Fire, Insects, and Diseases in Forest Ecosystems
Fire, Insects, and Diseases in Forest Ecosystems ESPM 134
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Date Created: 10/22/15
ESPM 134 Root Diseases 52009 Root Diseases Effects of root disease change in composition because of specificity succession primary hosts and seconday hosts predisposition especially to bark beetles Growth loss greatest height first Loss of acculnulated volume also premature death amp decay Delays in restocking decades in gaps hazards in populated areas General symptoms of root disease tree mortality spread out over many years and usually present in only some species in new centers young suppressed trees are often the first to lions tailing due to slow growth in contrast to needle loss caused by pollution reduced production of needles Chlorosis yellow needles premature pruning of lower branches Bark beetle attack esp Dendroctonus spp in pine and Dougfir Scolytus in fir Resinosus Pinus Picea Pseudotsuga Larix only discoloration in wood lesions on roots Heterobusidion Fames unnosum root rots of conifers point entry into stands spreads along roots to adjacent trees fruits deep in stumps California Species complex of 3 biological species conidia are produced but their role is unknown P type H unnosum sensu stricto Pine Juniper Incense Cedar and some hardwoods In pine enters through stu1nps not wounds kills cambiuln range NA 8 Eur Asia North American and European types are interfertile but are quite different in neutral markers S type now H purviporum Spruce Fir Hemlock Giant Sequoia Douglas fir39 can enter through wounds decays heart wood and inner sap wood butt rots and root decay range same minus eastern NA F type now H ubietinum Abies alba Northern and central Italy Mates with Stype of Finland but not in Alps example of ABC mating pattern sympatric intersterility allopatric compatibility pathology similar to Stype Signs and symptoms general symptoms of root disease Conks position varies with clilnate and button conks Oedocephalum anamorph distinctive rot pattern white stringy laIninated in fir species of trees that are killed Complex population structure of centers limits to size 200 m2 In Yosemite valley 158 centers have been identified there average rate of expansion is 67m yr if interested see Can For Res 25244252 ESPM 134 Root Diseases 52009 Effect of management practices stump treatments and relationship to species and size of stumps amp biological control Phlebiopsis gigantea Armilluriu Complex of quotbiological speciesquot mating Species Pathogenicity Virulence distr group NABS I A ostqyae major pathogen on conifers also NA Eur attacks hardwoods large clones NABS VI A meZZea major pathogen on hardwoods NA Eur particularly ornamentals also attacks coniFers NABS VIJA gallica weak pathogen but may act as a NA Eur bulbosa secondary invader oF stressed trees common in suppressed over mature hardwoods very large clones A borealis moderate pathogen common butt rot Eur oF coniFers in northern Europe A cepistipes similar to AgaZZica in morphology NA Eur and behavior associated with butt rot oF coniFers in Finland NABS II A gemina apparently weak pathogen NA NABS III A calvenscens Observed as a hardwood pathogen in NA the NE NABS V A sinapina Weak pathogen acts like AgaZZica NA haploids may be more virulent NABS IX A nabsnona Weak pathogen acts like AgaZZica NA haploids may be more virulent NABS X unnamed NA NABS XI unnamed NA bold species are known from California Symptoms amp sign many species of host effected both hardwoods and softwoods mushy or spongy white rot Mycelial fans under bark of dead trees Bioluminescent myceliu1n fox fire Black rhizomorphs honey mushrooms in the fall dry remnants in the spring Disease Saprobic cycles role of predisposition interactions with other root pathogens Armillaria oaks amp fir pines ESPM 134 Root Diseases S2009 Black Stain root diseaseLept0gmphium wageneri a vacular root disease Biology asexual state of ascomycete sexual state appears not to be ilnportant in nature effects on population genetics grows in tracheids of outer sapwood moves through bordered pit and induces tyloses not a rot temperature sensitive likes relatively cool settings 1521OC this lilnits the extent of bole colonization 2 m in pine as much a 10 in Doug Fir long distance dispersal vectored by root feeding bark beetles H ylastes macer H nigrim39s also root weevils Pissodesfaciatus and Steremm39us carinatus short range via root contact or near root contact mostly through small 2ndary rootlets can kill all ages of trees but usually less than 80100 year range often shows up in the 3550 year age class predisposition to beetles amp Armillaria does not persist in dead trees or soil very long most common in cool moist sites with deep soils other soil characteristics high moisture and organic content rate of growth correlated with moisture temp and soil organisms disturbance particularly disturbance that results in soil compaction is correlated to disease incidence Ridge tops in Oregon versus Valleys in California Precomlnercial thinning attracts beetles and weevils into stulnps Three Varieties with specific host ranges pseudo tsugue Dougfir smaller more frequent centers with more rapid beetle entry often several cm in sa w pondemsae P pine effrey Lodgepole larger centers usually in outer most sapwood in Sierras found at restricted elevational zone 1290m to 1775M wageneri pinyon pine large centers usually in outer most sapwood Signs amp Symptoms as in other root diseasesblack streaks or arcs in cross section in outer sapwood near base of tree Sapwood also resin soaked and often with a distinctive