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Introduction to Ethnic Studies

by: Lilyan Bartell

Introduction to Ethnic Studies ETH STD 20Ac

Lilyan Bartell

GPA 3.73

Maldonado Torres

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Maldonado Torres
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lilyan Bartell on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ETH STD 20Ac at University of California - Berkeley taught by Maldonado Torres in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/226553/eth-std-20ac-university-of-california-berkeley in Ethnic Studies at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Ethnic Studies and the history of Eurocentric Curriculum the European perspective History Art Philosophy Sociology Literature Ethic Studies began with mostly student movements in the 60 s 19661967 Merritt College Philippine Newton and Bobby Seal were students who began the movement leading to the first African American studies class in Merritt College in 1966 SFSU Student Strike an 8 month strike demanded racial ethnic studies Many groups including AfroAmerican Student Association Mexican American Students Confederation Asian American Political Alliance Philippino American groups and even many white groups joined This lead to the rst ethnic studies class at SFSU 1968 UCB in 1969 offered its own first ethic studies class Race was created not discovered Race is based on heritable characteristics mostly visual traits such as skin color facial features etc Essentialism is forcing people of mixed races to choose one race 1 Race is a modern idea ancient societies like the Greeds did not divide people according to physical distinctions but according to religion status class even language The English language didn t have the word race until 1508 William Dunbar referred to it in a line of kings Interestingly 1508 is when the slave trade is picking up and when Europeans are only just become acquainted with different types of people through travels and such 2 Race has no genetic basis Not one characteristic trait or even gene distinguishes all the members of one socalled race from all the members of another socalled race 3 Human subspecies don t exist Unlike many animals modern humans have not been around long enough or isolated enough to evolve into separate subspecies or races despite surface appearances 4 Skin color is really only skin deep Most traits are inherited independently of one another The genes in uencing skin color have nothing to do with the genes in uencing hair form eye shape blood type music talent athletic ability 5 Most variations are within races the genes are actually surprisingly similar to one another and sometimes genetically closer to other races 6 Slavery predates race Throughout much of human history societies have enslaved others often as a result of conquest or war even debt but not because of physical characteristics or a belief in natural inferiority 7 Race and freedom eveolved together the US was founded on the radical new principle that all men are created equal but our early economy was based largely on slavery Race helped explain why some people could be slaves 8 Race justi ed social inequalities as natural White superiority made sense because it justified slavery to kick Mexicans off the land and keep all the immigrants out 9 Race isn t biological but racism is still real Race is a powerful social idea that gives people different access to opportunities and resources Colorblindness will not end racism Pretending race doesn t exist is not the same as creating equality 0 Ethnicity is an ethnic group where people whose members identify with each other through a common heritage that is real or presumed Ethnicity focuses more on culture 39 is any form of racism occurring specifically within institutions such as public governm nt bodies and policies private business corporations legal systems etc This is one of three forms of racism personally mediated internalized and institutional racism Internalized Oppression a society teachers minorities to hate themselves and feel that they are not as good as the dominant white community Race Classi cations 1607 Jamestown is established Key Dates 1607 1619 1619 First Africans come to America as indentured servants Indentured Servitude Indentured Servants worked for a service time and at the end of the service but they gain land money or certi ed to work as a professional in their eld Rise of Race based on slavery Bacon s Rebellion and Anthony At this point blacks were not equated with slaves yet but has been in the JOhnson SOUth already Race gender and Miscegenation The class divisions are quite clear but race was nonexistent Laws Sec Race and pr1v1lege 16501690 the rise of racism racism was constructed through laws and then that translates to social changes Scienti c Racism Race as social construction Whiteness is a concept which is becoming re ned 1676 Bacon s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon organizes the indentured servants to protest the land interests and then they enter the colonial capital to demand the Indian threat to be taken care of The ruling class saw the union of the indentured servants as a threat especially after the Bacon s Rebellion so then they declared the blacks slaves and whites are free in order to factionalize the