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American Government, Organization

by: Russel Torp

American Government, Organization POLS 1301

Marketplace > Texas Tech University > Political Science > POLS 1301 > American Government Organization
Russel Torp
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Russel Torp on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1301 at Texas Tech University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/226524/pols-1301-texas-tech-university in Political Science at Texas Tech University.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 1 Who Gets What and How EXAM QUESTIONHH pg 23 Study Guide for Chl link Chapter 1 Who Gets What and How Politics a process of determining how every power and resource available are distributed to a society without resulting in violence Power ability to get others to do what you want Without politics life would be chaos anarchy etc If how power is managed is not legitmate then there W7 be Violence Politics and Government Government a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people Authority power that people recognize as legitimate Rules Directives that specify how resources should be distributed or rules are the how of who gets what lnstitutions organization in which the power ofthe government is exercised or institutions are the where ofthe political struggle Rules how Institutions where Economics production and distribution ofa society s material resources and services Both politics and economics focus on distribution of society s resources land labor capital and entrepreneurship Economics private Politics public Economic Systems More Gov Socialism Social Regulated Laissezfaire Less Gov 39 39 It Cuba Democracy Capitalism capitalism involvement China Sweden US none Former Norway Britain Soviet Union Denmark France examples Combining Economics amp Political Systems Political Systems less government involvement Communist Adv Karl Marx Industrial Democracy USA Britain Japan Economic less gov Systems more gov Totalitarianism Capitalism China Singapore Cuba Former SU more gov Economic Systems Capitalism market determines production distribution and price decisions Regulated capitalism has government procedural guarantees whereas laissez faire capitalism doesn t Socialist economy the state determines production distribution and price decisions property is government owned Social democracy is a hybrid of capitalism and socialism has both the government and free market aspect Political Systems Authoritarian Systems The state holds all the power Several types Monarchy government power vested in a king or queen Saudi Arabia Theocracy government claims to draw its power from the divine or religious authority lran Fascist policy is made for the ultimate glory ofthe state Nazi Germany Oligarchy rule by a small group of elites Totalitarian a system in which absolute control is exercised over every aspect of life North Korea Nonauthoritarian Systems Anarchy the absence of government and laws Democracy government that vests power in the people based on popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power Theories of Democracy Eite Democracy limits the citizens role to choosing among competing leaders you invest all of your power amp hope into the elected official Pluralist Democracy citizen membership in groups is the key to political power Robert Putnam quotBo wling Alone 20002 loluntarz activities are a Vital gart of a democracy geogle who stag at home dont learn about galtics Participatory Democracy citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives 83111 Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Notes End of Chapter 1 The Role of the People The People as Subjects Authoritarian systems indivuduals are subjects of their state government Subjects individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights They may be right or wrong but they have little to no say on what happens The People as Citizens Democratic systems people are citizens Citizens members ofa political community with both rights and responsibilities People are sovereign Citizens Rights and Responsibilities Citizens possess certain rights or powers to act Freedom of speech press the right to assemble and certain protections concerning the fair treatment of citizens in the criminal justice system Obey the law Pay taxes serve in the military or sit on juries Owning businesses Origins of Democracy in America The Ancient Greek Experience It was rule by the people but people was shortly defined as only rich white men Participatory democracy and all of the citizens would gather in one area to discuss political matters We can see parallels to early American democracy to a relatively small number of white men Politics in the Middle Ages Monarchs consolidated their power over their subjects and some even challenged the greatest political power oftime The Catholic Church Divine right of kings the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God Privileged groups in society like the clergy or nobles had rights but individuals had no power what so ever Authoritarian churches The Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment 15001700 important changes took place in the ways that people thought about politics and their political leaders Protestant Reformation the break from the Roman Catholic Church in the 15000s by those who believed in direct access to God and salvation by faith Martin Luther spearheaded the Protestant Reformation His ideas were spread and then there was a split in Catholic and Protestant countries Enlightenment a philosophical movement 1600s1700s that emphasized human reason scientific examination and industrial progress The foundation of government is reason not faith social contract the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others John Locke and Thomas Hobbes lfthe people believe that the ruler is not watching out forthe better good ofthe people then they are allowed to overthrow the ruler and nd new governmental representation Enlightenment theories discredited the