odor citrus like Digression to Blue Stains Black stains and wilts ecological association with bark beetles Genera involved Sexual stages Cemtocystis and Ophiostoma asexual stage Leptogmphium and others Part of wood colonized parenchyma esp rays no ability to digest cellulose enzymes available to breakdown resins Effect on tree occlusion of sapwood but generally not enough to directly kill tree ESPM 134 Root Diseases 52009 C emtocystis Ophiostoma Perithecia Black Black or white Anamorphs Chulum PhialographiumLeptogmphium asexual states Trichosporium 8 other nonphialidic anamorphs Cell Walls Cellulose Rhamnose Cellulose Rhamnose Sensitivity to yclo hexamide Beetle interactions all bluestains are vectored with beetles but the association is tight in that some fungi are vectored ahnost exclusively by certain beetles but loose in that the spores are carried superficially Examples of tight associations S col ytus ventralis amp Trichosporium symbioticum Dendroctonus ponderosae 8 Ophiostoma clavigemm ExaInples of antagonism Dendroctonusfrontalis amp Ophiostoma minus Some are beneficial to specific beetles and antagonich to others Most are pathogens to some degree but the degree varies and does not seem to correlate with beetle virulence Phellinus Poriu weirii laminated rot root The most serious root decay organism in Douglas fir Geographic range Pacific NW 8 Asia Two forms Douglas fir form primary hosts Douglasfir White fir Grand fir Hemlock annual basidiocarps mortality in most susceptible species butt rot in others eg Pine Red Cedar form primary host Western red Cedar perennial basidiocarps mostly causes butt rots Signs and Symptoms myceliuln with brown hairs Setae actually common to all Phellinus graybrown resupinate basidiocarp with white margin on windthrown root balls reddishbrown stain in stu1np prior to noticeable decay Laminate rot with pitting huge circular or semicircular centers Disease cycle long term survival in dead roots and stulnps gt 50 yrs contact of healthy roots with decay roots may be as small as 2 cm in diam ESPM 134 Root Diseases S2009 myceliu1n grows superficially along root and penetrates at several points in some trees the caInbiuIn is attacked and the tree is girdled and killed in most trees the root and butt root result in wind throw often snapping at butt centers spread at about 2ft yr often undergo succession changes Interaction with re cycle amp succession Work of Dickman 1992 Phueo lus schweinitzii velvettop or cow patty fungus brown cubical butt rot most serious butt rot of old growth Douglas fir also found in true fir and white pines most confers can occasionally be hosts Range North America and Eurasia Signs and Symptoms distinctive decay terpintine odor resinosus durable though annual fruitbodies at base of trees Disease cycle infection by spore on wounds possibly via soil Chlamydospores produced in culture but function in nature not known Large centers usually are not formed except in Montana Can colonize roots occupied by Armillaria Inono tus circinutus I tomentosus I triqueter false velvet top Hosts spruce and other conifers 2nd most common root and butt rot of fir and spruce in eastern Canada and the Lake States I circinatus also important in Florida I triqueter occurs on the coast of California eg Pt Reyes but is not recognized as a problem because it doesn39t affect commerical fores lnfects through wounds at butt or root collar feeding wounds of rot weevils H ylobius Sp can serve as infection courts Symptoms amp Sign causes resin soaked wood with reddish coloration ultimately a white pocket rot ugly brown basidiocarps on soil at base of tree Oomycete root diseases Phytophthom cinnamomi Biology three spores produced Zoospores Chlamydospores Oospore infection via zoospores at feeder roots colonization of cambiu1n follows rapid growth seedlings killed quickly larger plants decline thought to be an introduction from New Guinea or Southeast Asia mating types generally a problem only in warm soils that are at least seasonally wet does not persist in climates in which soils freeze Diseases nurseries and ornaInentals Little leaf disease Piedmont soils Short leaf and Loblolly pine interaction with agriculture soils species composition change management Symptoms as in other root diseases shortened needles distress crops of cones ESPM 134 Root Diseases S2009 Oak decline in Spain Eastern US Behavior in Australia arrah Forest in Western Australia Phytophthom lutemlis Phytophthora root rot of Port Orford cedar Host Port Orford Cedar Chnmnecypnris lowsoninnnXRhododendron in east introduced pathogen first noticed in nursery stocks 1923 spread throughout main range of host by human activities areas along road and waterways most susceptible infects via feeder roots leaves wounds colonized cambiuin and girdles tree seedlings are killed in a few weeks mature trees are killed in 24 years temperature optimum 15200 C infections and growth are primarily limited to spring and Fall goes dormant during the summer Oospores and Chlainydospores Sign 8 Symptoms selective killing of Port Orford cedar cinnamon brown color of inner bark near butt Management eliminate entry into stands plant other species where disease is known to be a problem Reading Root disease Chapter 12 in your book pp 275307 Readings for next week Slaughter and Rizzo 1999 Past forest management promoted root disease in Yosemite valley California Agriculture 533 17 24 Dickman A 1992 Plant Pathogens and LongTerm Ecosystem Changes in G C Carrol and D T Wicklow eds Thefungnl community its organization and role in the ecosytem pp 499520 New York Marcel Dekker Skip part about Armilluriu luteobulbulinu