Fire, Insects, and Diseases in Forest Ecosystems
Fire, Insects, and Diseases in Forest Ecosystems ESPM 134
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52 4 u H I V desperate n med gfp efight r Farbulous Handtools B10 dge tt News They re still in prescription amp permit They still dorn it exactly what we re going to burn but We re going to try Saturday Remembjer he avy boots if to play With re You re to rge t smokey bring a change of Cloth es a Where we re going Concepts in Fire Mitigation The how amp why s of setting up and executing prescribed fire Russell Research Station Example Yosemite National Park Examples Why and hows of post fire treatments Reducing Fire Hazards in Forests Mitigation We know that fire once was a very frequent event in the forests of the western US Areas subject to fires every 5 to 25 years Fire absence for various reasons has modified Forest Structure Forest Processes This has altered what were once primarily frequent low to moderate intensity fire regimes Increased density of small shade tolerant tree species Higher surface fuels loadings Increased horizontal and vertical fuels continuity All of these reasons increase the chances of a sever fire out of normative ranges of variability Reducing Fire Hazards in a Forests Mitigation High severity stand replace fires are appropriate for many forest types Lodgepole Knobcone Pine Bishop Pine However most species adapted to frequent low moderate intensity fire regimes are unable to successfully regenerate after large high severity events a Reducing hazards in forests We as managers cannot reduce the potential of high severity fires everywhere simultaneously A procedure is required that prioritizes areas Four step process Assess re hazards including Wildland fuels Topography Slope Elevation Aspect Assess ignitions weather and climate Assess ecosystem values Wildlife habitat Timber Rare threatened and endangered species Watersheds The political wildcard Wildland Urban Interfaces WUI s Assess differing spatial relationships of different fuels treatments g Reducing hazards in forests GIS Fue Fou First three assessments systems can be used to perform these assessments Topographic identification of areas of interest ls Models FARSFFE BEHAVE ARCFUELS etc How those areas might burn given modern or future fuels rth Step Investigate how successful different staila and temporal combinations 5 of fuels and silvic treatments can re vere fire potential Areas previously identified as high hazard high risk or high value can be treated first Spatial arrangements can be evaluated by modelling experimental treatments SPLATS Strategically Placed Land Area Treatments SPOT Strategic Placement of Treatments FSS Fire Surrogate Studies Desi red Futu re Conditions All depends of land management goals Heavily dependent on Knowledge of past forest conditions Comparison of relatively undisturbed forests Other Stuff Climate projections land use encroaching urbanization etc Fuels Treatments Fuels Rearrangement Transport Move somewhere else expensive Fuels Modi cation Alter the surface arrangement Piles windrows Mastication chipping Alter the stand structure Shelterwood amp Shaded Fuelbreaks DFPZ Defensible Fuel Profile Zones Prescription Burning m o o N LI 2 m n 01 E ion39 Chipp t Fuels Modifica Prescription fire Wildland Fire burning under specific pre de ned conditions that will accomplish sgecific planned 0 jectives hence the term Prescribed fire Prescription Rx Treatments 5 groups Low moderate consumption low moderate intensity Low consumption high severity patches High consumption low moderate intensity High consumption high intensity Prescription crown fires Low moderate consumption low moderate intensity Winter or early spring Large fuels will not burn no time to dry out Burns mainly ne fuels Burning may occurring during Active breeding seasons Plant growth seasons Times where soils are more negatively impacted Water L 6 J maxwgz VI a In 6 0 0 2 r e b m e V O N n D t a t S h C r a e a R e S S U R W S n e t m W b n b t D m U S n O C W O L Low consumption high a severity patches Jackpot burns Usually after rains snow Ignition difficult Wet fine 1 hr 10 hour fuels Once ignited large classes fuels are consumed Jackpots Piles Windrows Jackpot Burning Russell Research Statio az tr High consumption low moderate intensity Autumn prior to seasonal precipitation Low fuel moistures required Intensity controlled by ignition firing patterns weather High consumption of live amp dead fuels Labor intensive High Consumption low moderate intensity Tuolumne Grove 102005 NPS High Consumption low moderate intensity Tuoloumne Grove 102005 NPS V v gt I g High consumption high a intensity Autumn before seasonal precipitation Low fuel moistures Ignitions are for intensity Big strips Center ring Heli torch Maximizing flame lengths High Intensity High Consumption Tamarack Flat 10 95 Prescription Crown Fires Fires in Chaparral Knobcone Pine Red Pine Lodgepole Pine etc Stand replacement crown res Must be appropriate for the vegetation tYIDe Difficult to plan amp executebut very important Dv Prnuun Fin o CQWnljrjfajh Onnl r a Prescription fires What is takes Decision for management action The Actual Prescription A specific ap lication of fire during very specific weather fue 5 conditions Smoke Impact Environmental Impact Statement Manning Equipment Cooperators Air Quality Management Districts Adjoining Suppression Forces Area of Responsibilty Rx Fire Case Studies Russell Research Station amp Yosemite National Park Effective fuels reduction in plantations of the Russell Experimental Station RES Fire Safe University Property Those little 8000 sq ft starter castles in the LaMorinda metropolitan areastaring at the Oakland fire scenario Training ESPM 181 134 Co operators Training YNP acknowledgement of dangerous fuels buIId up MaJor recreation amp Visual resource a Land Management Decision Center for Forestry C4F needed to acknowledge the need for management after that Designate Forest of cer for oversight Designate Incident commander Site representative Permitting In our case controlled by BAAQMD Bay Area Air Quality Management District Contra Costa County Contra Costa Fire amp Cooperating Fire districts structure protection 911 need to be informed of burn ops Agriculture Permit Division Burn Permits CALFIRE The all important Law Enforcement 5 Permit the actual permission to ignite Wildland Fire Unit Standby Structure Protection BAAQMD controlling agency variable Air pollution holds the trump card Boils down to size and what s burning lt10 acres gt10 acres Native or Non native vegetation BAAQM D Regulates all burning Major limitation to all operations in California Regulations vary by air basin San Joaquin Valley is strictest re forest Rx fire most Sierra Nevada forests YNP SNP all have to deal with these guys Smoke Management Plan Requires Environmental Impact Statement Required on Any burn from May 1 to October 31 Any burn over 10 acres Any burn in native vegetation including WFU Any non training burn a BAAQMD November 1 to April 30 Burning in less than 10 acres of non native vegetation can occur without Smoke Plan Regulation 5 exemptions used lt 10 acres Plantation non native vegetation suite Training RES Calendar Convincing C4F that prescribed fires can be included in management May to December 2005 Actual decision to proceed with burn permitting December 2005 Contact Everett of regulating agencies January 2006 Fuels Vegetation Workup start Final C4F nod for equipment manning February 2006 ICS Equipment Committal Manning Committal Fuels 181 March 2006 Felling Line construction Equipment relocation PPE hose handtools What really happens March 2006 record month with most days with measurable precipitation in East Bay records not total amount record though April 2006 Standby Rotate to stand down if conditions don t improve by 15 April Gear up for November application Add 2 3 acres in the target Not too unusual PWO3 Western Yosemite National Park burns Planned since mid 19905 Permitted 1998 pending limits by SJAQMD Partially ignited 2001 2003 shut down by SJAQMD Partially ignited 2005 seasonal shutdown Partially ignited 2006 2007 2008 iFi nally November 2006 Tuolumne Grove Gin Flat ampTamarack RX Fires 102005 ten u years in the planning Post fire restoration Needed to address severe fire effects Needed to deal with human population after affects Why mitigate post fire effects Waterman Canyon Christmas Eve 2003 0 Two months after