New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy and Physiology I

by: Esteban Fisher

Anatomy and Physiology I BIOL 1523

Esteban Fisher

GPA 3.78

Amy Skypala

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Amy Skypala
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 90 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esteban Fisher on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1523 at University of Arkansas-Fort Smith taught by Amy Skypala in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/226542/biol-1523-university-of-arkansas-fort-smith in Biology at University of Arkansas-Fort Smith.


Reviews for Anatomy and Physiology I


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
Muscles age Func ons Movement respiration digestion birth Body openings light food waste Stability joints posture Communication smiles frowns writing speech Heat production Organization muscle and CT 1 muscle cell fiber endomysium areolar Multiple fibers bundles fasicles perimysium Multiple fasciles bundled muscle epimysium TET I m 5 4 Muscie belry Epim39gs39ium deep 133133 a Fasdculus k quota Er39u chmysium I b waan nergj quot Earmlarnma Sarmplasm F Erimysiu m quot Single muscle taer Huclai Organization Epimysium grades smoothly into CT sheets called FASCIAE Fasciae connect muscles to each other no fat and to the skin above hypodermissuperficial fasica Organization Main connections Epimysium can also flow directly into periosteum of bone DIRECT ATTACHMENT ex intercostal muscles Epimysium can flow into tendons before these attach to periosteum of bone INDIRECT ATTACHMENT These fibers may actually penetrate the bone perforating fibers Anatomy Examining orientation of fasicles can be informative as to muscle strengthfunction Fusiform ex bicep thick in middle and thin at ends strongest Parallel rectus abdominis straplike can shorten the most but less strong Convergent pectoralis major fanlike pretty strong lots of strength focused on small pt Pennate muscles of hand featherlike Circular eyelids sphincters circular Skeletal Muscle Shapes czvnqmnnve mmmmwu W mmmwm mpmummm MM umpennm Burwemml Ermnnale Funnel Mu ipennnle Fu Hnnu themquot cmqu BeHy w I T d F39a mav nlemssmus 39 Enun Pemum smajm Reclusrenm s new abdum ms Deumd Eicem brschd Dvhvudans m Attachments Most skeletal muscles attached to a different bone at either end Stationary attachment ORIGIN Mobile attachmen INSERTION Function definitions for particular movements Quad example relationship with tibia kick ball vs sitting in a chair Muscle Movement Prime mover agonist its force produces the action Synergist helps the prime mover increase power stablize restrict or modify Antagonist opposes prime mover moderates speed flexion and extention Fixator hold a bone still allow other attached muscles to function Muscle Tissue Responsiveness electrically excitable to stimuli Conductivity waves of electrical excitation Contractility shorten to stimulation Extensibility stretchy Elasticity recoils back 139 Note striations m C S u M d L m e k S Then m Musde new 3 3T Epimysium chap 133cm Fasdculm KM Erimmglsium memean ber at EarmIemrna quoty ampl t m Farimysiumquot R V x Single muscle car H Nuclei Hun lamaFEE A hwyTad 39 disc Mi mhundrla Openings Iznin transmme 53m 39Vraam c tubules Ire cu um Tammi l f MMuamv tubule Earcalamma 7 Sarcaplasm Myul39lbrhls Muscle Fiber Cell Lots of flattened nuclei fusion of cells during development Plasma membrane sarcolemma with infoldings called T tubules Cytoplasm sarcoplasm Filled with sets of protein rods myofibrils Glycogen polysaccharide for energy Myoglobin stores oxygen Mitochondria lots Sarcoplasmic reticulum SR surrounds myofibrils ends In terminal Clsternae stores Ca Hun lamaFEE A hwyTad 39 disc Mi mhundrla Openings Iznin transmme 53m 39Vraam c tubules Ire cu um Tammi l f MMuamv tubule Earcalamma 7 Sarcaplasm Myul39lbrhls Myofilaments Sets of protein rods make up myofibrils Each rod is a myofilament Thick filaments myosin Thin filaments actin whose active sites are blocked by tropomyosin at rest Tropomyosin associated with troponin that binds with Ca Elastic filaments made of springy tintin stablizes places and anchors thick filaments ch Thick mmm Tropomyosin Troponin complex G actin c Thin lament Wigwam Mu minimum in Pciviimvmmnmim mpmmmw Thick filament d Portion of a sarcomere showing the overlap of thick and thin filaments Stria tions wmww wmm m quotmmum mum wm StriationsSarcomere Alternating dArk A bands and light I bands A bands thick filament present maybe thin I bands thin bands only H band lighter dark areas only thick Z disc between light bands ends of sarcomere 5390 th mm mum u Yh wunwwummnwwmhm gamma mwmcwmn w Mmmmmmpmmmm Individual myo Contraction The Basics Muscle cells shorten because their individual sarcomeres shorten pulling Z discs closer