New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Microbiology and ImmunologyHS

by: Esteban Fisher

Microbiology and ImmunologyHS BIOL 1463

Marketplace > University of Arkansas-Fort Smith > Biology > BIOL 1463 > Microbiology and ImmunologyHS
Esteban Fisher

GPA 3.78

Davis Pritchett

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Davis Pritchett
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esteban Fisher on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1463 at University of Arkansas-Fort Smith taught by Davis Pritchett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/226543/biol-1463-university-of-arkansas-fort-smith in Biology at University of Arkansas-Fort Smith.


Reviews for Microbiology and ImmunologyHS


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 17 Immunology I Basic Principles of Adaptive Immunity and Immunization Immunity Generalized protection Provides Resistance gt Susceptible vs Resistant Resistance can be either gt nonspecific or specific gt Innate or Acquired Adaptive Immunology Study of acquired speci c immunity resistance ACQUIRED ACQUIRED NATURAL ARTIFICIAL I EXPf sure t Immunization InfectIous agent J IMMUNITY INNATE inborn ACQUIRED Genetic factors ACTIVE PASSIVE Readymade antibodies 7 NATURAL ARTIFICIAL NATURAL W h Exposure to Immunization Matern39al I mm Infectious agent antibodies qth erfis urce s Figure 171 Microbiology6le 2005 John Wiley 8 Sons Adaptive Immunity Naturally acquired active immunity Resulting from infection Naturally acquired passive immunity Transplacental or via colostrum Artificially acquired active immunity Injection of Ag vaccination Artificially acquired passive immunity Injection of Ab Cells and Tissues of the Immune System E ters abd m n Undifferentiated stem fembry ltl cell originates in yolk mbilical d sac outside of embryo Stem Cells Lymphocytes BLymphocytes TLymphocytes NK Natural Killer cells U Each has a different role to play f V l Lymph node Figure 173 Microbiology6e 2005 John Wiley 8 Sons Final development of stem cells in bone marrow A I w 39 is is bone marrow Stem CEllS Thymus l P B cell Lymph node Figure 173 part2 Microbiology 6e 2005 John Wiley ampSons Fabricius Bone Cloaca marrow Figure 174 Microbiology 6e c 2005 John Wiley 8 Sons Lets begin our review of the activity of the Immune System by first looking at antigens Antigens are substances capable of initiating an immune reaction Must be sufficiently large enough to be detected Must be uniquely structured so as to be identified as foreign Can you think of anything that fits these criteria The surfaces of viruses and all cells are complex structures The exact chemical composition and structure of these surface features is unique to each cell or virus o It is genetically determined Remember that good antigens must be sufficiently large and unique in structure Which type of organic molecule do you think best fits these criteria Proteins carbohydrates or lipids Epitopes Antigenic Determinants Sites on an antigen Epitj e i fgfni to which special sites proteins called antibodies can attach Antigens may have more than one ep ope Haptens Small molecular weight structures that are too small to initiate immune response on their own Can be conjugated with carrier molecules Antibody An antibody is a specialized protein that can be produced in one type of immune reac on These proteins are antiantigenic Remember that each antigen is unique therefore each antibody produced to a specific antigen will be unique There are several different types of antibody molecules 7 r 39 which will be covered Antibody malobglill Pmer 234 at a e r 4100st WWI 5mi Basic Structure of an Antibody Heavy chains Antigen binding site Variable regions of light and Fab fragment heavy chains Carbohydrate Complement binding site Disulfide bond Constant regions Fc fragment of light and heavy chains Site of bonding to macrophages Ability to cross placenta Figure 1 77 Microbiology le 0 2005 John Wiley 8 Sons Antibody to cell wall Antibody to polysaccharlde pilus protein I d Attacirungent a X K V Antibody to rnbria y 7 V r r r gt 7 I flagellar protein Cell wall 1 Bacterial cell Aquot Flagellum Figure 172 Micwbiology6e 2005 John Wiley amp Sons Clonal Selection