Old39 Fire October 2003 o 34 Years 1 month after Panorama Fire 0 Ryegrassed by CDF amp USFS 1 o Waterman Canyon has a slide in one form or another within a year of every re since 1932 o Other Hillslope scenarios very similar throughout the western US Most of southern California and huge portions of Bay Area flatlands are built on alluvium from surrounding hills n Large derived during postfire storm events new x 7quot g A 39 Harrison Canyon Catchment Basin 1983 amp Spring Creek Debris Flow 1999 Both San Bernardino County both are From USGS SCAMP director Doug Morton BAER Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation Ori Reass Addition assessment for needs concerning Formal Authority 1974 ginally for 1 Threat Reduction 2 Soil amp Water Loss 3 Water Control amp 4 Water Quality essed 1998 Evaluation of Run off control Minimization of Downstream post fire effects Assess impacts on ecosystems s ability to recovery Compare Hillslope v Channel mitigation effects Assess economic social and environmental costs amp bene ts including no treatmen Treatment Transfer How can one successful treatment be employed elswhere Identi cation of information gaps Process BAER initiates during Type 1 project fire events Type 1 BIG fires Requested by Type 1 Overhead Own Authority On request by Area of concern managers usually Forest level Team is in place well before containment amp control begins immediately on soil amp water rehabilitation usually during suppreSSIbn activities a Staff Team Leader just like a Type 1 Incident Commander Disciplines Hydrology Soils Timber Management Wildlife Engineering Range Management Archaeology Fire Management Geology a BAER Primary Objectives Health amp Human Safety Watershed Stabilization Both fire affected area amp downstream Should address both alluvial amp colluvial mass movement Secondary Big question Is there any treatment that could be performed which will significantly increase the ecosytem recovery a BAER Limited to rehab work and significant improvement over natural recovery For instance Cannot build new facilities with BAER but you can repair old ones Cannot alter long term silvicultural goals but can provide for some seeding if significant improvement is indicated Can t set up tasked event specific research BAER GTR 63 General Technical Report provides Fire effects review How to acquire amp analyze data How to describe results of assessment amp monitoring Discusses BAER assessments amp treatment effectiveness Makes conclusions regarding BAER process Makes recommendations about BAER process Hillslope Treatments First line of defense Broadcast seeding including grasses Exotics cheap fast growth Natives Expensive 20x to 50x slow growth Most BAER treatments are shying away from inexpensive seeding but Private County amp State agencies except CDF not Mulching Contour trenching Contour felling of re killed trees Fencing amp contour check dams Lopping amp scattering of slash Hay straw wattles Jute meshing etc Channel Treatments Within any order stream Check dams Logs Hay Bales Rock Dams Rock Cages Weirs Tend to fill w debris a Road Treatments Target increase the water and sediment capabilities of roads amp road structures Culverts Outsloping Overflows Crossings B dges a Example Willow Fire SBNF 1999 BAER Team identified addressed Slope erosion problems Meadows Streams With Chubb Trout populations North Face Steep Terrain Check Dams amp Trenching Some Reseeding AtrjoeXamp Artemesa populations a concern NO GRASSES Even the haybales were suspectRTampE species problems i Remember Smokeys awesome but fire is your friend ESPM 134 Introduced Pathogens S 2009 Why introductions are so devastating Importance of quotnaive hosts and effect on resistance loss of natural enemies mostly for introduced insects Introduced Pathogens White pine blister rust Cronartium ribicola Life cycle review appears to have come from Northern Asia where Pinus cembra is its main pine host First recorded in Europe from the Baltic region in 1854 by 1900 widespread across Europe rapid spread by forest tree nurseries Introduced in North America probably by 1898 on nursery stock from Europe definitively recorded in Geneva New York and seven other states by 1900 Discovered in Vancouver BC in 192 1 on ijes nigra and young exotic pines by 1922 it was found widely in BC and the Northern Cascades of Washington state entire epidemic appears to have originated from a single batch of 1000 seedling imported from France Other strains of rust are known from Asia some with different alternate hosts and one with no alternate host Control efforts elimination of Ribes impossible on large scale and other telial host are used here McDonald et al 2006 Selection for resistance in sugar pine based on single gene trait Horizontal traits are also being selected but effort is slow Fate of North American White pines Impact on Sugar pine impact on Western White Pine impact on high elevation white bark pine Dutch Elm disease Ophiostoma Ceratocystis ulmi Life cycle of disease Pathogenic versus Saprophytic stages transmission Via root graphs pathogenic phase tree still living most inoculum is mitotic ESPM 134 Introduced Pathogens S 2009 Saprophytic state tree is dead or nearly dead multiple beetles arrive and bring in additional strains and mating types meiotic state occurs Beetle vectors European elm bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus and the Native elm bark beetle H ylurgopinus rufipes History of epidemic Appears in France Belgium and Germany between 1918192 1 origin of disease remains unknown Arrival in Eastern US in late 20s established in New York and effecting 5500 sq miles by 1940 strain transported to Ohio 1928 via diseased logs New epidemics in Europe Aggressive strains recognized in Europe 1971 Differences in aggressive and nonaggressive strains now recognized as different species 0 novaulmi amp O u1m139 arrival from two sources Brazier39s map Control efforts sanitation for management within cities chemical treatment of specimen trees breeding for resistance recent work involves transgenic modification and biocontrol Nasmith et al 2008 Schelfer et al 2008 Importance of elm prior to disease and predictions about its future 5 spp in eastern forest major upper oodplain dominant Chestnut blight Cryphonectria Endothia parasitica life cycle of pathogen both asexual orange pycnidia transmitted by animal vectors and wind borne sexual reproduction ascospores are common wounds are necessary for entry but many are so small that they are hardly recognizable as wounds First seen at Bronx Zoo in 1904 may have been introduced by seed or more likely seedlings By 1940 it had spread throughout the natural range and destroyed and estimated 4 billion trees Chestnut39s position prior to blight 1 4 of trees in Appalachian forests Human and wildlife food Tanning industry highly rot resistant wood Hypovirulence discovered in Italy in 1950 trees recovering later found to be a doublestranded RNA mycovirus Transfer of DS RNA naturally through hyphal anastomosus Genetic engineering of fungus Nuss ESPM 134 Introduced Pathogens S 2009 insertion of viral genome into Chryphonectria nuclear genome Test release in New England forest Further modifications of viral genome decoupling of sporulation amp virulence Other examples Fusarium Circinatum subglutinans sp pini Pitch Canker first seen in California in 1986 simple populationgenetic structure host range primarily Pinus spp esp the coastal pines Douglasfir too Vectored by lots of insects twig beetles Pityoph thorus spp Ernobius punctulatus Cone beetle Conoph thorus radiatae engraver beetles Ips 51919 Now A major problem at at Pt Reyes see map Phytophthora cinnamomi Australian forests you can read about this in th second part of Dickman39s chapter in dry sclerophyll forests amp heathlands Phytoph thora lateralis on Port Orford Cedar Chamaecyparis lawsoniana first seen in nursery stock in 1923 Asian Chamaecyparis resist it Phytoph thora ramorum sudden oak death Kills large number of oaks in Marin county in 1995 probably arrived earlier identified in Europe earlier Currently coastal California forests up to Oregon symptomatic trees in the Sierra eg Blodgett Moved by Nursey stock to East Coast of US April 2004 Dogwood Anthracnose Discula destructiva pacific northwest then Eastern US mid 1970s Japanese dogwood is resistant projections for East coast Butternut canker Sirococcus clavigignen tijuglandacearum origin unknown discovered in Wisconsin 1967 