together due to interaction between actin and myosin pulls on sarcolemma Neither thick nor thin filaments change length during shortening Their overlap changes as sarcomeres shonen Which is associated with the THICK filament Ibands Z discs A bands Actin epimysium Which of the following is associated with the THIN filament a Actin b Tropomyosin c Troponin d All of the above e Myosin sarcomere shortening Nerves and Muscles Skeletal muscles contract in response to nervous stimuli Axons of the somatic motor neurons somatic motor fibers One muscle fiber innervated by one motor neuron One motor fiber innervated muscle fibers one MOTOR UNIT Spinal cord Miator naumn 1 Motor Units A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates dispersed throughout the muscle when contract together causes weak contraction over wide area provides ability to sustain longterm contraction as motor units take turns resting postural control Motor Units Fine control small motor units contain as few as 20 muscle fibers per nerve fiber eye muscles Strength control gastrocnemius muscle has 1000 fibers per nerve fiber Neuromuscular Junction Synapse connection btw nerve and target Motor nerve terminates in synaptic knob Sits in dip in sarcolemma motor end plate Separated by space synaptic cleft The Neurgmuspular Junction Neuromuscular Junction When nerve impulse reaches synaptic knob a neurotransmitter release into synapse Ca enters synaptic knob Acetylcholine Ach the neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junctions Exocytosis releases Ach Ach binds with Ach receptors in sarcolemma most in junctional folds Ach broken down by acetylcholinesterase AChE The Neurgmuspular Junction Neuromuscular Toxins Pesticides cholinesterase inhibitors bind to acetylcholinesterase and prevent it from degrading ACh spastic paralysis and possible suffocation Tetanus or lockjaw is spastic paralysis caused by toxin of Clostridium bacteria blocks glycine inhibitory neurotransmitter release in the spinal cord and causes overstimulation of the muscles Neuromuscular Toxins Flaccid paralysis limp muscles clue to curare that competes with ACh respiratory arrest Shyclmos toxifel a M R Scllomb ex Benth Image processed by Thomas Sclloepke wwwplantpicturesde oiTANy MSE Ith tmr 3M mm l g quotmy I III anquot Iquot II Ilurllmu In Ivlnluu39m umu quotI I ll unnl km n m nn Ill lll l l ll IV HIH IIIIII39 mmal mm nun u u up 7 Neuromuscular Toxins Flaccid paralysis limp muscles due to curare that competes with ACh respiratory arrest Flaccid paralysis due to botulinum toxin from bacterium Clostridium botulinum blocks release of Ach Electrically Excitable Cells Plasma membrane is polarized or charged resting membrane potential due to Na outside of cell and K and other anions inside of cell difference in charge across the membrane resting membrane potential 90 mV cell to outside Stimulation opens ion gates in membrane ion gates open Na rushes into cell and K rushes out of cell quick upanddown voltage shift action potential spreads over cell surface as nerve signal 75 5 Wlmgre MN 45 Marian mlmt uml ad I 1 F mlgd mrlmtmns Emma 51411 Slimming Contraction The full story 1 Excitation 2 ExcitationContraction coupling 3 Contraction 4 Relaxation Exc a on Nerve impulse gets to synaptic knob opens calcium channels allowing Ca ions to enter knob Ca stimulates exocytosis on synaptic vesicles filled with Ach Ach diffuses across synaptic cleft binding with receptors on sarcolemma This binding opens ion channels in sarcolemma causing change in polarity 90 mV to 75 mV Hun lamaFEE A hwyTad 39 disc Mi mhundrla Openings Iznin transmme 53m 39Vraam c tubules Ire cu um Tammi l f MMuamv tubule Earcalamma 7 Sarcaplasm Myul39lbrhls ExcitationContraction Coupling When wave of action potential spread to Ttubule it opens up gates in SR allowing calcium to diffuse out to cytoplasm Calcium binds with troponin Causes tropomyosin to expose binding sites 5390 th mm mum u Yh wunwwummnwwmhm ch Thick mmm Tropomyosin Troponin complex G actin c Thin lament Contraction If ATP is bound to myosin this ATP is broken down cooking the myosin head Cooked myosin head binds to exposed active site on actin When ADP and P release head bends pulling actin filament with it When ATP binds again head realease and process can repeat SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY sarcomere shortening A B New ATP to release and recock Relaxed sarcamere 2 line Crossbridge farms between lamen 5 Power slroke the filaments s 6 past each olher power slroke toward center of sarcumere Thln quotlaments thm lament Myasmn head mowenergy cmflguratlun a Cmsshridge min filament moves toward center at sarcomre Fmquot binding site Mymsin head Inw emrgg can gu aun Myusin head high 9 com urntlun Gopyrluhi 6 Manama Educwan Ina publal mu as Eenlarnm Cummings actinmvosin interaction