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by: Jo Jacobson

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# Probability and Statistics MAT 120

Jo Jacobson
TCTC
GPA 3.76

Joseph Stearns

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COURSE
PROF.
Joseph Stearns
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Mathematics (M)

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jo Jacobson on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAT 120 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Joseph Stearns in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/226527/mat-120-tri-county-technical-college in Mathematics (M) at Tri-County Technical College.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 1 Vocabulapy Data are collections of observations such as measurements genders survey responses Statistics is the science of planning studies and experiments obtaining data and then organizing summarizing presenting analyzing interpreting and drawing conclusions based on the data A population is the complete collection of all individuals scores people measurements and so on to be studied The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all of the individuals to be studied A census is the collection of data from every member of the population A m is a subcollection of members selected from a population A parameter is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population A statistic is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample Quantitave or numerical data consist of numbers representing counts or measurements Categorical or qualitative or attribute data consists of names or labels that are not numbers representing counts or measurements Discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a countable number That is the number of possible values is 0 or 1 or 2 and so on Continuous numerical data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps interruptions or jumps The nominal level of measurement is characterized by data that consist of names labels or catagories only The data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme such as low to high Data are at the ordinal level of measurement if they can be arranged in some order but differences obtained by subtraction between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless m interval level of measurement is like the ordinal level with the addition property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful However data at this level do not have a natural zero starting point where none of the quantity is present The ratio level of measurement is the interval level with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present For values at this level differences and ratios are both meaningful A volunta response sample or selfselected sample is one in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included In an observational study we observe and measure specific characteristics but we don t attempt to modify the subjects being studied In an experiment we apply some treatment and then proceed to observe its effects on the subjects Subjects in experiments are called experimental units A simple random sample of II subjects is selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size n as the same chance of being chosen A probability sample involves selecting members from a population in such a way that each member of the population has a known but not necessarily the same chance of being selected In systematical sampling we select some starting point and then select every kth such as every 50 quot the element in the population With convenience sampling we simply use the results that are very easy to get With stratified sampling we subdivide the population into at least two different subgroups or strata so that subjects within the same subgroup share the same characteristics such as gender or age bracket then we draw a sample from each subgroup or stratum In cluster sampling we first divide the population area into sections or clusters then randomly select some of those clusters and then choose all the members from those selected clusters In a crosssectional study data are observed measured and collected at one point in time In a retrospective or casecontrol study data are collected from the past by going back in time through examination of records interviews and so on In a prospective or longitudinal or cohort study data are collected in the future from groups sharing common factors called cohorts Confounding occurs in an experiment when you are not able to distinguish among the effects of different factors A sampling error is the difference between a sample results and the true population result such an error results from chance sample uctuation A nonsampling error occurs when the sample data are incorrectly collected recorded or analyzed such as by selecting a biased sample using a defective measurement instruments or copying the data incorrectly

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