divine rght of the lrings Legitimate government requires that people consent to it the government and if their government representation breaks that contract the people may form a new one Sources of Democracy Closer to Home Iroquois Confederacy Alliance of five and eventually six East Coast Native American nations whose constitution Great Law of Peace impressed American leaders with checks and balances federalism separation of powers and consensus building Citizenship in America The Dangers of Democracy Madison feared pure democracy because people may create factions Factions groups that might pursue only their selfinterest Madison would rather have a republic a government in which decisions are made through representatives of people Articles of Confederation the document that tied the colonies together before the Constitution was drafted almost ended the new government before the gov even began Madison did not trust average Americans to act beyond their own interests View contrasted with the idea of a republican virtue citizens can put interests of community ahead of their own Republic a government in which decisions are made through representative of the people Test Questlon Words Think critically about American politics Analysis understanding how something works by breaking it down into its component parts see how it works Evaluation assessing how well something works or performs according to a particular standard of yardstick Analyzing American politics by asking three questions Who are the parties involved What do they have at stake How do the rules shape the outcome Whats at Stake READ THEM Possible exam questions Chapter 2 American Citizens and Political Culture Rising amounts of senior citizens ethnic minorities immigrants and non english speakers in the American population American Citizenship If you are born in any of the fifty states or in America s oversea territories than you are an American citizen by jus soli right of the soil If you are born outside the United States to American parents you are an American citizen byjus sanguinis right of the blood Ifyou are born in the US but one parent holds citizenship in another country you may be able to hold dual citizenship Immigrants citizens or subjects of one country who move to another country to live or work naturalization the legal process of acquiring citizenship for someone who has not acquired it by birth Chapter 2 continued Nonimmigrants USCIS refers to these people as nonimmigrants asylum protection or sanctuary especially from political persecution refugees individuals who ee an area or a country because of persecution on the basis ofrace nationality religion group membership or political opinion US visitors foreign government officials students international represenatives temporary workers members of foreign media and exchange visitors Late 1800s Early 1900s limited the Chinese Immigrants came to the US 18821943 Westerners came to the US and Congress decided that they were coming from Great Britain Italy Ireland etc 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act Congress set limits on what amounts of each nationality could be in the nation If anyone came before 1982 got amnesty to stay in the nation If you came after 1982 were not granted amnesty Bush developed a work program that illegal aliens could come and work for a certain amount of days and when 911 happened he tightened requirements on this Arizona House Bill 1070 must carry documentation at all times to prove that you are not an illegal alien 14 years old or older if you have been in the nation illegally for over 30 days then you have to register with the US government that These people are expected to return home eventually Many illegal immigrants do not contribute to taxes and thus the social services and the federal money that goes back to the states is often skewed because of this Illegal Immigrants are still entitled to guarantee of a fair trial right to a layer U 5 Supreme Court has ruled it 7ega to discrmnate against immigrants in the US US Immigration Policy We control Immigration because of ack of taxes terrorism Immigration is controlled by Homeland Security and they set up border control and enforce Immigration laws Law for immigrants is formed by Congress with a check by the President and put into place by the USCIS 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act allowed the agency to have great power Whom to Admit When Economic times are good in the nation it is easy for Americans to be ok with more immigrants coming in fthe economy is not doing so well Americans are less likely to be receptive of immigrants due to the fact that they will be losing jobs Throughout history when the labor force wasnt suf cient enough for dealing with the demand of building railroads and rapid industrialization immigrants were welcomed with open arms Officia immigration policy expects immigrants to be skilled and not be burdensome to American social services system Immigration Law Today Congress abolished the Immigration and Nationality Act because it was doubling the amount of people that daily entered the nation Immigration and the thoughts of citizenship are issues that have very high political and humanitarian stakes attatched to them The Ideas that Unite Us How does America make a single nation out of so many different diversities Political culture the broad pattern of ideas beliefs attitudes and values about citizens and government held by a population Values central ideas principles or standards that most people believe are very important ex freedom and equality Normative describes beliefs or values about how things should be or what the holders believe the world ought to be Faith in Rules and Individuals Governmental focus on rules and process rather than on the results Procedural guarantees government assurance that the rules will work out smoothly and treat everyone very fairly without a promise of a certain particular outcome America runs on a procedural guarantee Individualism belief that what is good for society is based on what is good for