must be run to truly validate a theory if possible You retry your experiment on your roommates plants right You water her plants a cup of water a day for a month v experiment and they die 1 z OOPS 39 Your new experiment does not validate your theory Your theory must be changed to take this new data into account Revise your theory and run another experiment After apologizing to your roommate and buying them a new cactus you theorize that some plants need less water than others You water your roommates cactus once every week and a half experiment and it lives Your theory has been proven through two experiments much better than 1 but where 2 is better 3 is great US and Them The US uses the Customary system Inches pounds quarts calories Fahrenheit 0 The rest ofthe world uses Systeme International metric system Meters grams liters joules CelsiusKelvin 0 What are some common measurements What do we often measure here in the US using the SI system US to Them 0 Converting US units to SI units Length 1 inch 254 centimeters Mass 1 kilogram 22 pounds Volume 1 liter 1057 quarts Energy 4184 Joules 1 Calorie Temperature C F 32 x 59 Kelvin C 273 Why do we use SI in chemistry SI units are easy to convert within the same measurement 1 meter 100 centimeters 1000 millimeters 1 mile 1760 yards 5280 feet not easy Also SI units are easy to convert between different measurements 1 cubic centimeter 1 milliliter 1 cubic foot 748 gallons not easy to remember Know your prefixes Table 12 Metric Pre xes Decimal Exponential Pre x Symbol Equivalent Form Example tera T 1000000000000 1012 1 terameter Tm 1 trillion meters giga G 1000000000 109 1 gigameter Gm 1 billion meters mega M 1000000 106 1 megameter Mm 1 million meters kilo k 1000 103 1 kilometer km 1 thousand meters hecto h 100 102 1 hectometer hm 1 hundred meters deka da 10 101 1 dekameter dam ten meters no pre x 1 100 1 meter m 1 meter deci d 01 10 1 1 decimeter dm 1 tenth ofa meter centi c 001 10 2 1 centimeter cm 1 hundredth of a meter milli m 0001 10 3 1 millimeter mm 1 thousandth ofa meter micro o 0000 001 10 6 1 micrometer um 1 millionth of a meter nano n 0000 000 001 1019 1 nanometer nm 2 1 billionth ofa meter pico p 0000 000000001 1012 1 picometer pm I 1 trillionth of a meter From Conceptual Chemistry Second Edition by John Suchocki Copyright 2004 Benjamin Cummings a division oi Pearson Education convert these measurements 50 cm to mm 50cm X 10mm1cm 500 mm 5 L to m BL X lOOOmI1L 5000 ml 25 g to kg 25X 1kg1000g 0025kg 89 m to km 89mX 1km1000m 089Km 110 lbs to kg110bs X 1kg22bs 50kg Tips for SI conversions Going up the table larger quantities Move the decimal place to the left Going down the table smaller quantities Move the decimal place to the right 40 cm to mm 400 mm 3cm to m 9L to ml 800 ml to L
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