MatureBcells specific for F v Antigen different antigens 4 A exposure B cell fr h a er an i e s i u a in fit m 39ttg Iquotn T helper ell 7 7 c1 ur k a x Bcells 7 quot39 t l l 867 r r ff r mw 7 B memory cells 1 Antibodies complex 7 k 7 With microorganisms Figure 175 Microbiology 6Ie 2005 John Wiley 8 Sons o Antigen stimulates specific Bcell o Specific Bcell proliferates One group of Clone become memory cells Other group transforms to plasma cells which begin producing specific antibody proteins specific to antigen Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity Adaptive immunity develops during an individual s lifetime Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity Humoral immunity involves antibodies produced by B cells B cells recognize antigens by antibodies on their surfaces Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity Cellmediated immunity involved T cells T cells recognize antigens by TCRs on their surfaces Terminology Serology The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens Antiserum The generic term for serum because it contains Ab Globulins Serum proteins Immunoglobulins Antibodies Gamma y globulin Serum fraction containing Ab Antibody Structure Antigenbinding site Antigen Antigen binding 5 a Epnape antigenic determinant a Antibody molecule quot2 Enlarged antigen binding site bound to an ep39tope Monomer IgG antibodies 80 of serum antibodies Fix complement In blood lymph and intestine Cross placenta Enhance phagocytosis neutralize toxins and viruses protects fetus and newborn Halflife 23 days lgM Antibodies Pentamer 510 of serum 13 55 Eliazuljlide 39 39 mquot antibodies l FIX complement l J mean In blood lymph and on xi 39 l 517 B cells L I Agglutinates microbes first Ab produced in response to infection Halflife 5 days IgA Antibodies Dimer 1015 of serum antibodi In secretions Mucosal protection Halflife 6 days J Chain 3a 5 ifk if r 3 i quot quot 11 2 5 Hx SEC fEtCI F39y EDW39IDOFIE39S I39II Monomer lgD Antibodies 02 of serum antibodies In blood lymph and on B cells On B cells initiate immune response Halflife 3 days Monomer lgE Antibodies 0002 of serum antibodies On mast cells basophils and in blood Allergic reactions lysis of parasitic worms Halflife 2 days 1111 if Activation of B Cells 3 El Extracellular tige s MHC class II with A9 fragment Ag lragment l Plasma Antibodies l quotmquot MHC class II lmmunnglobulins B cell c 39 With A cell B cell surface fragment displayed on Surface Cytokines Clonal Selection Activation of B Cells Polysaccharide Tindependlentantigen a Tdependent antigen Epitopes l gt B cell receptors TDependent Antigens CELLULAR DELLMEDIATED IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 s Activated TH cell secretes cytokines TH cell recognizes an gen O Cylekines lransiorm cells inlo antibody providlng plasma cells see Figure 174 Memory cell SomET and B cells Flgure 1715 nnual cl inlracellular pemogen on surlace cl an APO Tcell o A Tcell binds to NM anti erl complexes on me CV quot su a Ofll le 139 cell wiln its cytokine receptors 0 Activation cl macrophage ed Cylmoxic T lymphocyle an able to induce SelfTolerance Body doesn39t make Ab against self Clonal deletion The process of destroying B and T cells that react to self antigens Clonal Deletion Receptors f A I Self antigens Clonal deletion of lymphocytes that have receptors for self Figure 1 7 6 Microbiology 6Ie 2005 John Wiley 8 Sons The Diversity of Antibodies During embryonic development regions of V genes combine with C genes to produce gt 1015 different antibodies Antigen Antibody Binding Affinity Strength of bond between Ag and Ag Specificity Ab recognizes a specific ep ope Immunological Memory Antibody titer is the amount of Ab in serum lgG Second exposure to antigen initial 39939 exposure to antigen Antibody titer in serum arbitrary units gt O l 14 21 58 65 72 Time days rrgunJ 1715 The Results of AgAb Binding pnorecnv mecnnmsu 0F BINDING ANTIBODIES Aggluhnation AchvaIIon Of complement 7 ANT39GENS see also gure 169 Causes inflammation and cell lysis Complement see also Flgure 135 Reduces number of inlecticus units to be deal with see also Figure 1714 Antibodies attached to target cell cause destruction by eosinnphils and NK cells Eosinophil