individuals The government of a given country can be evaluated based on how it produces substantive outcomes and not just on how well the country guarantees fair processes Core American Values Democracy Americans believe that they should be able to choose political leaders and select policies for the nation through voting Americans think Democracy is good for the public decisions but not so much for private realm Freedom The view of Americans and their freedom is very procedural in the sense that it holds that no unfair restrictions should be placed in the way of what you want We have an extraordinary commitment to freedom as a result of America being founded during the Enlightenment 1st amendment freedom of speech expression belief press to assemble are the Fundamental American Liberties Equality Government should guarantee political equality and equality before the law The courts have faced is deciding what counts as a reasonable distinction The Ideas that Divide Us idealogies sets of beliefs about politics and society that help people make sense of their world Liberals Democratic Party Conservatives Republican Party conservatives people who generally favor limited government and are cautious about change and social order is very important to them stay true to the constitution liberals people who generally favor government action and view change as progress want social reform and for welfare Belief in less government control of individual lives F N F Who Eco Who Traditional liberals l eco What conservatives or Government role libertarians Belief in Preva39ent in What Limited Belief in less more gov e n my J role m eponomy gov control control of ofthe the economy gamma a economy Who Social Who Social liberals conservatives communitarians religious right radical feminists What Limited and gov role in environmentalists economy W W role cw and social order met Fl f ib re government control of individual lives and the social order The Economic Dimension action in the economic dimension such as stimulus etc Liberals advocate a large role for the government regulating the economy are considered to be on the far left Economic market cannot regulate itself needs the government s hands Without regulation Liberals believe that the economy will fall into depressions and recessions Conservatives who think the government should not regulate the economy are on the far right Government shouldn t be trusted with too much power Private property should be entirely private Typically Conservatives are wealthy upperclass Americans Liberals are generally lower paid blue collar workers The Social Order DI39menson action in the social dimension such as welfare medicare medicaid economic liberals those who favor an expanded government role in the economy but a limited role in the social order economic conservatives strictly procedural government role in the economy and the social order libertarians those who favor a minimal government role in anysphere social liberals those who want greater control of the economy and the social order to bring about greater equality and regulate the effects of progress communitarians those who want a strong substantive government role in the economy and the social order to realize their vision of a community of equals so basically like socialism Relationship between the 2 Idealogical Dimensions The two dimensions do not dovetail neatly Leaves different mixes of idealogical groups Exam Information 13 of questions come from book 13 current events videos and stuff 13 come from lectures Speed limits were raised New York mayor thinking of running for President on the Republican side if the Republicans are desperate for more candidates Obama is addressing Congress on September 7 Red possible exam material Chapter 2 continued Core American Values Democracy representative democracy is a fair way to make decisions Freedom procedural view that no unfair restrictions will be placed on you Equality Americans believe in equality of treatment access and opportunity but not in equality of result Which one ofthese is not a Core American Value The Citizens and American Political Beliefs The United States has grown more democratic since Madisons time More groups may vote and assert political rights Participation is not high however Is low turnout a concern Only get a small representation of the peoples views on political views People have attitudes that my votes not going to count if they are say a Democrat in Texas Is there a civic crisis in American democracy Chapter 3 The English Settlers Colonists left England To escape feudalism and for the opportunity to own land For economic opportunties To practice religion freely Political Participation in the Colonies Property quali cations for voting Less restrictive than in England more people owned land Religious qualifications for voting Have to be a Christian Religious Tests on basic knowledge of the Christian faith Women and Colonial Politics Women can vote if they owned some kind of land Woman was a widow and her husband passed property to her Daughter of parents who passed away the parents can pass property to the daughter and then she can vote African Americans and the Institutions of Slavery Before the 1600s Africans were subjected to same laws and codes of behavior as Europeans who were living in America In 1670 English people from the Caribbean island of Barbados settled in South Carolina and brought the institution of slavery along With them French and English War A war fought between France and England and allied Indians from 17541763 resulted in France s expulsion from the New World kicked Spain out of Florida English needed money to pay for war Sugar Act of 176 4 imposed customs taxes or duties on sugar Stamp Act of 1765 taxes must be paid on every piece of printer matter in the colonies newspapers legal documents and playing cards 1765 Stamp Act REPEALED because of continuation of protests and political changes throughout England Townshend Acts of 1767 taxing goods imported from England such as paper glass and tea Tea Act of 1773 aka Boston Tea