American Public Policy
American Public Policy POLS 2302
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Vivien Bradtke V
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Vivien Bradtke V
verified elite notetaker
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Russel Torp on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 2302 at Texas Tech University taught by Hoon Lee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/226521/pols-2302-texas-tech-university in Political Science at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Foreign Policy and Homeland Security Outline 0 Background 0 Marshall Plan and NATO 0 United Nations 0 Military build up and nuclear weapons 0 Intelligence agencies and the Iraq war 0 Foreign aid 0 Select issues in homeland security 0 Focused discussion Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism a c kg ro u n d 0 Foreign Policy Collection of gov t actions that affect or attempt to affect US national security and economics and political goals eg trade assistance immigration alliance human rights environmental and energy military actions Actors president secretary of state security adviser NSC congressional committees 0 Defense Policy Part of foreign policy that refers to actions taken by government officials to conduct military affairs key actors National Security Council Joint Chiefs of Staff secretary of defense quot orelgn Policy 0 Chief purpose promotion of national security through a diversi ed economic political and military strategy since W11 0 Key activities 1 Rebuilding Europe through Marshall Plan and NATO 2 Form and support for the UN 3 Development and growth of the nation s intelligence agenc1es 4 Military buildup to deal with security threats Economic and military assistance for humanitarian and strategic purposes V arshall Plan and NATO 0 Marshall Plan Program to help rebuild Europe after WW2 Provided economic stability and stronger allies Meant to prevent spread of communism Stimulate US economy 0 North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO 1949 alliance of US and Western European nations vs Warsaw Pact 1955 Cold War Truman Doctrine 1947 containment rn 7 I a e United Nations 0 Created in 1945 with 50 other nations 0 Goal was to prevent future con icts 0 global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law international security economic development and social equityquot 0 Numerous agencies 0 World Health Organization UNICEF UN Development Programme 0 affiliated organizations World Bank International Monetary Fund 0 Security Council 0 A rotating membership of 10 nations selected from the UN General Assembly 0 five permanent members with veto power Weapons 0 Military build up after W11 0 Cold war the Korean War the Vietnam War 0 450 billion in defense spending 2006 0 Creation of nuclear weapons 0 Cold War and competition with the former Soviet Union 0 Deterrence policy 0 Mutually Assured Destruction MAD 0 Spread of weapons 0 Nuclear proliferation vs NPT 0 Iran North Korea India and Pakistan 0 START I and START ll Igence Agencnes an raq V ar 0 Creation of intelligence agencies after WWII Central Intelligence Agency 1947 National Security Agency 1952 0 911 attacks showed problems 0 Strong critiques 0 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 reorganization of intelligence community attempt to ensure coordination of different agencies 39nte39 gence and Iraq amid 0 Relationship between intelligence information and Iraq war policies 0 Flawed intelligence linking Al Qaeda and Iraq weapons of mass destruction 0 Some successes 0 capture of Saddam Hussein Elections 0 And failures 0 loss of life and many wounded 0 instability Foreign Aid 0 Economic and military assistance 0 Provided for humanitarian and strategic purposes 0 Can be used for certain agendas Clinton Adm Development Fragile state Humanitarians Geostrategic interests Afghanistan Egypt Israel HIVAIDS 0 US Agency for International Development 0 principal vehicle for the distribution and management of bilateral economic aidquot 0 Level of aid 0 About 1 0 Is it enough Issue of definition Select Issues in Homeland Security 0 Creation of Department of Homeland Security criticisms persist 0 Vulnerability identifying and measuring security risks Lists by DHS chemical plants dirty bombs nuclear power plants ports hazardous waste transports bioterrorism use of risk assessments to help make decisions 0 Transportation Security large federal effort in airport security 730 million people travel vs 700 million pieces of baggage per year successful Yes an ge of Terrorism 0 USA PATRIOT Act 2001 0 Civil liberties violations 0 Effectiveness and ef ciency not all decisions effective are a few successes worth it are methods efficient eavesdropping without warrants 0 Legal and ethical concerns individual rights too much presidential power balance between rights and security Outline 39 Background 0 Public health programs 39 Cost issues 0 Quality issues 39 Focused discussion Preventative Health Care Numbers in a nutshell CI US health care spending 2007 22 trillion CI 162 of US GDP CI 7421 per person for health care 2007 El Average 7 raise per year well above the inflation rate CI Faster