butternut is now an endangered species Beech bark disease interaction between a scale insect Crytococus fagi and a canker fungus Nectria coccinea var faginata first seen in North America in 1920 imported with European beech now spread throughout the the Northeast ESPM 134 Introduced Pathogens S 2009 Guava rust Puccinia psidii broad host range in Myrtaceae native to South America kills all species of Eucalyptus tested S American origin already transported to Taiwan and S Africa Some general rules 1 The problem is clear international and growing 2 Consequences of introductions can be catastrophic and at least some of these have been avoidable 3 Once an introduction happens little can be done things that have been tried include eradication of alternate host white pine blister rust breeding for resistance white pine blister rust Hybrids with non native related species chestnut blight dutch elm disease mycoviruses chestnut blight other biocontrol gypsy moth On the pathogen side there are no success stories 4 The diseases are often unknown or of minor importance in their native range therefore predicting risk of importation is not possible 5 Scientific names of pathogens are deceiving Frequently cryptic species varieties or strains vary significantly in host range or virulences eg dutch elm disease References General Your book deals with most of the individual pathogens Chestnut blight White pine blister rust dutch elm disease pitch canker Phytophthora Beech bark disease but does not have a general section on introductions Speci c in case you want more information Cochran MF 1990 Back from the Brink Chestnuts Natl Geographic Feb 1990 128 140 Brasier C M 1986 The population biology of Dutch elm disease its principal features and some implications for other host pathogen systems Adv Pl Path 551 117 Brasier C M 1987 Recent genetic changes in the Ophiostomu ulmi population the threat to the future of the elm pp213 226 In Wolfe M S and Caten C E Populations of plant pathogens their dynamics and genetics Blackwell Publ Oxford Kinloch BB Jr 1991 Distribution and frequency of a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in natural populations of sugar pine Can J Bot 701319 1323 This is the source of the map in this handout McDonald GI Richardson BA Zambino P Klopfenstein NB Kim MS 2006 Pedicularis and Custilleju are natural hosts of Cromzrtium ribicolu in North America a first report For Path 3673 82 Nasmith C Jeng R Hubbes M 2008 Targeted gene analysis in Ulmus americana and U pumila tissues Forest Pathology 3890 103 Nuss DL 1992 Biological Control of Chestnut Blight an Example of Virus Mediated Attenuation of Fungal Pathogenesis Microbiological Reviews 56 56 576 Redlin SC 1991 Discula destruction Sp 1107 cause of dogwood anthracnose Mycologiu 83633 642 Schelfer R Voeten J Guries RP 2008 Biological control of clutch elm disease Plant Disease 92192 200 Weste G and Marks G C 1987 The biology of Phytophthom cinnamomi in Australian forests Ann Rev Phytopath 25207 29 ESPM 134 Introduced Pathogens S 2009 ESPM 134 Wood decay and root diseases 1 S 2009 Structure of wood in relation to decay Chemical Cellulose b 14 Glucose polymer organized into microfibrils crystalline it non crystalline Broken down via enzymatic digestion at repeating bond structure Endocellulase cleave in the middle Exocellulases cellobiohydrolases CBH work from the ends of long strands cleaving 2 4 units from the end betaglucosidases cleave di and trisaccharides into monomers ie glucose CH0H CHOH 0 OH hemicellulose short chain polymers xylans polymerized pentose sugars glucomannans hexose sugars Primarily xylose mannose galactose rhamnose and arabinose Crosslinked to cellulose and pectins broken down enzymatically by hemicellulases but also soluble in alkali and hydrolyzes readily in dilute acid to form sugar acids Lignin phenyl propane skeleton complex nonrepeating structure l filoquot b i zm Cquot cn H Cquot quotcan RI R2 CH0 f izm 0 0 HC mt ml NC nco o 130 i om a Broken down via free radical reactionie the Fenton reaction Fe2 H202 a Fe3 OHquot OH39 Enzyme systems used Lacases Manganese Peroxidases Lignin peroxidases expressed in culture only if fungi are starved for lignin ESPM 134 Wood decay and root diseases 1 S 2009 Relationship to cellular structure Wood structure Pectic material in middle larnella area between cell walls quotExtractivesquot NP mostly in living cells as proteins amino acidsnucleic acids etc Distribution of water free water with negative pressure matrix water Who causes decay mostly basidiomycetes agarics polypores and resupinates a few ascomycetes especially members of the Xylariales e g Hypoxylon Types of Rot or ways to describe them y chemistry of rot brown vs white color misleading cellulose and hemicellulose only versus lignin cellulose and hemicellulose Strangly brown rots efficently remove the cellulose without cellulases evidence from recent genome sequence of Postia different ecological consequences brown rot residues and soil by position in tree root butt top trunk by type of wood heart rot Sapwood rot saprot in book by looks pocket stringy cubical etc Pathogens heartrots and sapwood roots vs Saprobes slash rots or simply saprobes Pathogenic wood decay that occurring in living trees restricted to specialize subset of decay fungi How is wood defended from decay Sapwood vs Heartwood living with dead cells versus dead High water content vs lower water content low in extractives preservatives vs high in extractives Importance of water in sapwood shape of decay pockets is determined by physical characteristics of wood and distribution of water or why the CODIT containment of decay in trees theory is all wet Hydration protects sapwood while heartwood is protected by extractives 2 ESPM 134 Wood decay and root diseases 1 S 2009 Frequency of decay in Sapwood vs Heartwood reversed upon death of tree trees get heartrots while they are living but the sapwood decays fastest once the tree dies Infection courts or how do decay organisms get in Wounds wind fire branch stubs insects Endophytic colonization colonize and wait eg Hypoxylon Echinodontium tinctorium Growth from adjacent infected trees root rots primarily but also in H ymenochaete corrugam Alan Rayner refers to it as the bondage fungus because it ties up hazel39s limbs Heartrots decaying the primarily the dead wood of living trees but considered to be pathogens often some host specificity particularly conifer vs hardwoods Some die out when tree dies example Oligoporus umurus O sequoiue Echinodontium tinctorium indian paint fungus commom white stringy heart rot of conifers typically high in trees endophytic colonization PhellinusInonolus species all white roots found on both conifers and hardwoods although particular species are usually one or the other Commonly pathogenic heartrots and sapwood rots Examples Phellinus pini species complex commom heart rot of conifers causing a white pocket rot Phellinus gilvus common on oak and other hardwoods in our area Phellinus weirii root rot of conifers in pacific northwest Ganoderma species all white roots found on both conifers and hardwoods although particular species are usually one or the other brown spores Example species G applanalum he artists conk Ganoderma lucida complex Chinese medicine Saprobic wood decay a highly competitive enviromnent zone lines show border of war zone Wood endophytes get first dibs eg Hypoxylon thoumsirmum SOD interaction maybe S tereum Early pioneers prolific sporulators eg Trametes versicolor Trichaptum Fomitopsis pinicola Crytopoms volvatus Mycoparasitism one fungus parasitizing another as a way to capture the resource Lenzites betulina and Trametes versicolor Tremella and Stemm Importance of decay for ecosystem C N recycling Soil structure Wildlife habitats ESPM 134 Wood decay and root diseases 1 S 2009 Brown rots on living trees White rots Oligoporus amarus incense cedar only Oligoporus sequo e coastal redwood only Phelinus pni pines Douglasfir amp others 0 bas Echinodontium tinctorus Cupressus spp true fir and hemlock Ganoderma appanatum Laetporus sulphureus primarily hardwoods Oak etc wide host range but esp eucalyptus and oak Cryptoporus vovatus conifers Sterum hirsutum hardwoods Trchaptum abietnum conifers Trametes versicoor hardwoods Fomtopss pincola oni ers Annilane melea gr Heterobasidon annosum hellnus wen39i A pictorial summary of some common decay fungi in our area Common species are listed and arrows point to their common habitats