indentured servants Anthony Johnson born in Africa kidnapped as a slave goes to North America but N America no slaves all indentured servants He works off his service and he purchases 250 acres of land He was acknowledged as a citizen goes to court and wins many cases But then after he died the citizenship rights have shifted and white landowner takes his land and his sons try suing to regain the land but the judge says Anthony Johnson was not a citizen in the first place 1690 The social status of free blacks are being taken away but they are not forced into slavery but newly imported blacks are immediately slaves Status of women black or white is gone too all male dominance General Slave Laws Black servants serve throughout their lifetime The idea of color in terms of slaves is carried over from the mother if the mother is black the child is a slave The idea was that the white men who rape black women did not want the child to have the inheritance Given these laws the black population grows to ful ll the need for labor 1671 5 black 1700 20 black Slaveowners were always in fear because they were outnumbered so they made more races and so then they made more laws Slaves can t testify against white no property can t leave wo written pass no congregation more than 3 5 people no vote no legal marriage Laws Sex Race and privilege Mulatto half black half white Quadroon 25 black Octoroon l 8 black Eugenics Movement Eugenics is the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or resumed to have inheritable undesirable traits 131 7 Francis Galton 1883 coins the term eugenics Background social context l880 sl920 s there is a boom in immigration from undesirable parts of Europe and Chinese immigrants Legislation begins on limiting the number of minorities in the American population Ideology Social Darwinists and Mendelians social failure is a medical problem and that ethnic progressives should stop because they are interfering with nature and evolution Social failure being poor unintelligent etc The birth control movement resulted in the black people feel cautious as this being an extermination campaign Other ethnicities also resisted it because of religious reasons Popularity The American Breeders Association The Eugenics Record Office 1910 The American Eugenics League Showed up in many university classes particularly Ivy Leagues The Practive of Eugenics Sterilization immigration reform and restriction antimiscengination Eugenics was very well supported Many organizations based throughout Pasadena based Himan Betterment Foundatio the American Institute of Family Relations Califnomia Division of the American Eugnics 196420108 ppl sterilized in CA alone 60 considered mentally un t 35 feeble minded Disproportionate amount of minorities First census 1790 race has been on every census only two races available white and negro up to 1840 1850 mulatto was added 1860 native Americans and Chinese added 1890 a bunch of races are now added There was an obsession at the time about 1910 there was an obsession with who s here 2000 Census led to allow people to check more than one box and multiracial status Is the person Spanish Hispanic or Latino This was to capture the ethnic aspect as well as a racial aspect There were over 7 million people who checked more than one box apparently only 3 was mixed which shocked the gov and lead to the conclusion people just didn t check more than one box The right to marry Perez vs Sharp 1948 Perez and Sharp latina and black wanted to marry but couldn t because of CA law and latina was considered white and she put white The case came down to religious and right to marriage Religious being that the Catholics recognized their marriage Perez won their case and that the CA supreme court said that it was the 1439h amendment right to marry Prison industrial complex is a term used to attribute the rapid expansion of the us inmate population to the political in uence of private prison companies and businesses 19851996 the number of black men incarcerated for drug offenses increased by 700 Black youth detained 200 percent more than white youth Race and Law 1965 200000 pr1son populations 2007 23 million 850 in 30 years Nationa Statistics 2010estimes 3 mill 107 of federal prisons are in private prisons and jailes California Statistics HIV rates are 10 times or more in prisons there is a dollar for dollar tradeoff between corrections and higher education with La WS university constriction funds decreasing from 26 bill to 954 mill Mandatory minimums CA locks up the most people hold 20 of juvenile offenders in the nation 1001 31000 a year per inmate Three Strikes CYA California youth authority Economics Transnational identity the multiple ties and interactions that link people across borders it serves to challenge conventional assumptions regarding the importance of traditional borders and boundaries in de ning who we are how we think and whom we associate People who identify with more than one culture and more than one country Includes moral values religion political view impact on self American Family roots in other countries Prisons are a 37 billion dollar industry Use prison labor as free labor even joint ventures would pay prisoners to do a job but need to pay taxes rent etc Asian prisoners increase a lot refugees decreasing education Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrand Responsibility Act of 1996 retroactive law that any immigrant who commits an aggravated felony would be in jeopardy of deportation Racial Pro ling The legalization of racism and its consequences Ethnic Studies 21AC Siri Brown Xiaochao Qi 23 November 2010 In Presumed Guilty Stacey Koon establishes that the actions of law enforcement officers are legitimized given that they act within legal boundaries and if their goal is to ght crime This is a belief commonly held by society today However it is important for citizens to be able to be critical of such a system which we invest so much control into While it is undeniable that resisting crime should be one of society s highest priorities we should be equally critical of the institutions we put in to resist crime Yet given the absence of such criticism our police system has legalized and entrenched practices society deems unethical To fail to identify these aws in the police system would be to misunderstand the lives and struggles of millions of minorities living in the United States This essay will address cases of racial pro ling its entrenchment in our law enforcement protocols community awareness of racial profiling its effects on African Americans and current resistance to racial pro ling Koon s Presumed Guilty proposes that historically society Needed a force to establish the law before was directly pulling a gun and shooting people Wild West because it was obvious who the bad people were but now as society became more civilized law enforcement has become more civilized there were more requirements on the use of brutality and it s these policies that actually designed such that minorities are targeted more 1 Koon is one of the officers that took part in the Rodney King arrest in 1965 The LAPD Chief Gates pointed out that changes in policies regarding law enforcement up to the Rodney King incident increasingly restricted options for law enforcement officers in more dangerous situations Koon defended his officers and himself by stating that the actions of the police officers during the Rodney King incident were not racist Koon says that the beatings were premeditated power strokes to the 1 Koon Stacey C and Robert Deitz Presumed Guilty the Tragedy of the Rodney King Affair Washington DC Regnery Gateway 1992 Print 56 joints as well as the use of the taser which helps disable resistant suspects At the time all these actions were within police protocol which brings up another point of whether or not we should reevaluate these policies In retrospect to the Rodney King incident Koon state that The incident has been violent It s been brutal It s been ugly But it s been necessary under LAPD 2 rules However the more immediate problem lies in fact that Koon and the other police officers assumed that King was armed this assumption would likely not have been made had King been white and in a wealthier environment Koon s defense is only conditionally valid Although the motives for the police officers actions are debatable the assumptions that were made during the arrest are not These assumptions are racial pro ling law enforcement making certain assumptions based on race or ethnicity This type of discrimination based on the surrounding community is common Research on police effectiveness in attacking chronic concentrations of crime widely known as hot spots has found that wellmanaged investigations and crackdowns can suppress crime deter its future reappearance and avoid simply displacing a similar number of crimes elsewhere 3 However these hot spots often consist of lower class minority communities The practice of hot spots result in statistics like about 75 percent of people searched at certain stops was black One third of Carlson s cases recorded over 90 percent of the people stopped were black The creation and scientific backing of hot spots have also led to increased probabilities of unnecessary force Koon notes this as well when he states That park only about two miles 2 Koon Stacey C and Robert Deitz Presumed Guilty the Tragedy of the Rodney King A air Washington DC Regnery Gateway 1992 Print 62 3 Skogan Wesley G and Kathleen Frydl Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing the Evidence Washington DC National Academies 2004 Print 5 from the Foothill Division police stations had a bad reputation Bodies were found there When the suspect had been forced to stop in front of that park because of a vale across the entrance we d all thought that maybe we were getting lured into something 4 The officers viewed the local park as an area of concern and thus address each case in that area with a predetermined mindset that the offenders are particularly violent The idea of hot spots is part of the foundation of two popular alternatives to the standard law enforcement models problem oriented and community policing Problem oriented policing is a model that relies on the police system recognizing high frequency cases within a community and developing specific responses to each case Community policing is a model which relies heavily on cooperation from local citizens to report crimes and put overall pressure on the community to resist and combat crime The National Research Council supports both of these models this can be shown through its quotation Both are examples of