American Public Policy
American Public Policy POLS 2302
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Russel Torp on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 2302 at Texas Tech University taught by Joshua Ritchey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/226519/pols-2302-texas-tech-university in Political Science at Texas Tech University.
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Test Review 2 Chapter 5 Energy Leasing Act of 1920 gave gov ability to lease public lands to oil cos and earn royalties off of the production What we realized in 1973 we do not have enough oil in the US to run the country rely heavily on foreign oil big problems occur when supply of oil interrupted by another country What Policies were enacted in 1973 dealing with energy 55 mph speed limit daylight savings year round more fed Funding for research and dev Of energy construction of TransAlaskan pipeline created dept of energy OPEC countries included Org of Petroleum Exporting Countries started in 1960 includes Algeria Iraq Kuwait Libya Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE Ecuador Gabon Iran Nigeria and Venezuela When did the US start importing oil 1947 The National Energy Act of 1978 set up corp avg fuel economy CAFE standards forced car makers to improve gas mileage provided some incentives and tax breaks for energy saving products to homeowners no provisions made to deal w energy ind Energy Policy in the 1980 s Reagan admin Reflected idea that less gov intervention was best environmental policy was relaxed conservation of energy not priority and renewable energy research was reduced Energy Policy in the 2000 s Energy Policy Act of 2005 tax credits for purchasing hybrid vehicle inc funding for research and dev Of hydrogenfueled vehicle tax credits for installing high efficiency home furnaces and air conditioners additional tax credits for use of alt and renewable sources funding for expanding nuclear power Alternative Energy that we have talked about nuclear power coal liquefaction Coal Liquefaction process in which coal in a solid state is turned into liquid fuel similar to diesel or gasoline Energy Security Act of 1980 provided funding for research abundance of cheap oil limited eco Viability of this alt Nuclear Power occurs when atoms are split and energy is created relative to other forms of power very efficient form of energy production accounts for almost 10 of energy created in US Problems with Alternatives nuclear costs billions to even construct modest plant large part of cost assoc w maintenance disposing of waste plants can malfunction and explode after nuclear fuel has been used it has to be disposed of correctly as waste contains dangerous radiation which reqs Expensive steps to dispose of safely Democrat Liberal View on environmental policy Republican Conservative view on environmental policy Chapter 6 White Collar Crime nonviolent crime that usually involves large sums of money embezzlement fraud commercial theft Street Crimes traditional type crimes that occur such as robbery burglary rape murder assault theft etc generally the crimes that people fear and think of when they think of crime Victimless Crimes acts among willing adults that violate some moral principle that constitute a fraction of crimes prostitution drug use gambling Procedural Rights rts Of the accused courts must follow rules of evidence that prevent people from being punished on basis of hearsay rumor emotional prejudice or other factors that do not objectively est guilt 14th Amendment of the US Constitution guarantees protection for accused no state shall deny any person life liberty or property without due process of law Patriot Act and its Effect on US Security had massive effect on rts Of US citizens in wake of 911 attacks greatly expanded ability of law enforcement to listen to phone conversations and view emails of the public also made is possible for US to holddetain illegal aliens indefinitely Exclusionary Rule evidence obtained through illegal search or seizure cannot be used against accused it has to be excluded comes from 4th amendment of Const warns against unreasonable search and seizure keep law enforcement on their toes Reasons For Crime drugs when pop Using drugs cocaine heroine meth at a higher rate crime tends to spike upwards demographic changes urbanization inc crime as people become more concentrated in cities and move away from rural areas Chapter 7 Poverty From income and psychological standpoint those whose place in society is such that they are eternal exiles who almost inevitable dev Attitudes of defeat and pessimism who are therefore excluded from taking advantage of new opps poverty level 20615 family of 4 10295 1person family and 41588 family of 9 Poorest States in US Alabama Louisiana Mississippi New Mexico Texas and Washington DC How can poor people be poor and still be working Can t make enough to support themselves and their family lack skills to get higher paying jobs and struggle to ever improve income sit Conservative view Reasons for poverty those who wish to work can take advantage of the free market system and achieve decent standard of living lack selfdiscipline to work hard save and to delay immediate pleasures for better future poor generally choose not to pursue ed And employment opps Available to everyone problems of poor are taught by poor feel that welfare programs to not help prevent or cure poverty but rather these programs support lifestyle of poverty Liberal View Reasons for poverty poor no diff in attitude from nonpoor only diff bt two is poor simply lack the opps For ed employment job