within trees Those that point to the standing tree are found in living trees those that point to the logs are found in dead material Dotted arrows indicate a lower frequency or importance in that habitat Trunk or top rots butt rots and root rots are indicated by position in the living tree The dark area within the tree and logs indicates the heartwood Host ranges are not listed for the root rots because we will discuss those later in greater depth haeous schweintzi resinous conifers Dead trees Dead trees Root Disease Effects of root disease change in composition because of specificity succession primary hosts and seconday hosts predisposition especially to bark beetles Growth loss greatest height first Loss of accumulated volulne also premature death amp decay Delays in restocking decades in gaps hazards in populated areas General symptoms of root disease ESPM 134 Wood decay and root diseases 1 S 2009 tree mortality spread out over many years and usually present in only some species in new centers young suppressed trees are often the first to go lions tailing due to slow growth in contrast to needle loss caused by pollution reduced production of needles Chlorosis yellow needles premature pruning of lower branches Bark beetle attack esp Dendroctonus spp in pine and Dougfir Scolytus in fir Resinosus Pinus Picea Pseudotsuga Larix only discoloration in wood lesions on roots References In the text see pages 348358 In your text the coverage of the basic terminology is good and it has a nice table of some common decay fungi The section of CODIT should be ignored as it is probably incorrect Rayner A D M and Boddy L 1988 Fungal decomposition of Wood Its Biology and Ecology This is a great book unfortunately it costs 165 and is housed off campus The information on the Fenton reaction and the role of water in limiting decay and defining the the shape of the decay column comes from this book see Chapters 2 8 10 332360 11 410 419 I39ll put in on reserve in case any of you have a strong interest Wikipedia has very good writeups on cellulose lignin and hemicellulose Several of the images used in the powerpoint come from there ESPM 134 Introduction to fungi in forest systems Spring 09 Characteristics of Fungi Diversity approx 80000 described 16 million estimated Phylogenetic depth tree figure a kingdom equal in age to Plants and Animals Filamentous thallus with exceptions Hypha pl hyphae in mass Mycelium high surface to mass ratio Absorptive nutrition extracellular enzymes easily modified for infection structures haustoria or bundled together into conductive structures Rhizomorphs or mycelial cords Cell wall carbohydrate polymers Chitin Cellulose other B glucans Nuclei and chromosomes typically small DNA content varies from about 210X that of E coli largest genome of fungi smallest of plants Genomes tend to be very plastic in size and arrangement Bizarre nuclear condition Uninucleate diploids rare coenocytic diploids Oomycetes haploids dikaryotes heterokaryotes Recent Evolution paper by James et al 2008 on behavior of Heterobasidion parvipomm shows that nuclear ratio in heterokaryons can be highly variable Mitotic propagules common spores Conidia and resting structures Sclerotia Advantages of clonal propagation Components of sex ie Syngamyfusion of cells karyogamyfusion of haploid nuclei and meiosisreduction division to produce haploid nuclei from diploids frequently separated in the life cycle Fungi are territorial Vegetative somatic or heterokaryon compatibility Post fusion reaction Genetics behind it compatible reaction requires identity at all Het loci Why do fungi fuse or not Major groups of fungi all named for their meiotic organs Oomycetes the watermolds Unrelated to higher fungi more closely related to brown algae ESPM 134 Introduction to fungi in forest systems Spring 09 Fuscosterol when sterols synthesized DAP lysine pathway bi agellate zoospores Mitochondria with tubular cristae Nuclear division with intact membrane Typical life cycle Coenocytic diploid life cycle Oogamy a resting structure in many species other resting structures chlamydospores Phytophthom cinnamomeu Importance in Forests SOD Phytophthom mmomm Sudden oak death Seedling diseases daInping off Pythium Phytophthom Root diseases Phytophthom little leaf disease root rot of Port Orford cedar Declines Pythiuln 7 Phytophthom oak decline in Europe True fungi Glomeromycota important in Arbuscular mycorrhizae Redwoods incense cedar maples and most herbs no ergosterol apparently cholesterol in membrances Ascomycetes sac fungi coenocytic haploids with a transient dikaryotic state site of karyogamy and meiosis ascus pl asci Production of macroscopic sexual fruitbodies ascocarps ascomata Three basic forms balls asks and cups or Cleistothecia Perithecia Apothecia Sometimes fruitbodies are within sterile tissue called a Stoma Often many morphologically distinct asexual spore states sometimes dispersed in different ways Conidia an asexual spore produced externally Asexual fruitbodies Pycnidia Acervuli sporodochia synnemata Many fungi are known only from their asexual state fungi imperfect or Deuteromycetes eg Blackstain Leptographium wageneri Dual naming system Importance in forest ecosystems many pathogens wilts blue stains cankers root diseases foliar diseases mycorrhizal symbionts truf es some wood decay fungi Xylaria Daldinia endophytes Mycoparasites Trichoderma saprobes Basidiomycetes Dikaryotic dominate life cycle many have clamp connections Site of karyogamy and meiosis Basidium pl Basidia ESPM 134 Introduction to fungi in forest systems Spring 09 Often produce macroscopic fruitbodies Basidiocarps basidiomes resupinates conks mushrooms and others Multiple spore states less common except in rusts and often have a sexual function Types of fungal associations found in forest ecosystems Biotrophic symbionts of plants Obligate parasites eg rusts powdery mildews mycorrhizae many mushroomforming basidiomycetes some ascomycetes Endophytes mostly ascomycetes Necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic parasites of plants most pathogens Primary saprobes wood decay fungi Secondary saprobes fermentation fungi Predators and parasites of microinvertebrates and insects References see chapter 10 in Forest Health This paper is way beyond anything you need to know for this class but for anyone interested in Basidiomycota this is the most awsume paper I39ve seen in ages James TY Stenlid Olson A Iohannesson H 2008 Evolutionary significance of imbalanced nuclear ratios within heterokaryons of the basidiomycete fungus Heterobasidion parvipomm Evolution 6222792296 Terms you will hear again and should know especially terms in bold Hyphae a microscopic filamentous string of cells the conunon cell type for most fungi mycelium all of the hyphae of an individual rhizomorph or cord a stringlike macroscopic differentiated assemblage of hyphae these are used for conducting of water and nutrients over lon distances ex Armillaria and many other fungi especially basidiomycetes sclerotiuln pl sclerotia a harden often darkly pigmented aggregation of hyphae used to wait out adverse times ex Rhizoctonia Macrophomina conidium pl conidia an externally produced mitotically produced spore The sporeforming cell is called a conidiophore ESPM 134 Introduction to fungi in forest systems Spring 09 ascus pl asci microscopic cell which is the site of meiosis in Ascomycetes ascospores typically 8 or 4 are produced internally within it Fungi that produce these are in the phyluln Ascomycota and are often referred to by the former class name ascomycetes which is now treated like a common name Fruitbodies that produce asci can be called ascocarps basidium pl basidia microscopic cell which is the site of meiosis in Basidiomycetes Basidiospores typically 4 are produced externally on the basidiu1n Fungi that produce these are in the phyluln Basidiomycota and are often referred to by the former class name basidiomycetes which is now treated like a common name Fruitbodies that produce basidia can be called basidiocarps fruitbody fruiting body or sporocarp a common name for any type of macroscopic structure that produces spores The spores may be either mitotic or meiotically produced Types of fruitbodies we will see include agarics fancy name for mushrooms produced by a basidiomycete in which the sporulatjng surface is on gills or laInellae if you want another technical term polypores a hard or at least leathery basidiocarp in which the spores are