what the report dubs tailored responses to crime and disorder Both seek to look beyond the traditional exercise of the law enforcement powers of the police to reduce crime disorder and fear 5 However these law enforcement models also translate to targeting certain communities for certain crimes One of the most outstanding examples of this discrimination is the police operations in response to the drug laws of 1973 The American Civil Liberties Union found that between 1981 and 1988 arrests based on drug possession doubled to approximately 400000during the same period arrests based on the sale and manufacturing of drugs rose to about 300000 cases While these numbers are astonishing by their sheer value government 4 Koon Stacey C and Robert Deitz Presumed Guilty the Tragedy of the Rodney King Affair Washington DC Regnery Gateway 1992 Print 18 5 Skogan Wesley G and Kathleen Frydl Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing the Evidence Washington DC National Academies 2004 Print 18 reports show that eighty percent of drug users are white yet 74 percent of drug offenders imprisoned are African American Operation Pressure Point in New York was an attempt to rid the predominantly Hispanic Lower East Side of the drug trade 6There are other similar operations such as Operation Invincible Memphis Operation Clean Sweep Chicago Operation Hammer Los Angeles and many more throughout the nation that all target poor minority communities for drug sweep it is these poor communities that have high African American populations These sweeps not only explain the disproportionate alrests of minorities but also perpetuate the problem by creating the public image of minorities as drug abusers Racial pro ling has gotten to the point that Judge Friedman said in court Racial pro ling in general was at one time considered a theory or allegation He added At this point racial pro ling is a fact 7 Having disproportionately high numbers of police in poor minority communities is only part of the problem Further changes to law enforcement personnel guidelines essentially legalized racism The 1982 Common Characteristics of Drug Couriers suggested of cers to watch for People driving rental cars drivers wearing lots of gold drivers who do not t the vehicle and nally ethnic groups associated with the drug trade8 These guidelines describe African Americans and other minorities more than whites Policies like the Common Characteristic of Drug Couriers in junction with policies targeting minority communities such as hot spots result in unfairly targeting of minority populations 5 quotDriving While Black Racial Profiling On Our Nation39s Highwaysquot American CivilLiberties Union Web 23 Nov 2010 lthttpwwwacluorgracialjusticedrivingwhileblackracialprofilingour nationshighwaysgt 7 Carlson Daniel P When Cultures Clash Strategies for Strengthened Police community Relations Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall 2005 Print 60 8 Carlson Daniel P When Cultures Clash StrategiesforStrengthened Policecommunity Relations Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall 2005 Print 62 Racial pro ling has also had a powerful effect on colored of cers as well The changes to police protocol have led minority of cers to feel as though they need to choose between their race and their job Retired city marshal and HPD narcotics of cer E J Stringfellow lamented that there was times when Ithought I had to choose between being a police or a Negro Wellil couldn t stop being a Negro 9 It s clear that racial pro ling has become subtly if not outright integrated into police protocols but it is equally important to examine the results of this form of institutionalized racism InRacial pro ling issues alata anal analyses Steven Muf er cites the Gallup Poll that in a national sample of adults 59 percent said that racial pro ling is widespread When the responses to the survey question were broken down by race 56 percent of Whites and 77 percent of Blacks responded that racial pro ling was pervasive 10 The 1998 Sourcebook of C riminal Justice Statistics also found that while sixty seven percent of whites thought the police treated all races fairly only 30 blacks felt that the police treated all races fairly People are not only aware of racial pro ling but also often feel victimized at some point in their lives Additionally the Gallup survey asked respondents how often they perceived having been stopped by the police based on their race alone Six percent of Whites and 42 percent of Blacks responded that they had been stopped by the police because of their race and 9 Watson Dwight Race and the Houston Police Department 1930 1990 a Change Did Come College Station TX Texas A amp M UP 2005 Print 43 10 Watson Dwight Race and the Houston Police Department 19301990 a Change Did Come College Station TX Texas A amp M UP 2005 Print 61 72 percent of Black men between ages 18 and 34 believe they have been stopped because of their race gt711 The practice of racial pro ling is evidently quite real it is known but ignored in the legal system and suspected in the communities It is also important to understand the effects racial pro ling has on the community of color One of the most important consequences of racial pro ling is an undermining of the legitimacy of the law enforcement among minorities In Minorities and