training and decent housing racial discrimination against minorities is cause of poverty among discriminated groups poverty is result of harmful side effects of fierce enterprise eco eco Progress makes job skills obsolete inc unemployment pay for less skilled jobs does not pay enough for worker to support family What are the consequences of poverty in Texas that we talked about People who are raised in poverty are less likely to finish high school and rarely startfinish college many poor who attempt to attend college claim they cannot afford it ironically these people qualify for the most financial aid but do not understand how to get it indvs raised in poverty often look at successful people who do not have college degrees as fuel for not cont ed reality is that being successful wo college degree is very difficult Government Solutions for Poverty social security social insurance that is collected by survivors retirees and disabled workers ss taxes fund this and most people draw it out at retirement unemployment compensation benefits you receive if you lose yourjob temporary assistance for needy families welfare fed Assistance program that is mainly funded by fed Gov but admin By st govs Earned Income Credit allows taxpayer to receive credit from for each dollar earned up to a certain point max 4536 Food Stamps coupon or credit is given to needy families to purchase food no cash is given Government Housing Programs several diff gov housing programs around today Housing and Urban Dev Includes subsidized housing for lowincome families rental assistance gives rental vouchers and rental certificates to help needy families Canadian Oil Tar Sands Video Which countries are working to get oil from Canadian Oil sands US China Taiwan Korea Italy France and Germany Amount of tar sand it takes to get one barrel of oil 2 tons Chapter 8 Fee for Service Healthcare charging a set amount for a service Managed Care insurance companies negotiate reductions for typical fees with hospitals physicians amp others Patients are required to see only certain providers either through health maintenance organization HMO or a preferred provider organization PPO N ationalized Healthcare system where everything is run by the government EX England Difference between the US and rest of the world in terms of healthcareinsurance the US doesn t make everyone have health insurance Understand the healthcare bill that was passed and signed by Barack Obama this year Know which healthcare alternatives that we talked about in class are most similar to the Healthcare Reform Law recently passed by Barack Obama and Congress Medicare Medicaid SCHIP Health Savings Account What groups of people have harder times getting quality healthcare People with chronic conditions that require regular doctors attention Know the reasons why healthcare in general is expensive the medical industry relies heavily on technology to improve care The cost of developing maintaining amp operating this technology is extremely high Requires a lot of labor 2 employees for every patient Medicare supplement to social security for the elderly Problems with Medicare high cost which is rapidly increasing and the fact that Medicare is only a supplemental insurance for the elderly Medicaid public healthcare program funded out of the general public revenue for the very poor SCHIP State Children s Health Insurance Program designed to cover over half of the uninsured children in the country Understand the Employment Based Insurance Plan we covered in class insurance provided by an employer Health Savings Account individuals buy high deductible health insurance Problems with Health Savings Account only feasible for people who have reasonably stable f1nances not feasible for people who have chronic conditions requiring regular doctors attention Please Understand these statements If any law is deemed Unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court it is no longer considered law Chapter 9 Elementary and Secondary Education of 1965 Federal law that provided limited assistance to local schools for textbooks libraries and other instructional materials Who primarily funds public schools State and local tax dollars Understand why there is differences in public education based upon funding Merit Pay for Teachers paying teachers for the performance of students Chapter 14 Civil Rights Act of 1964 act that worked to end discrimination by employers when hiring minorities or traditionally discriminated groups Racial Preference act of giving preferential treatment to persons of a minority race when hiring them Affirmative Action a group of policies implemented starting in the 1960 s to redistribute social bene ts to those groups who had less than their share Arguments for Af rmative Action Past discrimination and oppression are still being seen today therefore af rmative action is needed to make up for past discrimination Af rmative action is needed to promote diversity and end stereotypes The lower class has a much harder time breaking into the workforce and rising up than years past and needs af rmative action to do that Arguments against Af rmative Action Policies reward and penalize people based on their race gender etc this is hardly equality since it bases employment on who a person is rather than what they can do Some opposition ask why do some minorities need special treatment and others don t Mexican and Asian immigrants suffered horrible discrimination however Asians are now often lumped in with the whit majority These policies only help a select group of each majority Since most af rmative action programs do included some performance