produced inside small tubes or pores If the fruitbody is soft and mushroom like it is then called a bolete instead of a polypore conks common naIne for a harden polypore resupinate fruitbody a fruitbody usually a basidiocarp that is a thin essentially twodimensional crustlike structure the sporulatjng surface is a exposed ex Phellinus weirii gastromycete basidiocarps in which the spore are enclosed within the fruitbody examples include puff balls falsetruf es and bird39s nest fungi tooth fungi basidiocarps in which the spores are produced on hanging toothlike structures Fungi that do this are sometimes put in the artificial family hydnaceae Apothecia cuplike ascocarps The ascomycetes that make apothecia are called cup fungi or discomycetes A hysterothecium is a special linear shaped cup formed on needles of confers eg Lirula and other needle cast fungi Perithecia an enclosed typically askshaped ascocarp in which spores are released through an apical pore in the ask Ascomycetes that make these are called pyrenomycetes ex Ophiostoma blue stains dutch el1n disease Cryphonectria chestnut blight ESPM 134 Introduction to fungi in forest systems Spring 09 Teliomorph The spore stage at which meiosis occurs ex basidiocarps ascocarps Anamorph The spore state which is produced mitotically ex all conidial stages Fungi which are only known from their anaInorphs are call Imperfect fungi or Deuteromycetes this is not a monophyletic grouping A Generalizations about L 39 of J I J andC J in Forest systems Basidiomycota Rust fungi also Ascomycota Oomycota except rusts D 39 139 J Meiotic stage Fruiting bodies Fruiting body usually Fruiting body usually No fruiting bodies sexual often large and small basidiospores small in many species Oospores small and teleomorphic conspicuous often used to infect a it may be rare or inconspicuous a basidiospores often different host absent resting stage that the main dispersal dispersal relatively disperses primarily stage local through time not ace Mitotic spores rare usually used Usually abundant Usually abundant abundant The most asexual for genetic exchange often used for long and often the primary important stage for anamorphic not dispersal range dispersal inoculmn for dispersal infection zoospores and colonization chlamydospores whole sporangia Size of small to very large gt small always small to moderate basically small but can individual sq mile localized in a single localized in a single cause large root mycelia Rhizomorphs and host But single host or unit resource disease centers presence of rhizomorphs or mycelia cords cords common genotypes can be dispersed over continents by mitotic spores Rhizomorphs and cords absent like a log Rhizomorphs and cords present rare probably by locally dispersed spores rather than mycelial growth Rhizomorphs and cords absent Wood decay Causal agent for None few important decays Phytophthom cinnamomi most decay H ypoxylon and Xylmia apparently decays are the main small to moderate exceptions roots but otherwise this behavior is rare Ectomycorrhizal Most EM fungi are None Some important EM None interactions basidiomvcetes fungi eg truf es Root diseases Most root diseases None A few important root Phytophthom cinnamomi virtually all that diseases eg and others cause involve decay are Blackstain these serious root diseases basidiomycetes usually behave as wilts Phythium species cause and do not cause decay damping off and many cryptic sublethal root disease Foliage diseases almost none very Common Common all needle cast and needle Many in tropical L1 39 W1 1 settingi blights are ascomycetes mmomm is a temperate example Canker diseases some canker rots many important cankers of pines Most cankers diseases Phytophthom mmomm and others can cause cankers insect vectoring rare but some are vectored by bark beetles e g Peniophom and Western and Southern pine beetles or wood wasps eg Amylostereum Used for genetic exchange by most rusts ie the spermatial stage Most of the fungi vectored by bark beetles and ambrosial beetles are members of the Ascomycota eg blues stains black stain ambrosia fungi none ESPM134 Mistletoes S2009 Mistletoes Dwarf mistletoes Arceuthobium Many species difficult to distinguish but they are highly host specific all new world species attack only members of the Pinaceae huge effect in Western North American Forest Estimated 33 billion board feet lost year in growth loss and mortality in Western Us 15 Of total harvest http wwwforestpathologyorgmistlehtml Greatest diversity in Northwestern Mexico 8 western US 24 of 28 new world taxa four species known in old world one A osycedri is found on Cupressaceae Odd disjunct Apusillum southern range of eastern spruce closest relative A bicarinatum from the Caribbean A oxycedri on juniper in Europe most closely related to A abietisreligosae in Mexico A douglasii absent from Eastern Washington and Oregon even though it host douglasfir is there A americuna P conform and only western part of P banksiani Life cycle and infection cycle diagram 1 seed fruit occasionally 2 dispersed in late sununer to early fall Seeds shot at 90ft sec for distances up to 50 ft usually less stick amp slide mode Most seeds germinate the next spring in some species they germinate imInediately produces holdfast and infection peg usually is effective only in penetrating young stem lt 5 yrs endophyte ramifies under bark drops quotsinkersquot into xylem usually 25 years until aerial shoots are produced swelling of branch often precedes this Usually owers are produced 2 years after the first aerial shoots Dioecious plants insect pollination likely spiny clulnped pollen amp nectar but pollinator unknown ESPM134 Mistletoes 52009 Time required for fruit maturation varies with species 5 to 19 months Most are about 1 year Migration rates though stands estimated at 12 ft year via explosive fruit dispersal but estimates based on postglacial expansion are approximately 01 mile year Effects on host and community most remain localized and cause swelling and brooming a few cause little swelling but grow down stem eg A americmm on logdepole pine obtain carbohydrates and water from host reduced growth predisposition to other problems draught insects canker fungi rodent damage eg fir canker C ytospom abietis in red fir Abies magnified some biological control effects of cankers on mistletoe Wood with reduced strength many defects reduced growth Probable interaction between disturbance size and type eg fire logging defoliators Mistletoe spreads most effectively in dense monocultures As a result there is a very high frequency of A americana in lodgepole pine density of mistletoe inversely related to fire frequency In Ponderosa pine large brooms on lower parts of infected trees increase fire mortality Trees in understory most severely infected In our area Abies especially prone to it further north Hemlock shows same pattern disease rating system Hawksworth 06 02 little effect 34 growth reduction 56 serious stress quotpredispositionquot Control of dwarf mistletoe genetics chemical treatments herbicides hormones tried but only silvicultural practices are usually the only economically feasible approach Mistletoe may be the best argulnent for large clearcuts or large stand replacing fires True or quotleafyquot mistletoes Phomdendmn spp Infection cycle fruits bird dispersed require thinbarked young branches for infection position in tree Infection structures Cause atrophy of branch distal to infection sometjlnes galls or elliptical swellings ESPM134 Mistletoes 52009 true Mistletoes are photosynthetic and draw little from their hosts other that water and mineral nutrients they can damage wood if they get in the main bole Water stress on host can be significant Osmotic pressure of mistletoe higher than host parasite gets water first and continue to transpire even when host is moisture stressed One of the few diseases that kills Incense cedar Broad host range in hardwood infecting species narrow host range in conifer infecting species White fir incense cedar Species European mistletoe Viscum album introduced in California by Luther Burbank in Sebastopol CA Spread over 1 km range Phomdendmn 170 spp found only in Americas Some species monoecious but all species in the US are dioecious insect pollinated Species in East attack only hardwoods In the West both conifers and hardwoods are attacked P serotinum only important eastern species is most often sold as Christmas mistletoe 150 hosts in 50 genera P