Party were seen by the colonists as intolerable violations of their rights Because of this act the colonists threw 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor This event is more commonly known as The Boston Tea Party Coercive Acts of 1774 INTOLERABLE ACTS Britain responded by passing this law to punish the citizens of Massachusetts for their actions Quartering Act 1765 This bill required that Colonial Authorities to furnish barracks and supplies to British troops In 1766 it was expanded to public houses and unoccupied buildings Boston Port Bill 1744 This bill closed the port of Boston to all colonists until the damages from the Boston Tea Party were paid for Massachusetts Government Act Effective May 20 1774 This bill effectively annulled the charter of the colonies giving the British governor complete control of the town meetings and taking control out of the hands of the colonialists French and Indian War 17541763 France amp England gt Sugar Act of 1764 gt Stamp Act of 1765 gt Townshend Acts 1767gt Tea Act of 1773 gt Boston Tea Party gt Coercive Intolerable Acts were imposed Conflict between anland and the Colonies England believed it the Co Ignisfts Was right believed they were right Wanted colonists to help Unfair taxation such as the pay for the French and Sugar and Tea Acts Indian War Colonists rejected offers of Belief in Popular representation in sovereignty Parliament Revolution Boston Massacre March 5 1770 Soldier got into a heated argument with a merchant merchant thought that the soldier didn t pay his bill Colonists started throwing rocks at the soldiers Others started joining in Colonists were angry because these soldiers were taking away the colonists employment opportunities The Declaration oflndependence Jefferson is influenced by Locke s belief in natural rights life liberty and property He argues that King George has violated the social contract with the colonists Jefferson must make the case why m revolution is just but others are not gt Jefferson is saying we need to compose a document to make it so that Revolutions like this do NOT happen again The Declaration ofIndependence 1776 Accomplished 3 things 1 It laid out a new governing principle SPECIFICALLY that all persons are created equal with unalienable rights and that governments derive their power from the consent of the governed 2 It set forth a specific list of grievances against King George III 3 It formally declared war against Britain Although the Declaration of Independence was formally adopted on July 4th the delegates to the Second Continental Congress didn t actually sign the document until August 2nd WATCH OBAMAS SPEECH TOMORROW 991 1 Goals for the Day President Obama s Address to Congress Finish Ch3 Go over Ch4 President Obama s Address to Congress Give tax cuts to small businesses that hire people who have been looking for a job for more than 6 months and veterans Raise taxes for the wealthy Speed up construction policies ifthey were to hire they would get money faster because straight from the government Cut income taxes for the companies Reform and repair schools that are in bad condition Breaks for banks that offered loans He told Congress that the proposal was going to be paid forgt he said that Congress was going to have to find a way to pay for it Cut 15 trillion of government spending on top of the July ruling to cut government spending by 1 trillion Chapter 3 Life after the Revolution African Americans still remained enslaved in the South Slave trade continued Native Americans continued to lose land Women Lost the ability to vote and the previous limited opportunities to participate in politics The Articles of Confederation 1777 Established a rm league of friendship Created a confederacy giving power to the states Federal government had few powers and limited ability to carry out those powers Provisions in the Articles National government with a Congress allowed to make peace coin money appoint officers for an army control the post office and negotiate with Indian tribes One vote in the Continental Congress for each state regardless of size Vote of nine states to pass any measure amendments had to be unanimous Delegates selected to Congress by their respective state legislatures Because of the fear of a tyrannical ruler no executive was created and the national government was quite weak Problems with the Articles No executive to administer the government no real leader No power to tax without states consent dif cult to do anything like establish a national army without money No authority to regulate commerce trade between states became chaotic because states were using their own money continental dollars were worth nothing Congress could pass laws but had little power to execute or enforce them Shays Rebellion A grassroots uprising 1787 by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures The Constitutional Convention quotAn Assembly of Demigods Met in Philadelphia in May of 1787 George Washington George Mason James Madison Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton all attended Called to revise the Articles of Confederation after concern over Shay s Rebellion Meetings held in secret Created a whole new government Major debate remained over how much power the federal government should have Compromise chosen by the founders at the Convention was called federalism Key Questions Articles of New Jersey Plan Virginia Plan The Constitution Confederation Patterson James Madison Favored the Favored the Small States Large States Who is sovereign States States People People Key Questions Articles of Confederation New Jersey Plan Patterson Favored the Virginia Plan James Madison Favored the The Constitution representation based on pop Small States Large States What law is State law State law National law National law supreme What kind of Unicameral Unicameral Bicameral Bicameral legislatures what legislature equal legislature one legislature legislature equal is the basis for votes for all states vote per state representation in votes in Senate representation equal both houses