Relaxed Muscle z Sacmmeres V H lune I hand A band r wx 2 discs mm laments Tmquot laments Pan ally Cnntracted Muscl Saunmere Saunmere mm m was mum WW Wan mm 7ka quotmm contraction actinmvosin interaction Relaxation Nerve signals stop no more release of Ach As Ach looses from receptor it is broken down and pieces reabsorbed by synaptic knob Ca ions pumped back to SR terminal cisternae by active transport stored With decreasing Ca amount troponin acts on tropomyosin which moves back to block active sites Length Tension Relationship How much force a muscle can produce affected by how stretchedcontracted it starts out as Length Tension Relationship Too contracted to start thick filaments butt up against Z disc Too stretched not enough overlap between thick and thin filaments for the myosin heads to latch on well In between optimum resting length to allow max force when contracted A partial contraction to maintain this length is MUSCLE TONE LengthTension Curve mw n Mum m Mummy WWW nm Tension 9 generated upon slimulatlcn o o Muscle Twitch in Frog Threshold voltage producing an action potential a single brief stimulus at that voltage produces a quick cycle of contraction and relaxation called a twitch lasting less than 110 second A single twitch contraction is not strong enough to do any useful work Muscle Twitch in Frog Phases of a twitch contraction latent period 2 msec delay only internal tension is generated no visible contraction occurs since only elastic components are being stretched contraction phase external tension develops as muscle shortens relaxation phase loss of tension and return to resting length as calcium returns to SR Contraction Strength of Twitches Threshold stimuli produces twitches Twitches unchanged despite increased voltage Muscle fiber obeys an allornone law contracting to its maximum or not at all not a true statement since twitches vary in strength depending upon Ca2 concentration previous stretch of the muscle temperature pH and hydration Closer stimuli produce stronger twitches Recruitment and Stimulus Intensity m gigx Mamnu commquot v asnvag n uuuuuu mm Stimulating the whole nerve with higher and higher voltage produces stronger contractions More motor units are being recruited called multiple motor unit summation lift a glass of milk versus a whole gallon of milk Twitch andi dilflrreppegontractions l Wlerh 1 mppci I l I l llllllllll Gllmull ll bl Muscle stimulation at variable frequencies low frequency up to 10 stimulisec each stimulus produces an identical twitch response moderate frequency between 1020 stimulisec each twitch has time to recover but develops more tension than the one before treppe phenomenon calcium was not completely put back into SR heat of tissue increases myosin ATPase efficiency Incomplete andgomplete Tetanus WWW Higher frequency stimulation 2040 stimulisecond generates gradually more strength of contraction each stimuli arrives before last one recovers temporal summation or wave summation incomplete tetanus sustained fluttering contractions Maximum frequency stimulation 4050 stimulisecond muscle has no time to relax at all twitches fuse into smooth prolonged contraction called complete tetanus rarely occurs in the body Isometric and Isotonic Contractions ll lsumulnc mlmulun m lwtnmc canveulllcsnmnllnn lsnwnlzecunm calmhon Isometric muscle contraction develops tension without changing length important in postural muscle function and antagonistic muscle joint stabilization Isotonic muscle contraction tension while shortening concentric tension while lengthening eccentric Sources am we mwmm Mammy 3 I 40 seconds ATP 5 l to semnds if Repayment at Duration 0 exercrse DKVQEquot deb i 39l T 7 Aerova vesplrahon icsphagen Glycogen Aerobic usmg oxygen imm system lactic acid resplfallon myoglabln system supported 17 anaemic cardiopulmonary lermemalmn lunclion All muscle contraction depends on ATP Pathways of ATP synthesis anaerobic fermentation ATP production limited without oxygen produces toxic lactic acid aerobic respiration more ATP produced requires continuous oxygen supply produces H20 and C02 Immediate Energy Needs Short intense exercise 100 m quot dash oxygen need is supplied by myoglobin Phosphagen system mam myokinase transfers Pi groups from one ADP to another forming creatine kinase transfers Pi 542232313 groups from oreatine phosphate to g make ATP Result is power enough for 1 minute brisk walk or 6 seconds cm of sprinting ShortTerm Energy Needs Glycogenlactic acid system takes over produces ATP for 3040 seconds of maximum activity playing basketball or running around baseball diamonds muscles obtain glucose from blood and stored glycogen C Glycogen Highly branched glycogen molecule cum H o H Glucose monomer l Branching magoccurshere H1 H2034 u o H Figure 312 3 LongTerm Energy Needs Aerobic respiration needed