macrophyllum many hardwoods but not oak On Fremont cottonwood it causes galls on branches and large burls P villosum common on many hardwoods in California P caliform39cum nearly lea ess on leguminous trees and shrubs in dessert 5 species on conifers More host specific than hardwood species only two are very important in US P b0 lleunum ssp puuaflorum grows as dense balls in white fir from central Cal south in to Mexico Also on Cypress down on the coast the only true mistletoe that infects a member of the Pinaceae P juniperinum nearly lea ess two subssp juniperinum on junipers and subsplibocedri on incense cedar May get over grown and live as an endophyte in large branches Mistletoe in Africa Loranthus spp on Citrus and Guava Mistletoes in the Southern Hemisphere Tristerix aphyllaFa1nily Loranthaceae ESPM134 Mistletoes 52009 Nuytsia oribunda Family Loranthaceae ESPM134 Mistletoes S2009 References In your book see 333340 source of life cycle diagram also repeated in your book Hawksworth F G and Wiens D 1972 Biology and Classification of Dwarf Mistletoes Arceuthobium Agricultural Handbook No 401 USDA Forest Service and the newest version of this book in on line at http wwwrmsnauedu publications ah709 This is worth a look source of phylogenetic trees Nickrent D L K P Schuette and E M Starr 1994 A Molecular Phylogeny of Arceuthobium Viscaceae Based on Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences American Journal of Botany 8111491160 developing fruit seed dispersal and interception by h pine needles 3 megasporogenesis fertilization plants In 27 dioeciouy i W first shoots Figure 4 Generalized life cycle of a dwarf mistletoe as exempli ed by Arrmlf39 quot39 amer39 on 39 J pine ESPM 134 Bene cial microorganisms and 2009 canker fungi our first pathogenic group of fungi Control of other fungi invertebrates bacteria Nematode trapping bacteriophagy quoteating bacteriaquot sporophagy quoteating sporesquot relation to Nitrogen availability frequency Possible Bizarre interactions with plants Lupinus arboreus the moth Hepialus califomicus and an insectparasitic nematode Heterorhabditis sp Oecologia 10428592 Soil structure and nutrient availability Microaggregates pH Cation exchange capacity breakdown of organics and release of nutrients N fixation Prokaryotes only bacteria Actinomycetes cyanobacteria symbiotic interactions Legulnes eg lupines Rhizobium Bradyrhizobium Alders Ceanothus Ramnus quotactinorhizalquotankia cost 16 moles of ATP 2 moles of NH3 Carbon cyclin wood decay organisms involved mostly Basidiomycetes and some Ascomycetes without their presence we would acculnulate woody debris and tie up the mineral nutrients contained in it Mycorrhizae fungus root mutualism based on exchange of fixed carbon for nutrients PN and others A comparison of the two main types of mycorrhizae Arbuscular and Ectomycorrhizae VAM Endos Ectos Plant hosts Most vascular plants including Most temperate forest trees herbs shrubs trees some shrubs examples of tree you know exalnples you know Pines Maples Ash giant Sequoia Douglasfir true firs Oaks Sequoia Incense Cedar Manzanita Madrone association is not obligate in most association is obligate for the hosts hosts Fungi involved ca 150 known species ca 6000 known species Glomeromycota Basidiomycetes Ascomycetes all obligate associates little Zygomycetes quotapparentquot specificity most obligately associated some highly host specialized most not Cost to hosts moderate lt15 of C silnilar but perhaps higher 20 of Longevity of 23 weeks Several months maybe five individual years associations Primary nutrients P N trace elements N P trace elements water two gathered directions see Querejeta et a1 2003 ESPM 134 Bene cial microorganisms and 2009 canker fungi our first pathogenic group of fungi Environment Richer soils lacking large Poor soils with lar e accumulations of organic detritus accumulations of organic detritus Morphology no obvious external signs of roots are swollen often colonization cortex cell are penetrated and arbuscules highly branched haustoria and sometimes vesicles are formed branched covered by a quotmantelquot of hyphae intercellular hyphae hartig net but usually no penetration of cells roughly 85 of all vascular plants form mycorrhizae in nature quotMinorquot types Ericoid Vaccinum amp others and Orchidoid fungi involved H ymenoscyphus grime and Rhizoctonia spp use of detritus by Hymenoscyphus cheating by orchids Ecologically important aspects of mycorrhizae Seedling establishment crucial but inoculuin rarely limiting Types of inoculum living myceliuin spores amp sclerotia a few examples of limited ecto inoculuin exotic plantings Pines in southern hemisphere strip mines Long fallow disease a limitation of AM crop issue in Australia Symbiont sharing nutrient transfers between hosts and the parasitic edge extreme case Monotropoideae Pterospom Achlorophyllus orchids possible and scenarios Arctostaphylus amp Pseudotsuga Antagonistic interactions Truf es oaks and Brul formation AM meadows and nonAM weedy species Francis and Read Bacterial interactions helper bacteria assist or antagonize formation of Ectos Jean Garbaye many papers bacterial endocytobiosis AM Gigaspom amp Burkholderia Paula BonfanteFasolo recent Applied and Environmental microbiol Geosiphon pyriforme amp N ost0c Gehrig H et al mol Evol And now for some pathogens canker fungi What is a canker necrosis of stem tissue sometimes a visible canker is formed other times shoots are killed too quickly and the only symptom is branch quot aggingquot How is one formed death of cambium ESPM 134 Bene cial microorganisms and 2009 canker fungi our first pathogenic group of fungi via direct 39 39 quot of 39 39 by r quot g Ex mostly ascomycetes or imperfect stages many of which are weak or opportunistic pathogens colonization mostly via wounds perhaps endophytic colonization more rarely though leaves and into twigs Discula via colonization of cambium or sapwood following by secondary infections ex rusts followed by ascomycetes like Nectria via decay of sapwood resulting in death of adjacent cambium Ex canker rots some Phellinus Sp Fomitopsis cajanderi many others Importance of canker fungi very common on all types of trees but usually of little consequence Often become a problem as other stress factors activate them other pathogens insects damage and climatic stress especially correlated with the limits of host geographic range best example cypress canker Exceptions introduced canker fungi are some of most virulent patho ens Chestnut blight dogwood anthracnose pitch canker beach bark disease SOD General characteristics of canker causing fungi Usually causes by ascomycetes and mitotic spore states are often important cankers are especially common outside the range of a host they may interact with other quotpredisposingquot organisms that weaken the branch or tree often they show up first as agging branches which may or may not spread into main stem secondary decay fungi are often introduced causing defects and structural weakness at canker Atropellis canker Atropellis pinicolu very common cause of branch death agging on Sugar pine often mistaken for blister rust because of canopy agging Cypress canker Seiridium cardinule Host range Cupressus spp amp Sequoia seen almost exclusively in trees planted outside natural range and this range is very finely defined Signs and symptoms agging resinous quotdiffusequot cankers small black fruitbodies acervuli Distinctive conidia Disease is spread short distance by rain splashed conidia and long distance by windborne ascospores Transmission by the cypress moth may also occur Cytospom spp asexual states of Leucostoma and Valsa many spp involved both hardwood and conifers are hosts ESPM 134 Bene cial microorganisms and 2009 canker fungi our first pathogenic group of fungi usually associated with damaged or stress limbs or trunks e g frost damage mistletoe C abietis on red fir with mistletoe Best sign distinctive asexual spore stage yellow to orange tendrils of stick spores The sexual state clustered black perithecia is common on some hosts Hypoxylon mummutum Aspen canker causes a canker rot which can result in snapping of main stem cankers are often associated with branch stubs serious losses in Lake states References Your book has a very short section on mycorrhizae pp 266273 The classification they use in table 111 p 267 is dated by the use of the term quotendomycorrhizaequot and wrong by inclusion of Arbutoid mycorrhizae as an