representation in House based pop How are laws passed Two thirds vote to pass important Extraordinary majority to pass Majority decision making Simple majority vote in Congress presidential veto What powers are No congressional Congressional Congressional Congressional amendments by states given 0 power to levy power to regulate power to regulate power to regulate Congress taxes regulate commerce and tax commerce and commerce and commerce taxes taxes What kind of No executive Multiple executive No restriction on Strong executive executive is branch laws strong single there executed by Equal executive congressional representation committee What kind of No federal court No federal court National judiciary Federal Court judiciary is there system system system How can the All states required Unanimous Popular ratification Amendment document be to approve approval of procedures less changed amendments difficult The Great Compromise Bicameral legislature House of Representatives based on population and chosen by the people Senate based on equal representation and chosen by the state legislatures Single executive chosen by the Electoral College Federal court system North and South North wanted representation to be based on the representation of free citizens South wanted to include slaves in the population 35s Compromise a formula of counting five slaves as three people for purposes of representation that reconciled northern and southern factions at the Constitutional Convention The word slavery in the Constitution was removed after the 13th amendment was added 80 years after The Battle over Ratification Federalists Supported ratification ofthe Constitution Wanted strong central government Concerned about security and order Eg Madison Hamilton Jay AntiFed ooposed rati cation of the Constitution Wanted states to have power over the federal government Corruption best kept in check at the local level Eg Samuel Adams Patrick Henry The Federalist Papers Written by Madison Hamilton and Jay underthe pen name Publius Called for rati cation of the Constitution Published in New York papers to persuade legislators to ratify the Constitution Among the best known Federalsf Nos 10 and 51 Federalist No 10 Madison warned against the dangers of factions The causes of factions cannot be controlled that infringes on liberty must control the effects of factions Faction effects can be best controlled by a republic A republic could best control factions Representation would dilute the effects of factions A large territory would make it dif cult for one faction to become a majority In a large territory it would be difficult for people who shared common interests to find each other Federalist No51 Discusses checks and balances between the three branches of the government Also discusses separation of powers Rights ofthe people Ratification of the Constitution required support of nine of the thirteen state legislatures Small states were quick to support the Constitution because of the inclusion ofthe Senate Eventually all thirteen states rati ed it Rhode Island last one in 1970 Delaware rati ed in Dec 7 1787 The Citiens and the Founding Competing elites elites weren t united in their views about a new government The rise of the ordinary citizen Development of citizenship as we know it today Three Elements of Citizenship Citizenship should rest on consent There should not be grades or levels of citizenship Citizenship should confer equal rights on all citizens Readings in American Politics Chapter 4 John Marshall amp The Constitution A Federal Judiciary was provided in every plan ofthe Federal Convention Federal Judges should be removable under impeachment All believed there should be a national Supreme Court Keeping the Republic American Politics Exam Material Read three times for American Politics American Politics Chapter 4 Hildebrand of American Constitutionalism John Marshall Defect of the Articles of Confederation Why The system of the government was on the hands of the states NOT on the citizens The States had taken over peoples property and overall the Articles were just not in uential As a consequence Congress could not enforce any laws Federal Convention of 1787 State coercion required little discussion War of states A federal judiciary was provided in every plan Federal judges should be removed only upon conviction following impeachment A believed there should be a national Supreme Court National Inferior court disagreed on Madison was against the right to appeal to the Supreme national tribunal It would cause appeals to be multiplied Everyone agreed Congress should make the decision Except for the local champions in Philadelphia and in the state conventions It was a humiliation for the Supreme Court to take appeals from the state courts 3 principles discussed in the Convention Constitution is law It is the supreme law While legislative branch makes laws the enforcement of the laws is thru the judicial branch First full act of the Senate under the Constitution Set up a committee to organize the judiciary 1 chief justice and 5 associate justices Original Nominations Chief Justice John Jay good but not great John Rutledge William Cushing John Blair James Wilson James Iredell John Jay resigned Successor Oliver Ellisworth too ill John Adams was about to retire John Marshall was Secretary of State amp Majority in the Senate filled up new positions with the midnight judges Ellisworth resigned Jay declined Adams appointed John Marshall and he accepted in February of 1801 On Blackboard Covering only the online government reader The constitutuion httptexaspolitichaitsutexasedu Starts 5 pm Monday 9 12 until 5PM Tuesday 9 13 Click the assessments tab Only given 20 minutes to complete one attempt 10 questions multiple choice 1 pt each 10 points Chapter 4 The Three Branches of Government All governments must have the power to Legislate or make laws Administer or execute laws Adjudicate or interpret laws Because of our separation of powers we have three branches of government Legislative Branch Legislature The body of government that makes