increasing in drug costs and estimated 9 12 increase over next decade CI Gov health care budget under pressure CI Employers pass added burden to employees CI Employees pay more and receive less or no benefits ackground 0 Health care policy 0 All of the actions that Gov take to influence the provision of health care services and the various Gov activities that affect or attempt to affect public health and well being 0 Government activity relatively recent 0 Health care research education hospitals food drug medical devices pollution water supplies sanitation and waste removal 0 Selected major agencies 0 Food and Drug Administration FDA 0 National Institutes of Health NIH 0 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC co and Drug Administration quot quot 0 Oversees the development of new drugs and medical devices as well as food supply 0 Regulates biologics vaccines and blood products labeling and safety of cosmetics medical devices contact lenses radiation in consumer products microwave and cellphone 0 Primary vehicle for federal health science research 39 27 separate institutions and centers 0 Support health research at colleges universities medical research centers 39 National security after bioterrorism scares 2001 enters for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 0 Development and application of disease prevention and control environmental health health promotion and education 0 Immunization H1N1 control of AIDS and other infectious diseases chronic disease prevention birth defects and developmental disabilities occupational safety 0 Responsible for threats of bioterrorism anthrax scare of 2001 Evolution of Health Care Policy of the US Hybrid system as the main characteristic 0 public and private providers neither public nor private 0 US has the smallest amount of public insurance or provision of public health services of any developed countries in the world 0 This re ects our political culture individual rights limited gov vs merit good 0 63 of employers offer health insurance coverage 2008 down from 69 2000 and keep declining 0 Gaps in coverage exist erils of Being Uninsured 0 2007 About 47 million 17 of the nonelderly population NM TX 25 vs MN lt 10 0 burden on low income individuals 0 Receive less health care less preventative care 25 more likely to die than insured 0 Less adequate care e g uninsured women with breast cancer have 30 50 higher risk of dying than insured 0 lnequities quality and length of life are distinctively different between insured and uninsured Strengths 0 One of the finest HC systems in the world 0 Number of physicians 0 Hospital facilities 0 HC specialists and expertise O Research centers Weaknesses 0 Health care indicators not great especially for certain populations 0 Infant mortality rates unequal access to critical HC services poor elderly rural 0 Cost 0 At the bottom NM MS LA 0 Adopted as part of the Social Security Act 1935 0 medical insurance for the elderly 65 and disabled about 40 million bene ciaries 0 Program provisions 0 PartA core plan partial payment w individuals responsible for remainder funded through Medicare trust fund 0 Part B optional supplemental insurance expenses other than hospital stays cost monthly premium 9640 2009 is shared by individuals 14 and government 3 4 edicare cont d 0 Medicare Choice 0 Part C encourages people to join managed care plans eg HMOs due to rising costs 0 Medicare Part D 2006 0 Optional prescription drug plan rise in drug prices 0 295 deductible 28m0 premium program pays 75 up to 2700 beneficiary pays full cost to 4350 then program pays full cost 0 Fraud and abuse concerns 0 Future of program 44 4 47 i aggggggifg Public Health Programs Medicaid 39 about 55 million beneficiaries 2009 established in 1965 0 Provisions of program 0 government established standards that pay about one half of cost 0 coverage varies widely 0 SCHIP state coverage for children in low income families 0 Fraud and Abuse Same as Medicare 0 7 of overall Medicaid 0 10 fraud and 20 30 abuse in New York Other Public Health Programs and Policies 0 Veterans health care 0 Health Insurance and Portability Accountability Act HIPAA 1996 0 right to keep insurance between jobs COBRA 0 Patients Rights 0 Employee Retirement Income Security Act ERISA 1974 0 allows individuals to sue insurance companies if they are denied certain medical treatments Problems Rising Costs Table 8 2 p247 Item 1980 1990 2000 2007 Total National 25340 71410 13532 224120 Health Care Expenditures in billions Per capita health 1100 2813 7421 care expenditures Health care 891 123 138 162 expenditures as percentage of GDP 7 n roblems Rising Costs Soaring costs have increased faster than consumer incomes 0 What contributes to these large increases 0 Third party payers insurance companies employers governments 0 Affects federal and state budgets 0 some state innovations eg Oregon 0 Large increases in cost of prescription drugs 0 should government regulate costs educing Costs Other Options Pass more costs OH to the consumer 0 Reduce demands for services not essential Market principle the more frequent the more pay 0 Establish personal health accounts 0 Account for each employee s health expenses 0 Employees