aspects when admitting students it would seem that a irmative action only helps those who were already going places not to those down and out individuals Guest Speaker and Farm Policy Agricultural Adjustment Acts of 1933 and 1938 How long do most farm bills last 5 years How much is the current farm billworth 307 billion dollars What percentage of the farm bill goes to farmers Less than 17 What percentage of the farm bill goes to Food stamps school lunches 74 Direct payments based upon a crop base target that has been established for certain crops Counter Cyclical Payments a target price for each subsidized commodity is established and if the price at harvest time is less than the target price the farmer gets a check for the difference and if the price is at or above the target price the farmer gets nothing Know what role cotton plays to the Lubbock area 45 bales raised on the South Plains of TX every year on average those 45 bales equate to over 6 billion dollars to the South Plains economy Chapter 5 What we realized in 1973 What Policies were Enacted in 1973 dealing with energy OPEC When did the US start importing oil The National Energy Act of 1978 Energy Policy in the 1980 s Energy Policy in the 2000 s The 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act Air Pollution Know the major gas pollutants we talked about Alternative Energy that we have talked about Coal and its problems Coal Liquefaction Nuclear Power Problems with Alternatives Democrat Liberal view on environmental policy Republican Conservative view on environmental policy Chapter 6 White Collar Crime Street Crimes Victimless Crimes Procedural Rights 14th Amendment of the US Constitution Exclusionary Rule Reasons For Crime Age of most criminals old or young Chapter 7 Poverty From income and psychological standpoint How can poor people be poor and still be working Conservative view Reasons for poverty Liberal View Reasons for poverty What are the consequences of poverty in Texas which we talked about Government Solutions for Poverty Earned Income Credit Food Sta m ps Government Housing Programs In kind benefit Cash Benefit Difference between Western Europe and US in terms of welfare benefits 60 minutes video What is the age of most of the people that were interviewed Where in the US were the interviews being held What is the maximum length in weeks a person can be on Unemployment benefits Know the article on the Ogallala Aquifer Pages 253 264 Patterson Book Final Exam Study Guide Fee for Service Health Care 0 In the past hospitals and doctors offices operated on a feeforservice system This means there was a set fee for certain things The Traditional fee for services system has given way to what is known as managed care Managed Care 0 With Managed care insurance companies negotiate reductions for typical fees with hospitals physicians and other providers in exchanges for directing their subscribers to these providers The idea of managed care is to hold down prices by negotiating and other means Managed care used selective contracting This means that patients are required to see only certain providers either through a health maintenance organization or a preferred provider Was put into place in order to keep health care cost down In the mid 90 s there was some evidence that the managed care system might have held some health care cost down However since them there has been a negative attitude toward this system for various reasons Who pays for Health Care 0 Currently Insurance represents the majority of all health care expenses paid Whether it be public Medicaidmedicare or private Out of the pocked payment represents less than 10 of all health care bills paid What groups of people have harder times getting quality healthcare 0 Poor rural individuals have less access to quality healthcare than do middle class suburban and urban residents Know the reasons why healthcare in general is expensive 0 Expensive for two main reasons 0 The medical industry relies heavily on technology to improve care However the cost of developing maintaining and operating this high tech equipment is extremely high 0 It requires a lot of labor almost 2 employees for every patient Medicare 0 This is a supplement to social security for the elderly This programs was designed to buffer the high cost of medical care that senior citizens generally face Problems with Medicare 0 High cost which is rapidly increasing and the fact that medicare is the only supplemental insurance for seniors Medicaid o This is a public healthcare program funded out of general revenues for the very poor o The main problem with this program is the high cost associated with providing free healthcare to the very poor SCHIP State Children s Health Insurance Program 0 This program was designed to cover over half of the uninsured children in the country 0 This program is funded through block grants to each state to administer this program Understand that the healthcare law that was passed last year was an 0 Employment based healthcare program where everyone is required to have insurance and employers of larger businesses are required to provide this coverage for their employees Understand o If any law is deemed Unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court it is no longer considered law Elementary and Secondary Education act of 1965 0 Federal law that provided limited assistance to local schools for textbooks libraries and other instructional material Who primarily funds public schools 0 Most public schools are mainly nanced by state and local tax dollars Understand why there is differences in public education based upon funding Merit