laws Bicameral legislature with two chambers Article 1 sets outs the framework for Congress Representation over pure democracy Republic a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people Founders chose bicameral over unicameral legislature because it provided representation checks against abuse of power Nebraska has a unicameral legislature To be elected to the Senate at least 30 years old a citizen of the US for 9 years To be elected to the House of Representatives at least 25 years old Citizen of the US for 7 years Provisions of Congress Assemble at least once a year Both chambers public journal of proceedings after each session Neither chamber can recess for more than 3 days without the consent of the other chamber Congressional salaries are paid by the Department of Treasury not by the respective states MC cannot be arrested or sued for things said during speeches and debates in the Capital building MC cannot simultaneously hold another federal government position Review up for exam on Wednesday by noon 12 In class on Friday Other 12 3 Important Clauses of Congress Article 1 Section 8 18 clauses Commerce Clause Clause 3 Gives the Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce and trade with foreign na ons Declaring War Clause 11 Gives Congress NOT the president the power to declare war Elastic Clause Clause 18 Gives Congress the power to make all necessary and proper laws that would help execute the enumerated powers of the Constitution Article 1 Section 8 gives Congress the power to Collect taxes Regulate commerce coin and regulate money establish post officesroads declare war raise and managed armed services make laws Unicameral legislature a legislature with one chamber EX New Zealand Denmark Sweden Spain North Korea Israel Kuwait US Bicarneral state legislatures EXCEPT for Nebraska The Executive Branch Executive the branch of government responsible for putting laws into effect Concerns of the founders Executive could provide stability Fear of tyranny Resolved with single executive the president What does Constitution say chosen by the Electoral College Article II length by term executive powers Possible alternative Parliamentary system Current Events Obama s disapproval reached 55 Wid res in Houston Democrat Weiner resigned after sexting scandal and was replaced by Republican Bob Turner US Embassy was under attack yesterday in Kapul sp Chidren 12 and under don t have to be subjected to pat downs at the airport Chapter 4 Article III The Judicial Branch Judicial power the power to interpret laws and judge whether a law has been broken The least dangerous branch power of neither the purse legislative enact policies that deal with economy nor the sword executive Judicial review power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws Article III sets up Supreme Court but little else it says the power of the US is to be vested in one SUpreme Court and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish Judges serve as long as they demonstrate good behavior Possible alternative legislative supremacy Legislative supremacy an alternative to judicial review the acceptance of legislative acts as the final law of the land British model of no constitution Separation of powers the institutional arrangement that assigns judicial executive and legislative powers to different persons or groups thereby limiting the powers of each Checks and balances the principle that allows each branch of government to exercise some form of control over the others Federalist No51 If men were angels no government would be necessary if angels were to govern men neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary Republican remedies Founders recognized that branches would seek power at the expense of other branches Constitution separates powers and allows each branch to check the other look at Figure 41 in textbook Article 1 Legislative Article 11 Executive Article III Judicial No branch can act independently of other branches Fusion ofpowers an alternative to separation of powers combining or blending branches of government Separation of Powers Executive Legislature elect elect Voters Voters Fusion ofpow er voters elect legislature who then elect executive in parliamentary system Federalism Enumerated powers of Congress congressional powers specifically named in the Constitution Article I Section 8 strongest statement of national power Necessary and proper clause aka elastic clause constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers also known as the elastic clause Supremacy clause constitutional declaration Article VI that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the supreme law of the land Concurrent powers powers shared by the federal and state governments Two Views of Fe deralism Dual Federalism national and state governments responsible for separate policy areas Layer cake model of Federalism Cooperative Federalism national and state governments share responsibilities for most domestic policy areas Marble cake model of federalism Model after 1930s Possible Alternatives to Federalism Unitary system government in which all power is centralized Confederal system government in which local units holds all the power Confederal system Federal system Unitary system National Gov National gov National Gov Local units Local units Local units InterestGroups 16112011 180300 Public Interest groups Groups that organize to influence goverment to produce collective goods or services that benefit the general public 49 Issue Advocacy Ads Advertisements that support issues of candidates without telling the constituents how to vote 2 Grassroots Lobbying Indirect lobbying efforts that spring from widespread public concern Astroturf Lobbying Indirect lobbying efforts that manipulate or create public sentiment Astroturf being artificial grassroots often orchestrated by elites Tea Partymoveonorg 11162011 60300 PM 11162011 60300 PM SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER I quotWho gets what when and howquot refers to 2 A system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people