Introduction to Psychology week 8 Notes
Introduction to Psychology week 8 Notes Psych 111
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
2/29 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Operant vs Classical conditioning: Operant Conditioning (voluntary - training) response → consequence → response strengthened Classical Conditioning (involuntary) - ***Learning can involve both classical and operant conditioning. Biology and Cognition (when behaviorism doesn’t quite explain everything…) Module 23 Key concepts of behaviorism: - Equipotentiality: the idea that the principles of conditioning should apply to all behaviors and species - Nature Topics: - taste aversion - Instinctual drift - Observational learning - Theory of mind - Overimitation - Emotional Contagion Limits to classical conditioning - Taste aversion - NS of taste can become CS - Other sensory aspects remain NS - Often one-trial learning Not all classical conditioning is alike ***see slides for image Why different effects for different CSs? - innate connection between food and nausea - Sounds and nausea are not connected ***Can be conditioned for taste faster than sound Not all operant conditioning is alike either - operant conditioning can train non instinctual behavior - instinctive drift: revert from…**find in book** Pig Instinct (example) - Pigs get rewarded when the put coins into the “pig” - note how their instincts slow the pace - *video Bottom line: - You can train a chicken to play the piano but you can’t stop a pig from rooting - Instinctive drift limits the effects of training Learning by observation - observational learning: watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning their experiences - skills required: mirroring, being able to picture ourselves doing the same thing, and cognition, noticing consequences and associations Observational learning process: Modeling: - the behavior of others serves as a model, an example of how to respond to a situation; we may try this model regardless of reinforcement Vicarious Conditioning: - Vicarious: experienced indirectly, through others - Vicarious reinforcement and punishment means that our choices are affected as we see others get consequences for their behavior Observational learning: - learn from watching others - Evidence is behavior and language - Consequences can teach you and others - Lesson for parents: what you do your kids will do! - Modeling starts young Preferred Imitations: - feeding a baby doll Why do we model? - mirror neurons fire only to reflect the actions or feelings of others. Mirroring the Brain: emotion - pain and empathy (see slides) Mirroring plus vicarious enforcement: Theory of mind - ability to infer another’s mental state - allows for empathy - **understanding what other people need and helping Emotional contagion: - Brain stimulates and vicariously experiences what others experience - being around happy people while sad will make you happy and vice versa Overimitation: - Doing unnecessary tasks when mirroring - Irrelevant action + relevant action = prize - *Video 03/02 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Introduction to Emotion: Module 37 Topics: - Emotion - Theories of Emotional Response - James-Lange Theory - Cannon-Bard - Schacter-Singer Theory (two factor) - Zajonc & Lazarus Theory (two roads) - Experiencing Emotion Theories of Emotion: The Arousal and Cognition “chick and egg” Debates - Which happens first, the body changes that go with an emotion, or the thoughts, or do they happen together? James-Lange Theory - body BEFORE thoughts Cannon-Bard Theory - body WITH thoughts Singer-Schacter/Two-Factor Theory - body PLUS thoughts / label Zajonc, LeDoux, Lazarus - body/brain WITHOUT conscious thoughts James-Lange Theory: Body before thought - William James (1842-1910): “We feel afraid because we tremble, sorry because we cry.” - The James Lange theory states that emotion is our conscious awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli. - Our body arousal happens first, and then the cognitive awareness and label for the feeling: “I’m angry” - According to this theory, if something makes us smile then we feel happy Cannon-Bard Theory: Simultaneous Body Response and Cognitive Experience - The Cannon-Bard theory asserts that we have a conscious/cognitive experience of emotion at the same time as our body is responding, not afterward. - Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them. Schacter-Singer “two factor” theory: Emotion = Body Response & Cognitive Label - The schacter-singer “two-factor” theory suggests that emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling. - I face a stranger, and my heart is pounding. Is it fear? Excitement? Anger? Lust? Or did I have too much caffeine? The label completes the emotion. Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, and Richard Lazarus: Emotions without awareness/cognition - Emotional reactions take one of two paths - speedy low road (skips conscious thought) - thinking high road Low road/high road: - The speedy low road: - Fear Stimulus - Fear Response - The thinking high road - Fear stimulus - Sensory Cortex - Prefrontal Cortex - Amygdala - Fear Response Two viewpoints on the two roads: - Lazarus/Schacter-Singer: Appraisal is necessary (appraisal may be automatic). - Zajonc/LeDoux: Appraisal is not necessary for emotional response. - **See slides for diagram How the nervous system responds to emotion: - The physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers activity and changes in various organs. - Later, the parasympathetic division calms down the body. Body and Emotions: Stress (sympathetic) - pupils expand - fast and shallow breaths - heart pumps faster - gut inactive Calm (parasympathetic) - pupils shrink - slow, deep breaths - heart slows - gut active Experienced Emotion Two dimensions of emotions - low versus high emotions - positive to negative emotions - **See slides for diagram Closer look at a particular emotion: anger - A flash of anger gives us energy and initiative to fight or otherwise take action when necessary - Persistent anger can cause more harm than whatever we’re angry about The Catharsis Myth - The catharsis myth refers to the idea that we can reduce anger by “releasing” it. - In most cases, expressing anger worsens it, and any “release” reinforces the aggression, making it a conditioned habit. - Sometimes releasing anger causes harm, and results in guilt. Instead try calming down and moving on. Sometimes confrontation works: - If directed toward the source - If justifiable - If source is not intimidating Feel-good, Do-good phenomenon: - when in a good mood, we do more for others. The reverse is also true: doing good feels good. Effects of altruism: - “helper's high” - increase of dopamine and endorphins - lowered stress response - enhanced immune system Money and happiness: - positively related - happiness benchmark - **See slides for diagram Adaptation-level phenomenon: - When we step into that sunshine, it seems very bright at first. Then our senses adapt and we develop a “new normal.” If a cloud covers the sun it may seem “dark” in comparison. - The “very bright” sensation is temporarily. - The adaptation-level phenomenon: when our wealth or other life conditions improve, we are happier compared to our past condition. - However, then we adapt, form a “new normal” level, and most people must get another boost to feel the same satisfaction. Adapting Attitudes Instead of Circumstances: - Because of the adaptation-level phenomenon, our level of contentment does not permanently stay higher when we gain income and wealth; we keep adjusting our expectations. - Lottery winners and accident victims who become paraplegics. - In both cases humans tend to adapt. Correlates of Happiness: researchers have found that happy people tend to: - have high self-esteem (in individual countries) - Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable - Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage - Have work and leisure that engage their skills - Have an active religious faith - Sleep well and exercise However, happiness seems not much related to other factors, such as: - Age - Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more joyful) - Parenthood (having children or not) - Physical attractiveness Possible ways to increase your chances at happiness: - look beyond wealth for satisfaction - bring your habits in line with your goals; take control of your time - smile and act happy - find work and leisure that engage your skills - exercise, or just move - focus on the needs and wishes of others - work, rest, and SLEEP - notice what goes well and express gratitude - nurture spirituality, meaning, and community - make your close relationships a priority. 03/03 (lab) 9-9:50 am Expressed Emotion Module 39 Detecting Emotion: - Humans are typically very good - Very quickly - Can be misperceived - Women are typically better than men at this - Similar across cultures (universal) Lie Detection (Module 38) Lie Detection: - Can people detect lies? - Can we use physiological measures to detect lies? Polygraph Tests: - Measures physiological changes thought to indicate arousal - Arousal related to lying - i.e., pal sweating, blood pressure, & respiration Typically 4 sensors - Attached to body, tubes placed around chest & stomach, & blood pressure cuff on arm Does it work? Yes! Accuracy is 65% or better for polygraph Average for people (no polygraph) is 57% False positives = 37% - A test that indicates that a particular condition or attribute is present False negatives = 24% - A test that indicates that a particular condition or attribute is absent Guilty Knowledge Test: - Subjects respond to a series of multiple choice questions - Example: The victim’s body was found in the: - A. Kitchen - B. Bedroom - C. Bathroom Goal is different from polygraph tests Best for showing that an innocent individual did NOT commit the crime Tends to be a problem with the guilty Not used very much in investigations Is it possible to detect a lie? Assumptions about lying: Innocent suspects - Give concise answers, sit upright, face the interrogator Guilty suspects - Avoid eye contact, overly polite - NOT BASED ON EMPIRICAL FINDINGS! According to research… Innocent suspects - Cooperative, provide long answers, & even show anger Guilty suspects - Increased voice pitch, nervousness, hesitation, uncertainty, pupil dilation (DePaulo & colleagues, 2003) Are professionals better lie detectors? Experienced federal law enforcement: 52% Inexperience federal law enforcement: 53% Secret Service: 64% Federal Polygraphers: 56% Police officers, detectives: 45-57%