the Police Confrontation in America David H Barley and Harold Mendelsohn claim that 17 percent less of the surveyed individuals completely trusted the police On the other hand one in four whites completely trusted the police 12 The Gallup Poll shows that more than half of Americans polled believed that police actively engage in the practice of racial pro ling 13 He also notes that 81 percent of those who suspect the police of racial pro ling disapprove of the practice adding up to a very signi cant portion of the population in direct disapproval of police practices This form of discrimination translated to a decrease in police services available to African Americans Consequently the limitation of services produces two major effects signi cantly less concern for minority issues and African Americans being inclined to cooperate with police Barley and Mendelsohn Table 24 found that African Americans who had been surveyed reported being signi cantly more disappointed with police response than the white majority Part of this dissatisfaction of the law enforcement is because of the general lack of 11 Watson Dwight Race and the Houston Police Department 19301990 a Change Did Come College Station TX Texas A amp M UP 2005 Print 61 12 Bayley David H Minorities and the Police Confrontation in America Np CollierMacmillan 1969 Print 40 13 Muffler Steven J Racial Pro ling Issues Data andAnalyses New York Nova Science 2006 Print 61 urgency that state and municipal agencies demonstrate when facing minority cases Barley and Mendelsohn s surveys show that while 33 percent of African Americans contacted state and municipal agencies only 6 percent were successful with their cases On the other hand of the 25 percent of the whites who contacted state and municipal agencies over half of them were successful with their cases This creates a mentality in the minority communities that the state is not there to help them Thus a problem is formed because minorities such as blacks feel that they are denied the important service of law enforcement Often blacks are worried about being judged and thus further victimized by racism by the police This results in a difference in reports on crimes For example Barley and Mendelsohn found nine percent of police calls from whites were on prowling yet that number drops to four percent for blacks Similarly 96 percent of whites call for neighbor complaints and that number drops to 68 for blacks 14 Racial profiling is entrenched in our law enforcement the community is largely aware of the problem and African Americans are negatively affected by disproportionate numbers of arrests and limited services from law enforcements However there is resistance to racial profiling today One of the most powerful ways of pushing for reforms is to file complaints when racial profiling occurs Due to continued complaints against the New York Police Department the Courtesy Professionalism and Respect CPR was introduced reducing complaints by 67 percent There are also organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union Amnesty International USA and many others working to bring media attention to issues of racial profiling The most important form of resistance to racial profiling are individual citizens who 14 Bayley David H Minorities and the Police Confrontation in America Np CollierMacmillan 1969 Print 63 are willing to speak up about the issue and post evidence such as the recording of the Rodney King incident Through pressures of multiple citizen groups and citizens themselves there have been reforms to law enforcement Racial pro ling plays an important role in law enforcement It is entrenched with policies targeting low income minority communities and police protocols calling upon police to use race as a factor of suspicion The community is well aware of this problem and many report being victims of the practice Racial profiling particularly hurts African American minorities by making them reluctant to call the police for help as well as reduced cooperation with the law enforcement personnel However there is civilian resistance to racial profiling and there have been victories already Individual citizens must be the force for change by bringing the issue to public scrutiny or at least be aware of the problems existing in our law enforcement E 4 V39 0 gt1 Works Cited Bayley David H Minorities and the Police Confrontation in America Np CollierMacmillan 1969 Print Carlson Daniel P When Cultures Clash Strategies for Strengthened Police community Relations Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall 2005 Print quotDriving While Black Racial Profiling On Our Nation39s Highwaysquot American Civil Liberties Union Web 23 Nov 2010 lthttpwwwacuorgraciaIjusticedrivingwhiIeblackraciaIprofilingour nationshighwaysgt Koon Stacey C and Robert Deitz Presumed Guilty the Tragedy of the Rodney King Affair Washington DC Regnery Gateway 1992 Print Muffler Steven J Racial Profiling Issues Data and Analyses New York Nova Science 2006 Print Skogan Wesley G and Kathleen Frydl Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing the Evidence Washington DC National Academies 2004 Print Watson Dwight Race and the Houston Police Department 1930 1990 a Change Did Come College Station TX Texas A amp M UP 2005 Print


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