example of endo See canker diseases pp341347 in your text A good general reference about global pattern of mycorrhizae Read D I 1991 Mycorrhizas in ecosystems Experientia 47 376391 Other specific references Thorn R G and Barron G L 1984 Carnivorous Mushrooms Science 2247678 Barron G L 1988 Microcolonies of Bacteria as a nutrient source for lignicolous and other fungi Can Bot 6625032510 Bidartondo Mland Bruns TD 2002 Finelevel mycorrhizal specificity in the Monotropoideae Ericaceae specificity for fungal species groups Mol Ecol 11 557570 Bidartondo Mland Bruns TD 2001 Extreme specificity in epiparasitic Monotropoideae Ericaceae Widespread phylogenetic and geographic structure Mol Ecol 10 22852295 Deacon I W and Flemming L V 1992 Interactions of ectomycorrhizal fungi In Mycorrhizal functioning an integrative plantfungal process ed M E Allen 249 300 Chapman and Hall New York Francis R and Read D I 1995 Mutualism and antagonism in mycorrhizal symbiosis with special reference to impacts on plant community structure Can Bot 73suppl 5130151309 Plattner l and Hall I R 1995 Parasitism of nonhost plants by the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanospomm Mycological Research 99 13671370 Querejeta l EgertonWarburton L M and Allen M F 2003 Direct nocturnal water transfer from oaks to their mycorrhizal symbionts during severe soil drying Oecologia 134 5564 Shiinard S W Perry D A Jones M D Myrold D D Durall D M and Molina R Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhhizal tree species in the field Nature 388579 582 ESPM 134 Root Diseases 52009 Root Diseases Effects of root disease change in composition because of specificity succession primary hosts and seconday hosts predisposition especially to bark beetles Growth loss greatest height first Loss of acculnulated volume also premature death amp decay Delays in restocking decades in gaps hazards in populated areas General symptoms of root disease tree mortality spread out over many years and usually present in only some species in new centers young suppressed trees are often the first to lions tailing due to slow growth in contrast to needle loss caused by pollution reduced production of needles Chlorosis yellow needles premature pruning of lower branches Bark beetle attack esp Dendroctonus spp in pine and Dougfir Scolytus in fir Resinosus Pinus Picea Pseudotsuga Larix only discoloration in wood lesions on roots Heterobusidion Fames unnosum root rots of conifers point entry into stands spreads along roots to adjacent trees fruits deep in stumps California Species complex of 3 biological species conidia are produced but their role is unknown P type H unnosum sensu stricto Pine Juniper Incense Cedar and some hardwoods In pine enters through stu1nps not wounds kills cambiuln range NA 8 Eur Asia North American and European types are interfertile but are quite different in neutral markers S type now H purviporum Spruce Fir Hemlock Giant Sequoia Douglas fir39 can enter through wounds decays heart wood and inner sap wood butt rots and root decay range same minus eastern NA F type now H ubietinum Abies alba Northern and central Italy Mates with Stype of Finland but not in Alps example of ABC mating pattern sympatric intersterility allopatric compatibility pathology similar to Stype Signs and symptoms general symptoms of root disease Conks position varies with clilnate and button conks Oedocephalum anamorph distinctive rot pattern white stringy laIninated in fir species of trees that are killed Complex population structure of centers limits to size 200 m2 In Yosemite valley 158 centers have been identified there average rate of expansion is 67m yr if interested see Can For Res 25244252 ESPM 134 Root Diseases 52009 Effect of management practices stump treatments and relationship to species and size of stumps amp biological control Phlebiopsis gigantea Armilluriu Complex of quotbiological speciesquot mating Species Pathogenicity Virulence distr group NABS I A ostqyae major pathogen on conifers also NA Eur attacks hardwoods large clones NABS VI A meZZea major pathogen on hardwoods NA Eur particularly ornamentals also attacks coniFers NABS VIJA gallica weak pathogen but may act as a NA Eur bulbosa secondary invader oF stressed trees common in suppressed over mature hardwoods very large clones A borealis moderate pathogen common butt rot Eur oF coniFers in northern Europe A cepistipes similar to AgaZZica in morphology NA Eur and behavior associated with butt rot oF coniFers in Finland NABS II A gemina apparently weak pathogen NA NABS III A calvenscens Observed as a hardwood pathogen in NA the NE NABS V A sinapina Weak pathogen acts like AgaZZica NA haploids may be more virulent NABS IX A nabsnona Weak pathogen acts like AgaZZica NA haploids may be more virulent NABS X unnamed NA NABS XI unnamed NA bold species are known from California Symptoms amp sign many species of host effected both hardwoods and softwoods mushy or spongy white rot Mycelial fans under bark of dead trees Bioluminescent myceliu1n fox fire Black rhizomorphs honey mushrooms in the fall dry remnants in the spring Disease Saprobic cycles role of predisposition interactions with other root pathogens Armillaria oaks amp fir pines ESPM 134 Root Diseases S2009 Black Stain root diseaseLept0gmphium wageneri a vacular root disease Biology asexual state of ascomycete sexual state appears not to be ilnportant in nature effects on population genetics grows in tracheids of outer sapwood moves through bordered pit and induces tyloses not a rot temperature sensitive likes relatively cool settings 1521OC this lilnits the extent of bole colonization 2 m in pine as much a 10 in Doug Fir long distance dispersal vectored by root feeding bark beetles H ylastes macer H nigrim39s also root weevils Pissodesfaciatus and Steremm39us carinatus short range via root contact or near root contact mostly through small 2ndary rootlets can kill all ages of trees but usually less than 80100 year range often shows up in the 3550 year age class predisposition to beetles amp Armillaria does not persist in dead trees or soil very long most common in cool moist sites with deep soils other soil characteristics high moisture and organic content rate of growth correlated with moisture temp and soil organisms disturbance particularly disturbance that results in soil compaction is correlated to disease incidence Ridge tops in Oregon versus Valleys in California Precomlnercial thinning attracts beetles and weevils into stulnps Three Varieties with specific host ranges pseudo tsugue Dougfir smaller more frequent centers with more rapid beetle entry often several cm in sa w pondemsae P pine effrey Lodgepole larger centers usually in outer most sapwood in Sierras found at restricted elevational zone 1290m to 1775M wageneri pinyon pine large centers usually in outer most sapwood Signs amp Symptoms as in other root diseasesblack streaks or arcs in cross section in outer sapwood near base of tree Sapwood also resin soaked and often with a distinctive odor citrus like Digression to Blue Stains Black stains and wilts ecological association with bark beetles Genera involved Sexual stages Cemtocystis and Ophiostoma asexual stage Leptogmphium and others Part of wood colonized parenchyma esp rays no ability to digest cellulose enzymes available to breakdown resins Effect on tree occlusion of sapwood but generally not enough to directly kill tree ESPM 134 Root Diseases 52009 C emtocystis Ophiostoma Perithecia Black Black or white Anamorphs Chulum PhialographiumLeptogmphium asexual states Trichosporium 8 other nonphialidic anamorphs Cell Walls Cellulose Rhamnose Cellulose Rhamnose Sensitivity to yclo hexamide Beetle interactions all bluestains are vectored with beetles but the association is tight in that some fungi are vectored ahnost exclusively by certain beetles but loose in that the spores are carried superficially Examples of tight associations S col ytus ventralis amp Trichosporium symbioticum Dendroctonus ponderosae 8 Ophiostoma clavigemm ExaInples of antagonism Dendroctonusfrontalis amp Ophiostoma minus Some are beneficial to specific beetles and antagonich to others Most are pathogens to some degree but the degree varies and does not seem to correlate with beetle virulence Phellinus Poriu weirii laminated rot root The most serious root decay organism in Douglas fir Geographic range Pacific NW 8 Asia Two forms Douglas fir form primary hosts Douglasfir White fir Grand fir Hemlock annual