Pay for Teachers 0 Paying teachers for the performance of their students 0 Although this issue is very popular among the public there are many problems with this alternative I These problems generally come from the low pay teachers are currently receiving Conservative View on Education 0 Links personal development to individual initiative and responsibility Responsibility for educational achievement rests with the individual Liberal or Progressive view on Education 0 Thought re ects a conviction that government has an obligation to compensate for social inequities resulting from individual differences Civil Rights Act of 1964 o worked to end discrimination when hiring minorities or traditional discrimination groups Racial Preference 0 giving preferential treatment to persons of a minority race when hiring them 0 placed less emphasis on quali cations more on race Af rmative Action 0 Group of policies implemented in 1960s to redistribute social bene ts 0 Quotas 10 AA in community10 in business Arguments for Af rmative Action 0 Need to make up for past discrimination 0 Promote Diversity and end sterotypes 0 Lower class to break into workforce Opposition to Af rmative Action 0 Rewardpenalize based on race gender 0 why do some minorities need special treatment and others don t 0 Mexican and Asian immigrants suffered horrible discrimination Mexicans are often bedi ciaries of Af rmative Action Asians are lumped with white Americans 0 only helps group of each minority Helps those who are already going places Ag Policy 0 First Farm Bills 0 Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 I This bill paid farmers to not plant crops that were in surplus in an effort to raise crop prices 0 Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1939 I Established the first price support for crops in the United States I This act also established the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation FCIC 0 Farm Bills generally last about 5 years 0 Current Farm Bill is worth 307 Billion Dollars o 74 of this goes to Food Stamp programs as well as school lunch programs for school children 0 Less than 17 of the farm bill goes to actually farmers 0 Price Supports 0 Direct and Counter Cyclical Payments DCP I Direct Payments are based upon a crop base that has been established for certain crops 0 So if a farmer has 120 acres with a cotton base average on it then he receives X amount of dollars per acre 0 Higher yielding land gets more money I CP Payment is a true price support 0 Target price for each subsidized commodity is established and if the price at harvest time is less that the target price the farmer gets a difference check 0 However it the price is at or above the target price at harvest time then the farmer receives no difference check I Cotton and the Economy 0 45 million bales raised on the South Plains of Texas every year on average 0 Those 45 million bales equate to over 6 billion dollars to the South Plains economy 0 Goes beyond just selling cotton I Farmer sells his cotton buys a tractor a pickup and a travel trailer etc etc etc Chapter 1 Define Public Policy actions of gov and intentions that determine those actions Purposes of policy security membership prosperity needs Types of Policy distributive regulatory selfregulatory redistributive Understand Policy Development public recognition that problem exists working out policy demands agenda formation policy implementation policy impactsoutputs and policy evaluation Chapter 2 Understand Federalism allows for shared responsibilities between state and federal governments Vertical Relations relationship bt higher level of gov and lower level of gov Horizontal Relations gov relations bt gov agencies at same level Types of Regulation direct orders crosscutting requirements crossover sanctions partial preemption Chapter 3 Free Enterprise System based upon selfadjusting free market ind of gov intervention competition stimulated by indv selfinterest that produces benefits for all private ownership of production and distribution which leads to competition and best quality product at lowest price Social Economic System involves gov control of production and distribution prices and allocation of raw mats planned by gov with public interest in mind Government Intervention with Economy gov intervention has inc since 1930s Government Economic Policy before 1930 s generally involved gov playing supporting role and very little regulation of industry Government Economic Policy after 1930 s gov took more influential role in econ policy Inflation rise in price of goods and services even though actual value of those goods and services does not inc Recession defined as a period in which there is a decline in econ activity arising from slump in effective demand for goods and services Microeconomic refers to gov activities regarding particular firms and businesses Macroeconomics refers to management of overall econ What do regulatory agencies do Act as watchdogs for public preserve fair competition and try to control monopolies Deregulation the dec or total ceasing of regulation on an industry by gov Sunset Laws req that gov agencies only be est for set period of time Chapter 4 Monetary Policy efforts of gov to control flow of money in econ Who is the major player in Monetary Policy Federal Reserve Board the Fed The Federal Reserve central bank of US What does the Federal Reserve board do to manage the Economy Regulate econ of US Fiscal Policy tax policy gov spending and deby management Deficit Spending money spent by fed gov to stimulate econ in recession Problems with Deficit Spending can cause inflation Supply Side