Epimpes P o LytiI Large target cell parasite oasonlzauon see also Figure 159 sea ing antigen with antibody enhances phagacy tnsis Phagoeyte Neutralization see also gure 189 Blocks adhesion of bac 3ria and viruses to mucosa N 7 Bacterium 1 Blocks attachment of toxin lie l L 3 1erle Pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through M microfold cells over Peyer s patches which contain Antigenpresenting cells and T cells T Cells Helper T Cells CD4 TH TCRs Recognize antigens and MHC II TH1 Activate cells related to cellmediated immunity TOLL TH2 Activate B cells to produce eosinophils lgM andlgE Activation of TH r39m Irv Cytokines f P l i i APCidentritic cell x I 5 TH cell J L o o Antigen x O V t 0 A T cell that recognizes a dendritlc cell that is producing costimulatory molecules becomes activated Helper T cell a The cytokines cause the TH cell to prolilerate and to develop its effector functions 7 9quot v 4 Complex of 39 l MHc class II Q molecule 7 w Cytokines Antigen fragment and antigen xi short peptides fragment Microorgan sm V a carrying antigens quot V 39 l l quot e A receptor on the surface oi the I 3 CD4 T cell TH cell binds to the l V quot r MHC antigen complex If this r quot4g Costimulatory molecule includes a tolllike receptor the c APC is stimulated to secrete a 0 An APC encounters and mgests a microorganism costimulatory molecule These The antigen Is enzymattcally processed Into short I eptides which combine with MHC class II molecules mo 51939 5 mate the T cell p 39 which produces cytokines and are displayed on the surface of the APC T Cells Cytotoxic T Cells CD8 TC activated in cytotoxic T lymphocytes CTLs recognize Ag MHC l Induce apoptosis in target cell Activation of TC into Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Processed antigen Processed MHC presented with T cell antigen class I MHC class I receptors Vi Cytotoxic T lymphocyte CTL Virusinfected Virusinfected cell cell example of endogenous antigen T Cells Regulatory T Cells TR Suppress other T cells AntigenPresenting Cells Digest antigen Ag fragments on quot APC surface with MHC B cells Dendritic Cells AntigenPresenting Cells Activated 5 macrophages Macrophages stimulated by ingesting Ag or by cytokines Extracellular Killing Antibody a dependent cells mediated cytotoxicity Natural killer cells destroy cells which don t l l b Eosinophils adhering to the larval stage SE 20 pm M H C I I of a parasitic fluke Extracellular Killing Macrophage Cytokines and lytic enzymes Eosinophil Perforin and lytic enzymes 0 Extracellular I damage g Fc region Large parasite a Organisms such as many parasites are too large for ingestion by phagocytic cells They must be attacked externally Immune System Cells Communicate via Cytokines Interleukin1 Stimulates TH cells Interleukin2 Activates TH B TC and NK cells Interleukin8 Attracts phagocytes Interleukin10 lntereferes with TH1 cell activation Interleukin12 Differentiation of CD4 cells y lnterferon Increase activity of macrophages Chemokines Cause leukocytes to move to an infection CELLULAR CELLMEDIATED IMMUNE SYSTEM c ens HUMORAL lANTIBODYMEDIATED ontml of intracellular pathog IMMUNE SYSTEM Control at lreely clrculallng pathogens em quot gsquot y Intracellular antigens Extracellular 9 expressed on the surface antigens 0 I ah cell interned by a virus acterlulll or parasite Alsc may be expr sea on surlace ofan AP 0 A T cell binds to MHO entlgen omplexes on the me o A a cell bindstc the antl all r surlale of which it is spem c int med cel activating l n a cell requires cooperation with a TH cell B cell 3 R praiilerates and l 7 h zmiisla x ommmm 9222 cells or memory a cell 3 quot5 iquot an ibm y39 phagocyuc quot5 prnvldlng plasma cells my 39 see Flgure 11 4 39 0 The a cell enen wlth siimulalicn from a helper T cell uilleren tiates into a plasma cell 0 cm 7 cell becomes Cytotoxic cylotoxn Memory 9quot T lymphocyte T lymphocyte L able to Some T and 9 cells 2 quot Plasma cell differentiate Into 9 23 23m cry cells that re F 157 1 a spend rapidly in any 3 9quot secondary encounter Lysed target cell 0 Plasma cells praiiteraie and J Y lthan1alrl1tlr9n see praduce antibodies r lame against the antigen yr 1k


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.