basidiocarps mortality in most susceptible species butt rot in others eg Pine Red Cedar form primary host Western red Cedar perennial basidiocarps mostly causes butt rots Signs and Symptoms myceliuln with brown hairs Setae actually common to all Phellinus graybrown resupinate basidiocarp with white margin on windthrown root balls reddishbrown stain in stu1np prior to noticeable decay Laminate rot with pitting huge circular or semicircular centers Disease cycle long term survival in dead roots and stulnps gt 50 yrs contact of healthy roots with decay roots may be as small as 2 cm in diam ESPM 134 Root Diseases S2009 myceliu1n grows superficially along root and penetrates at several points in some trees the caInbiuIn is attacked and the tree is girdled and killed in most trees the root and butt root result in wind throw often snapping at butt centers spread at about 2ft yr often undergo succession changes Interaction with re cycle amp succession Work of Dickman 1992 Phueo lus schweinitzii velvettop or cow patty fungus brown cubical butt rot most serious butt rot of old growth Douglas fir also found in true fir and white pines most confers can occasionally be hosts Range North America and Eurasia Signs and Symptoms distinctive decay terpintine odor resinosus durable though annual fruitbodies at base of trees Disease cycle infection by spore on wounds possibly via soil Chlamydospores produced in culture but function in nature not known Large centers usually are not formed except in Montana Can colonize roots occupied by Armillaria Inono tus circinutus I tomentosus I triqueter false velvet top Hosts spruce and other conifers 2nd most common root and butt rot of fir and spruce in eastern Canada and the Lake States I circinatus also important in Florida I triqueter occurs on the coast of California eg Pt Reyes but is not recognized as a problem because it doesn39t affect commerical fores lnfects through wounds at butt or root collar feeding wounds of rot weevils H ylobius Sp can serve as infection courts Symptoms amp Sign causes resin soaked wood with reddish coloration ultimately a white pocket rot ugly brown basidiocarps on soil at base of tree Oomycete root diseases Phytophthom cinnamomi Biology three spores produced Zoospores Chlamydospores Oospore infection via zoospores at feeder roots colonization of cambiu1n follows rapid growth seedlings killed quickly larger plants decline thought to be an introduction from New Guinea or Southeast Asia mating types generally a problem only in warm soils that are at least seasonally wet does not persist in climates in which soils freeze Diseases nurseries and ornaInentals Little leaf disease Piedmont soils Short leaf and Loblolly pine interaction with agriculture soils species composition change management Symptoms as in other root diseases shortened needles distress crops of cones ESPM 134 Root Diseases S2009 Oak decline in Spain Eastern US Behavior in Australia arrah Forest in Western Australia Phytophthom lutemlis Phytophthora root rot of Port Orford cedar Host Port Orford Cedar Chnmnecypnris lowsoninnnXRhododendron in east introduced pathogen first noticed in nursery stocks 1923 spread throughout main range of host by human activities areas along road and waterways most susceptible infects via feeder roots leaves wounds colonized cambiuin and girdles tree seedlings are killed in a few weeks mature trees are killed in 24 years temperature optimum 15200 C infections and growth are primarily limited to spring and Fall goes dormant during the summer Oospores and Chlainydospores Sign 8 Symptoms selective killing of Port Orford cedar cinnamon brown color of inner bark near butt Management eliminate entry into stands plant other species where disease is known to be a problem Reading Root disease Chapter 12 in your book pp 275307 Readings for next week Slaughter and Rizzo 1999 Past forest management promoted root disease in Yosemite valley California Agriculture 533 17 24 Dickman A 1992 Plant Pathogens and LongTerm Ecosystem Changes in G C Carrol and D T Wicklow eds Thefungnl community its organization and role in the ecosytem pp 499520 New York Marcel Dekker Skip part about Armilluriu luteobulbulinu Scott Stephens ESPM Division of Ecosystem Science University of California Berkeley Berkeley CA USA scThe earth has been going through changes and climate over its history 39Is There are natural changes caused by the distance from the sun and other processes This will continue into the future ListJust one of the many interglaoial penods Began about 11000 Years ago L Warming from previous glacial period 900 AD1350 AD Medieval Warm Period about 15 C above current Little Ice Age 14001900 AD Temperatures about 15 C lower than present its Distinct Bioregion Fossil record suggest modern biota has been discretely Sierran for at least the last 26 million years Set of species currently in Sierra appear to have existed in the same perimeter for 26 million years fBut they have changed locations Giant sequoiamixed conifer forests appear to have moved downslope in the last glacial 26k 1 1 k years ago a Pinyon pine from the Sierra extended into what is now the Mojave Desert quot Pant species diversity changes little at the scale of the Sierra Only species gone is spruce Engelmann Let Some combinations of spp not found today est Maybe others that are not wind pollinated Function of 1 Ignitions 2 Fuels vegetation types 3 Moisture content 4 Weather 5 Topography Global climate change could alter 1 4 a r r m S m S e r quotH M m b b O r P I r aJIvanuI11 w p w 43L i 1 3J1 Yak 11quotItf 5 U 3 dint g J 1 L i L f I n V Iv ubiia ml 1711 l l3 H J hf gt x 1 a y II un r lu Avila uniLilli nrq3tll r ia Jf i JR I 4 e 12 w L1 i 5 A Mbh amp 4 aka L1hvl1 dm 36 wj39axw vj w v 1 NIaVEVQn A i n V nl brl L 4 51 J 11 um 1 3 Ci at k N L 10 1 m fxstxtf u a KLQLSN L if IM hllct n l39 r 1 41mI II Latlbfow mllui 1 W lqlj391 V1 p FAaqa u mnw N 3 T i L 2 3 7 24 v 7 2 1 qy1 brr O n al I i l41jalv A w J u 1 t 3 13 VBM LIhllkrl l 0k I lt v m1f l 63 n ahw3wuua nk94 55 390 4 ll Hiya15 r17 1l tquot D r 1 av 17303 l I y 3 A I I 4 4 p ALl 1 41L J 1 5090quot v ll 3 5 up tit In nity Illrl39z 5 i L 21 1 w ua r r IIII1TE lx till iwlnm iIWFFEl lr bx M Lt N 4 1 5 2 n 1 n iufh m H Ninllrin39vi f 391rquot gnmq 1 m VJHM 539 W quot quot 3 Eur H39 Hf E JH Wquot l H I L1 Cquot R l 1399quot ii M i i H W iquot Farquot if H i Lquot i g a 1 cmi ul39l MIMI gr LIF h39HCiTl m U Fm 1 N m EL N is 4 540 E 1 a Sierra forests cannot regenerate effectively after large high severity fires 39Is Artificial regeneration possible rsWatersheds critical 39T 39EMay be the resource that we manage for in the very near future Problems of funding ragFunds don t make it back to watersheds Giant sequoia fire history Swetnam 1993 Groves experienced fire every 23 years during warm period of 10001300 AD Compared to every 38 years between 500800 AD and 13001875 AD when climate was cooler no fires after 1875 grazing Expect fire regime changes with GCC we already have seen this in the paleo record Over next 100 years expected increase in summer temperatures of 46 G largest increases over land at high latitudes Currently burning 512 million hayr 125 30 million acresyr Boreal forests one of the largest carbon sinks in the world 35 of all fires are lightning caused But they currently burn 85 of the area because of sparse populations and limited access More fires in these areas with increased lightning Can this be stopped with suppression Ecological impacts Alaska in 2004 65 million acres burned Adaptive strategies Resistance options forestall impacts and protect highly valued resources Resilience options improve the capacity of ecosystems to return to desired conditions after disturbance Response options facilitate transition of ecosystems from current to new conditions Miler Stephenson Stephens 2007 Eco Apps Prehistoric conditions may not be the appropriate choice with GCC Managing in the face of uncertainly quot Our past experiences can assist us but we will have to get creative use the best science and learn by doing 39riefsManagers will not be able to predict precise outcomes in many cases wait we increase wildland fire use must be prepared for more variation is outcomes than last 30 years Carl Skinner USFS PSW Research Station Samantha Gill Cal Poly State University Ernesto Franco Centro de lnvestigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada CICESE BC Mexico
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