describes 3 An economic system in which the market determines production distribution and prices and where property is privately owned is 4 A political system that gives ultimate power to the government rather than to the people is known as a republic an authoritarian government a democracy a direct democracy cowgt 5 As discussed in class the Soviet Union under Stalin is an example of a government A social democratic B totalitarian C libertarian D republican 6 According to the theory of a citizen39s membership in groups is the key to political power 7 According to John Locke in the social contract theory the source of the government s legitimacy comes from A Government39s authority over its subjects B The divine right of kings C The government s control of all property D The consent of citizens 8 One of the reasons that the founders did not give too much political in uence to ordinary citizens was A the founders had somewhat low expectations of the ordinary citizen and thought a representative could take their interests into account in a more reasonable and predictable manner B citizens had too much responsibility in other areas of everyday life C the poor communication and transportation systems required only limited participation in the affairs of government D the founders knew people would gather more power as time went on due to the Fourteenth Amendment 9 US demographic trends indicate that 10 The shared values and beliefs about the political world that give people a common language in which to discuss political ideas are known as SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER 11 Government assurances that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly with no promise of speci c outcomes are called 12 Individuals who favor limited government control over the economy but want the government to intervene forcefully to create a traditional social order are known as 13 The religious right believes in whereas traditional Republicans believe in A less government control of individuals lives more regulation of individual lives for the social order B more government regulation of the economy less regulation of the economy C more regulation of individuals lives for the social order less government control of individuals lives D less government regulation of the economy more regulation of the economy 14 Common Sense was written by 16 The major weakness of the Articles of Confederation was that 17 Shays s Rebellion was 00 Federalism is defined as a political system in which A the most power is given to the central government B power is divided between the central and regional governments C power is divided among legislative executive and judicial powers D the most power is given to the state governments 19 At the Constitutional Convention The was favored by smaller states A Virginia Plan B New Jersey Plan C Rhode Island Plan D The Marshall Plan 2 O The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention A established a legislature with equal state representation in the Senate and representation by state population in the House B required members of the US Senate to be elected by the citizens of their respective states C established a legislature with equal state representation in the Senate and equal representation in the House D provided women with the right to vote in most states 21 The authors of The Federalist Papers were A Patrick Henry Richard Lee and Gouverneur Morris SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER B James Madison Alexander Hamilton and John Jay C George Mason Thomas Jefferson and Sam Adams D Edmund Randolph George Mason and James Madison 22 In Federalist No 10 James Madison warned against the dangers of 23 A system in which citizens delegate lawmaking power to elected representatives is called a 24 The constitutional safeguard that places legislative executive and judicial powers in different hands is called 25 Texas has had how many constitutions 26 Powers shared by the federal and state governments are A nonexistent in a federal system B known as concurrent powers C enumerated explicitly in Article VI D often abused by state governments 27 Dual federalism is the theory that 28 According to David Brooks in the article One Nation Slightly Divisible and discussed in class America is an nation 29 In the article I dissent The Constitution Got Us Into This Mess and discussed in class Sanford Levinson argues that all but which of the following is a problem with the Constitution 30 Rati cation of the Texas Constitution requires to vote in favor of the change 31 The three main philosophical extremes of Texas political culture are 32 characteristics of the postCivil Rights Era in Texas 38 Devolution refers to 40 Rational Choice theory assumes 1 Which of the following is NOT a reason given in support of the second amendment and the right to bear arms a No right is absolute SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER b Selfdefense c Protection of property d Hunting 2 believe there is a wall between church and state 3 Race is considered a a Nonsuspect classi cation b Quasisuspect classi cation c Suspect classi cation d State interest classification 4 The test is applied to nonsuspect classi cations 5 Poll taxes literacy tests and grandfather clauses were collectively known as a Strict scrutiny laws b The Civil Rights Act of 1875 c Reconstruction d Jim Crow Laws 6 Discrimination that is the result of tradition or habit instead of law is known as Dejure discrimination Defacto discrimination c De aficio discrimination d De tradi segregation 3 ST 7 The Egual Rights Amendment giving women equal rights as men was a Rati ed in 1920 b Rati ed in 1978 c Rati ed in 1994 d Never rati ed 8 said that separate was inherently unequal a Missouri ex rel Gaines v Canada 1938 b Sweatt v Painter 1950 c Korematsu v United States 1944 d Brown v Board of Education 1954 9 Congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents is called representation a Allocative b Policy c Personal d Classical SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER 10 Home style is a type of 0 US House members serve US Senators must be at least Texas apportions a Symbolic representation b Allocative representation c Policy representation d Casework year terms Which of the following seats are NOT apportioned based on population a U S House b Texas House c U S Senate d Texas Senate years old The process of redrawing district lines in states with more than one representative is called Reapportionment a b Redistricting c Gerrymandering d Jurisdictional adjustment An of ceseeker who bases the decision to run on a rational calculation that he or she will be successful is called an The Texas Legislature meets every two years for a 30 days b 90 days c 140 days d 190 days by population a State House b State Senate c Both State House and State Senate d Neither State House nor State Senate What court case established the separate but equal clause a Korematsu v United States 1944 b Plessy v Ferguson 1896 c Brow v Board of Education 1954 d Kirwan v Podberesky 1994 SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER 19 A social group s percentage in the overall population should be equaled by its share of certain bene ts such as income and wealth and socialprofessional positions refers to 20 The Nineteenth Amendment a Prohibits the state or federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on the individual s age 57 Prohibits the state or federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on the individual s seXgender c Prohibits the state of federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on the individual s race Prohibits the state or federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on the individual s country of origin 9 21 The glass ceiling refers to 22 Proponents of Affirmative action argue that affirmative action programs are needed to 23 Opponents of Affirmative action argue that affirmative action programs have the effect of 31 Legislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs can be de ned as 32 A reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years following the census refers to 33 As discussed in class bills related to tax policy andor budgetary issues must originate in what body 34 What body has the responsibility for con rming Presidential appointments 35 Amendments to a bill that specify that funds will be allocated to a speci c legislative district refer to a Filibusters b Cloture c Frankings d Pork barrel Projects 37 As discussed in class when a representative or senator appeals to their constituency by attempting to identify with their values and beliefs this refers to a allocative representation porkbarrel projects b symbolic representation home style c legislative representation d personal representation casework 1 An organization characterized by hierarchical structure worker specialization explicit rules and advancement by merit is an SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW N W gt1 9 0 0 l 00 When taking a national poll a representative sample is usually between The Supreme Court agrees to hear a case when The judiciary is lobbied through KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER Which of the following make up iron triangles Which of the following is not a characteristic of the apolitical selfinterested citizen occurs when you stumble upon a poll on the intemet are used to ask reactions to hypothetical often false information in order to manipulate public opinion are often taken by the media in order to inform the public as to the projected winner of a race The idea that it costs too much in time and other resources to become knowledgeable about politics is known as In general people who have attended at least some college are more likely to be compared to those who did not The process by which we learn our political orientations and allegiances is known as and individuals laws are laws that establish how laws are applied and enforced are laws established by the bureaucracy on behalf of Congress The idea of judicial review comes from what court ruling make decisions in the US Court of Appeals Cash ow in the Iron Triangle begins with The vast majority of state judges in Texas are selected through justices decide the case should be heard meaning friend of the court As mentioned in Keeping the Republic and discussed in class when the bureaucracy increases the amount of rules federal employees are responsible for the effect is When a justice believes the courts are lawmaking bodies this refers to As mentioned in Keeping the Republic and discussed in class 7 which of the following factors can affect the rulings of Supreme Court Justices a All of the Above SCHMITZ S QUINTESSENTIALLY ABSOLUTE ALLTIME GREATEST REVIEW KNOWN TO MAN AND WOMAN EVER 22 When a justice issues an opinion that supports the majority opinion of the court but is for different reasons than the majority position this refers to a 23 In respect to the bureaucracy the spoils system refers to 24 The primary factor that determines the political ideologyparty id of an individual is 25 If you are a freerider you are taking part in a 26 of college graduates claim to vote 27 The tendency of public officials journalists and lobbyists to move between public and private sectors is known as the 28 Bureaucracy is extremely 29 Astroturf lobbying refers to mobilization 30 Primary voters are mostly 31 General Election voters are mostly 32 In the interview we watched Barack Obama did not want to answer questions pertaining to 33 True or False Third Parties are not important in American politics 34 Party members are disciplined in the US than in Europe 35 As I mentioned in class today s interest groups probably have rolling over in his grave 36 A group of citizens united by ideology and seeking control of government in order to promote their ideas and policies 37 are major subdivisions of the federal government represented in the president s cabinet 38 The US Postal Service is an 39 The ned Janet Jackson for her wardrobe malfunction during the 2004 Super Bowl


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