for prolonged exercise Produces 36 ATPsglucose molecule After 40 seconds of exercise respiratory and cardiovascular systems must deliver enough oxygen for aerobic respiration oxygen consumption rate increases for first 34 minutes and then levels off to a steady state Limits are set by depletion of glycogen and blood glucose loss of fluid and electrolytes Fa gue Progressive weakness from use ATP synthesis declines as glycogen is consumed sodiumpotassium pumps fail to maintain membrane potential and excitability lactic acid inhibits enzyme function accumulation of extracellular K hyperpolarizes the cell motor nerve fibers use up their acetylcholine Endurance Ability to maintain highintensity exercise for gt5 minutes determined by maximum oxygen uptake VO2 max is proportional to body size peaks at age 20 is larger in trained athlete and males nutrient availability carbohydrate loading used by some athletes packs glycogen into muscle cells adds water at same time 27 g water with each gramglycogen side effects include heaviness feeling Oxygen Debt Heavy breathing after strenuous exercise known as excess postexercise oxygen consumption EPOC typically about 11 liters extra is consumed Purposes for extra oxygen replace oxygen reserves myoglobin blood hemoglobin in air in the lungs and dissolved in plasma replenishing the phosphagen system reconverting lactic acid to glucose in kidneys and liver serving the elevated metabolic rate that occurs as long as the body temperature remains elevated by exercise Slow and FastTwitch Fibers Slow oxidative slowtwitch fibers more mitochondria myoglobin and capillaries adapted for aerobic respiration and resistant to fatigue soleus and postural muscles of the back 1 OOmsectwitch Slow and FastTwitch Fibers Fast glycolytic fasttwitch fibers rich in enzymes for phosphagen and glycogenlactic acid systems sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium quickly so contractions are quicker 75 msectwitch extraocular eye muscles gastrocnemius and biceps brachii Proportions genetically determined Strength and Conditioning Strength of contraction muscle size and fascicle arrangement 3 or 4 kg cm2 of crosssectional area size of motor units and motor unit recruitment length of muscle at start of contraction Resistance training weight lifting stimulates cell enlargement due to synthesis of more myofilaments Endurance training aerobic exercise produces an increase in mitochondria glycogen and density of capillaries Muscular Strength Size of Muscle Arrangement of fasicles Size of motor units Number of motor units involved Temporal summation increased frequency of nerve impulses to a muscle Fatigue state perhaps due to ATP being used up Cardiac Muscle 1 Thick cells shaped like a log with uneven notched ends Linked to each other at intercalated discs electrical gap junctions allow cells to stimulate their neighbors mechanical junctions keep the cells from pulling apart Sarcoplasmic reticulum less developed but large T tubules admit Ca2 from extracellular fluid Damaged cells repaired by fibrosis not mitosis Cardiac Muscle 2 Autorhythmic due to pacemaker cells Uses aerobic respiration almost exclusively large mitochondria make it resistant to fatigue very vulnerable to interruptions in oxygen supply Smooth Muscle Fusiform cells with one nucleus 30 to 200 microns long and 5 to 10 microns wide no striations sarcomeres or Z discs thin filaments attach to dense bodies scattered throughout sarcoplasm and on sarcolemma SR is scanty and has no T tubules calcium for contraction comes from extracellular fluid If present nerve supply is autonomic releases either ACh or norepinephrine Smooth Muscle Involuntary Spindle shaped No striations no sarcomeres visible Ca ions to stimulate contraction come from outside of cell May contract in response to stretch triggering peristalsis in digestive tract and can contract forcefully even when stretched Muscular Dystrophy Hereditary diseases skeletal muscles degenerate and are replaced with adipose Disease of males appears as child begins to walk rarely live past 20 years of age Dystrophin links actin filaments to cell membrane leads to torn cell membranes and necrosis Fascioscapulohumeral MD facial and shoulder muscle only Myasthenia Gravis Autoimmune disease antibodies attack NMJ and bind ACh receptors in clusters receptors removed less and less sensitive to ACh drooping eyelids and double vision difficulty swallowing weakness of the limbs respiratory failure Disease of women between 20 and 40 Treated with cholinesterase inhibitors thymus removal or immunosuppressive agents Myasthenia Gravis Drooping eyelids and weakness of muscles of eye movement muscle cell contraction sarcomere shorteninq httphigheredmcgraw hillcomolcdl120104biobswf muscles at many levels


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.