make decisions about how best to spend the limited funds 0 Effective management of disease 0 Better managing of chronic diseases asthma diabetes heart cancer 0 Emphasize preventative health care 0 Regular physical exam and diagnostic tests education and training exercise stress management smoking cessation do 83 Per centage of US De Leading Causes 2005 Rank Causes of Death Percentage of Total Deaths N 0010U1gtUJ All Causes Heart Disease Cancer Stroke Chronic Lung Disease Accidents Diabetes Alzheimer s Disease In uenza and Pneumonia Kidney Disease Septicemia blood poisoning 772 athsi AEt r i BUequot t he Ten 100 266 228 59 53 48 31 29 26 18 14 Economic Policy Translating Theory into Practice Charles L Cochran and Eloise F Malone H Evolution of PoliticalEconomic Thinking Great Depression Keynesian Approach New Deal by Franklin Roosevelt WWII unprecedented rise in gov t expenditures The Employment Act of 1946 gov t responsible for providing maximum employment production and purchasing power Council of Economic Advisers CEA in Senate and Joint Economic Committee in Congress limiting the power of the president Two problems in using fiscal and monetary policy effectively Agree on full employment price stability economic growth and equitable distribution of income but differ on market failure In real world choice between imperfect markets and imperfect policy interventions Those responsible are either unable or unwilling to take the action required separation of power taxing and spending largely determined by Congress short term benefits before election vs longterm costs borrowing vs raising tax Taxes As an Instrument of Policy Main reservoir of gov t expenditures Antitax sentiment is high first income tax during the Civil War but expired at that war s end 1894 bill by Congress declared unconstitutional in 1895 1916 after the 16th Amendment gave Congress to tax on income US tax well below other countries Fig 21 li Figure 21 Total Tax RevenUe as a Percentage of GDP 2003 Mexico 195 United States 254 Korea 255 Japan 2583 SWllZerand 293 lieland 3110 Australia iii55 Turkey 329 Canada 339 United Kingdom 353 Spain 358 Greece 359 Germany 33982 Nemerlands 388 Austria 430 itaiy 434 Source Organization for Economic Cooperation Development OECD Revenue Statistics 1965 2003 PariszOECD2004p 18 Notem 2002 data FIGURE 21 TotalTax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP 2003 includes national and local taxes and social security contributions Taxation in the United States Revenue personal income taxgtsocial insurance taxgt corporate income tax Fig 22 Sales taxes for states and cities vs Excise taxes taxes on specific products gasoline airline tickets alcohol cigarettes firearms for state and local gov t as well as national gov t Property tax for state and local gov t i Figure 22 Federal Government Receipts 2004 Other EXC39SQ sources taxes 4 4 Social Individual 1 insurance i income taxes 4 42 Corporate income taxes 0 Source USCensus Bu reau StatisticaiAbsrract 2004 2005 Washington DC US Government Printing Of ce 2004 p 31 1 FIGURE 22 Federal Government Receipts 2004 Principles of Taxation Efficiency and ii Fairness Tax Efficiency interfere as little as possible with the market allocation market efficiency Tax Fairness n Benefit principle pay taxes in proportion to the benefits they receive toll bridge police service wealthy gt poor figure 23 n Abilitytopay principle taxes allocated according to the incomes and or wealth of taxpayers horizontal equity vs vertical equity Progressive proportional and regressive tax Spending Fiscal Year 2005 interest on the national debt Other government operations Physical resources energy environment transportation etc 50 Direct bene t payments for individuals health education verterans bene ts etca Military spending 640 1 88 Source Budget for Fiscal Year 2005 Historical Tables 2004 p 52 NoteNumbers do not add up to 100 due to rounding FIGURE 23 How the Federal Budget Dollar ls Spent Fiscal Year 2005 Figure 23 Federal Budget Dollar Fairness Tax incidence the actual distribution of the tax burden on different levels of income Tax systems Fig 24 a Progressive wealthier pay a larger percentage of their income in taxes than do lowerincome taX payers Keynsian and most Americans support a Proportional the same through all income levels at tax rate a Regressive average rate declines as income rises Figure 24 Tax Incidence Progress quot Proportional and Regressive High Progressive Average Tax Rate A Proportional Regressive Low High lnoom e Level FIGURE 24 Tax incidence Progress Proportional and Regressive l Figure 25 Yearly US Budget Deficit or Surplus 1961 2004 billion 236 Clinton 523 126 128 I961 1975 100 952 19631968 19594974 975 1977 1930 19811988 19894992 WES2000 20012004 Mm I i I 69 JFYK Johnson 3913 3 Carter so 2a 0 m 375 61479 3L4 A 2 2 23 15 4 N xon J 7 19 3 V 59 L l 74 3100 aw ford 1 9 763 428 150 45 158 NIXOEQFOId 485 55 34 It l 5200 2 B v J 40 9M 22 221 Reagan 255 81 252 300 2 quotMM GHW Bush 435 03 3395 400 39 3W W200 412 lG Bush 412 FY 2004 5500 Source Congressional Budget Of ce 2005 FIGURE 25 Yearly US Budget De cit or Surplus1961 2004 in USS billions
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