Fire, Insects, and Diseases in Forest Ecosystems
Fire, Insects, and Diseases in Forest Ecosystems ESPM 134
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Larry Bogisich on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESPM 134 at University of California - Berkeley taught by T. Bruns in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/226556/espm-134-university-of-california-berkeley in Environmental Science & Policy at University of California - Berkeley.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
ESPM 134 Mycorrhizal Community Structure 06 Diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities Some examples table 1 slightly dated 20 usually 25 35 in 01 ha plot Bruns 1995 1220 graphic What we know about the structure of these communities Horton and Bruns 2001 If multiple hosts exist most of the dominant fungi exhibit broad association pattern examples from PineDoug Fir Doug firArctostaphylos Doug firtan oak Usually dominated by members of the Russulaceae and by resupinate taxa in the Thelephoraceae Tomentella species or Atheliaceae Piloderma A disjunct exists between the species that are dominant on roots and that are dominant fruiters How is it partitioned Timedisturbance early stage late stage paradym Deacon and Fleming 1992 Interaction with plant succession Rhizopogon in western pine forests post fire dominate results from huge spore bank gt 1011hectare Seasonality not strongly seen at root tip level but more obvious in seasonality of fruiting and at extraradical mycelium Depth Dickie Xu et al 2002 Different Competitive strategies root manipulation vs root replacement van der Heijden and Kuyper 2003 different foraging stratagies Agerer 2001 Interaction with other soil organisms mycophagous invertebrates collembola feeding preferences Function Polyphyletic nature of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their evolutionary relationship to saprobic fungi means that some groups of EM fungi have different enzymatic capabilities does this translate into differential access to various soil nutrient pools Nitrogen protein vs non protein Ammonia fungi Effects of N deposition are dramatic immediate reduction in fruiting followed by below ground changes in community composition ESPM 134 Mycorrhizal Community Structure S06 litter quality quantitity tannins J onsson Dighton et al 2006 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal community structure Bever James Schultz Peggy et al 2001 Read this one Many reports make AM fungi look less diverse than EM but this may be a function of resolution of species methods used to enumerate them and a bias toward agricultural systems Bever found 37 spp in a lha old field site using trap cultures this is similar to ectodiversity Evidence for nutrient partitioning exploration types Acaulospora colossica negatively associated with soil P while Gigaspora gigantea from the same site is possitively associated with soil P fungivore preference especially nematodes Strong evidence of seasonality both by spore and by colonization pattern in roots Strong evidence of host effects Evidence that diversity richness of AM fungi interacts directly with diversity of plant communities and with efficiency of P extraction from soil Van der Heijden Klironomos et al 1998 Sampling artifact due to chance of including best species Partitioning of space by distance that hyphae move from root Negative feed back model of Beever Recent data from Klironomos Klironomos 2003 Model for positive and negative feedback in succession Reynolds Examples of less than mutualistic behavior Mycoheterotrophs Always associated with high levels of plant specificity for fungi Differential benefits seen in AM fungi Klironomos Tobacco stunt caused by Glomus macrocarpa Adverse effects of mycorrhizal fungi on nonmycorrhizal plants Francis and Read example ESPM 134 Mycorrhizal Community Structure 06 Tuber Truffle example mutualistic on one host and parasitic on its competitors References Agerer R 2001 quotExploration types of ectomycorrhizae A proposal to classify ectomycorrhizal mycelial systems according to their patterns of differentiation and putative ecological importance Reviewquot Mycorrhiza 112 107 114 Bever James D A Schultz Peggy et al 2001 quotArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi More diverse than meets the eye and the ecological tale of why quot Bioscience print 5111 923 931 Bruns T D 1995 quotThoughts on the processes that maintain local species diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungiquot Pl Soil 170 63 73 Deacon J W and L V Fleming 1992 Interactions of ectomycorrhizal fungi Mycorrhizal functioning an integrative plant fungal process M F Allen New York Chapman and Hall 249 300 Dickie I A B Xu et al 2002 quotVertical niche differentiation of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil as shown by T RFLP analysis quot New Phytologist 1563 527 535 Horton T R and T D Bruns 2001 quotThe molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology peeking into the black boxquot Molecular Ecology 108 1855 1871 Jonsson L M J Dighton et al 2006 quotThe effect of mixing ground leaf litters to soil on the development of pitch pine ectomycorrhizal and soil arthropod communities in natural soil microcosm systemsquot Soil Biology amp Biochemistry 381 134 144 Klironomos J N 2003 quotVariation in plant response to native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungiquot Ecology Washington D C 849 2292 2301 van der Heijden E W and T W Kuyper 2003 quotEcological strategies of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Salix repens root manipulation versus root replacement quot Oikos 1033 668 680 Van der Heijden M G A J N Klironomos et al 1998 quotMycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity ecosystem variability and productivityquot Nature 3966706 69 72 Read this one I will put it on our class website ESPM 134 Mycorrhizal Community Structure 06 Attributes of Early versus Latestage Ectomycorrhiml Fungi as de ned by Deacon and Fleming 1992 Early stage ruderal Late stage Kselected fruit bodies develop in early years beneath young trees fruit bodies develop in later years as trees mature fruit bodies and mycorrhizas seen near periphery of expanding root system fruit bodies and mycorrhizas seen mainly in older root zones infect readily from spores or mycelial inocula added to unsterile soil do not infect from spores or mycelia added to unsterile soil persist when aseptically inoculated seedlings are transplanted to soil persist poorly after transplanting have low sugar demand for extension growth and infection in culture have high sugar demand for extension growth and infection in culture spores germinable in culture or in presence of plant roots spores not readily germinable in culture some are known to infect as monokaryons have not been shown to infect as monokaryons Example genera Lacarria Hebeloma Inocybe Russula Amanita Boletus
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