Economics embraces belief that best way for econ to grow is to have as little gov intervention as possible Demand Side Economics demand for goods drives econ if demand fails it will cont to fall unless acted on by an outside force Patterson Book Understand chapter 2 If you did well on the quiz you should do well with the questions on the test Extra Credit I have two personal quotes that if you remember them you can get some extra credit on the test The best time to start any kind of business was yesterday Over 90 of what you need to get what you want out of life is knowing what you want out of life gt gt V V V V V Political Science Final Review 2012 Fee for Service Healthcare FFS I Healthcare payment system in which each separate consultation procedure or device has a separate and specific price for which the patient or insurance company is billed I Tts fundamentals have changed over the past two decades moving away from FFS toward managed care Managed Care I System for organizing provision and payment for medical care characterized by selective contracting physician gatekeepers and other procedures for controlling use of healthcare resources I The idea of managed care is to hold down prices by negotiating and other means Managed care uses selective contracting o This means that patients are required to see only certain providers either through a health maintenance organization or a preferred provider organization I EMQ Health Maintenance Organization I P39 Preferred Provider Organization Managed care was put in place in order to keep healthcare cost down 0 In the mid 90 s there was some evidence that the managed care system might have held some healthcare costs down However since then there has been a negative attitude towards this system for various reasons What groups of people have harder times getting quality healthcare I Poor rural individuals have less access to quality healthcare than middle class suburban and urban residents do Know the reasons why healthcare in general is expensive I The medical industry relies heavily on high tech equipment to improve care 0 I The cost of developing maintaining and operating this equipment is extremely high I Requires a lot of labor employees Medicare for every patient there are two I A federal program of social insurance for the healthcare needs of the elderly and disabled persons I This is a supplement to social security for the elderly I This program was designed to buffer the high cost of medical care that senior citizens generally face Problems with Medicare I Its rapidly increasing costs I The fact that it s the only supplemental insurance for seniors Medicaid I A state federal public assistance program to provide health care for low income persons I This is a public healthcare program funded out of general revenue for the very poor SCHIP State Children s Health Insurance Program I Federal block grants to states to expand health insurance coverage to children in families with incomes above the Medicaid eligibility level V V V V V gt gt I Designed to cover over half of the uninsured children in the country If any law is deemed unconstitutional by the US no longer considered law Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 I First federal legislation providing financial assistance to local schools for textbooks libraries and other instructional materials Who primarily funds public schools I State and local tax dollars Supreme Court it is I Local tax sources primarily the property tax of elementary and secondary school revenues generate over 40 Understand why there is a difference in public education based upon funding I Local school districts rely heavily on property taxes This means that school districts that do not have much taxable property cannot finance their schools as well as those containing large tax bases I Rich districts have more revenue and better overall educational programs than poor districts Merit Pay for teachers I This refers to performance related pay most frequently in the context of educational reform I It provides bonuses for workers who perform their jobs effectively according to measurable data Conservative view on education I Support school choices and technological literacy but oppose the creation of national standards developed by a federal education bureaucracy Think that too much money is being spent little to show for it I Want control over education policy to be and local level on education with very returned to the state I Links personal development to individual initiative and responsibility Liberal or Progressive view on education I Tended to be less concerned about national standards and the values that education professionals would include in curriculum I Want more money to be spent on education hire more teachers to reduce student teacher ratios and raise teacher salaries to levels comparable to other professions Also that educational resources be distributed more equitably so students in poor districts are not left behind I Have reservations about school choice and creation of charter schools Thought reflects a conviction that the government has an obligation to compensate for social inequities resulting from individual differences Rights Act of 1964 I Law that forbids discrimination on the basis of race creed color national origin or gender in employment or places of public accommodation Civil gt Affirmative Action I Federal policies requiring businesses and educational institutions guilty of past discrimination or in receipt of federal funding to demonstrate by positive action that they attempt to hire and admit minorities and women I A group of policies implemented starting in the 1960s to redistribute social benefits to those groups who had less than their share I The most obvious policy is the implementation of quotas I This meant that if there was 10 of African Americans in your community there should be 10 of African Americans working in all businesses gt Arguments fbr Affirmative Action I Past discrimination and oppression is still being seen today Therefore affirmative action is needed to make up for past discrimination I Affirmative action is needed to promote diversity and to end stereotypes I The lower class has a much harder time breaking into the workforce and rising up than years past and needs affirmative action to do that gt Arguments against Affirmative Action I These polices reward and penalize people based on their race gender etc this is hardly equality since it bases employment based on who a person is and not what they can do I Both Mexican and Asian immigrants suffered horrible discrimination However Asians are now often lumped in with the white majority and Mexicans are more often beneficiaries of affirmative action I The fact that the policies only help a select group of each minority I Since most affirmative action programs do include some performance aspects when admitting students it would seem that affirmative action only helps those who were already going places Not those down and out individuals gt Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 I Restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock I Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus and therefore effectively raise the value of crops I The money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products t is considered the first modern US farm bill gt Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 I Was enacted as an alternative and replacement for farm subsidy policies in previous New Deal farm legislation AAA of 1933 that had been found unconstitutional I The act revived the provisions in the previous Agricultural Adjustment Act with the exception that the financing of the law s programs would be provided by the Federal Government and not a processors tax I Established the first price support for crops in the US I Also established the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation FCTC V V How long do most farm bills last I 5 years How much is the current farm bill worth I 307 billion What percentage of the farm bill goes to farmers I Less that l7 What percentage of the farm bill goes to food stampsschool lunches I 74 Direct Payments I Subsidies that are basically money the government pays to certain crop farmers It s a set payment per acre regardless of how much they grow or how much the crop brings in at market Eligibility and amount are based on how many acres you have and what kind of crop they farme I So if a farmer has l20 acres with a cotton base average on it then he receives X amount of dollars per acre Higher yielding land gets more money Counter Cyclical Payments I Payments made to participating producers when the marketing year average price received by farmers for a covered commodity is less than target price Know what role cotton plays to the Lubbock area I 45 million bales are raised in south plains every year on average and this equates to over 6 billion pumped into the south plains economy I There are 207000 acres of land specifically for cotton in Lubbock I Lubbock is 2m in cotton in Texas and in the Top in the US What crops do not receive subsidies I Specialty Crops Why don t farmers grow more vegetables I They don t grow more vegetables because vegetables are considered specialty crops I Some farmers who participate in commodity subsidy programs are generally prohibited from growing fruits and vegetables on the so called base acres of land for which they receive subsidies Final Test Review Chapter 8 Fee for Service Healthcare Managed Care What groups of people have harder times getting quality healthcare Know the reasons why healthcare in general is expensive Medicare Problems with Medicare Medicaid SCHIP Understand that the Healthcare law that was passed last year was an Employment based Healthcare program where everyone is required to have insurance and employers of larger businesses are required to provide this coverage for their employees Please Understand these statements If any law is deemed Unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court it is no longer considered law Chapter 9 Elementary and Secondary Education of 1965 Who primarily funds public schools Understand why there is differences in public education based upon funding Merit Pay for Teachers Conservative view on Education Liberal or Progressive view on Education Chapter 14 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Racial Preference Affirmative Action Arguments for Affirmative Action Arguments against Affirmative Action Agricultural Adjustment Acts of 1933 and 1938 How long do most farm bills last How much is the current farm bill worth What percentage of the farm bill goes to farmers What percentage of the farm bill goes to Food stamps school lunches Direct payments Counter Cyclical Payments Know what role cotton plays to the Lubbock area Patterson Book page 106 114 Know how the president s proposal makes health insurance for families page 106 under Policies to improve the affordability and accountability Know who the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid will work with to identify Fraudulent Providers p111 Know about how many Americans according to this article do not have health insurance page 106
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