Ecosystem Ecology ESPM 111
Popular in Course
Popular in Environmental Science & Policy
verified elite notetaker
This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Larry Bogisich on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESPM 111 at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see /class/226559/espm-111-university-of-california-berkeley in Environmental Science & Policy at University of California - Berkeley.
Reviews for Ecosystem Ecology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/22/15
Ecosystem Dynamics How Populations uommunltles ano Icosy5tem Processes Respond to Forcings in Time and Space Dennis Baldocchi ESPM University of California Berkeley ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Outline ConceptsTerminology Population amp Pool Dynamics dNdt Concepts changes in populations and pools Ecosystem Dynamics Time Dynamic Sequence of Vegetation Carbon Cycle following Disturbance SpaceTime Ecosystem Movement and Migration Trophic Dynamics ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Ecology Roadmap and Feedbacks Weather Light Energy Temperature Rainfall Humidity Wind Velocity C02 soil moisture 5 Leaf area index plant functional type photosynthetic capacity hours canopy height albedo Physiology Photosynthesis Respiration Transpiration hoursdays V Growth an Allocation Leaves Stems Roots Light Interception Water and Nutrient Uptake Soil Texture DEM C I 39 d Nbulk density ays seasons Hydraulic Properties V Biogeoc 1emistry Decomposition Mineralization Nitrification Dehitrification Ecosystem Dynamics Reproduction Disperal Recruitment Competition Facilitation Mortality Disturbance Sucession ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Attributes of Complex Systems NonLinear Processes y abxcx2 Multiplescales y 2 a xn Power Law Behavior DeterministicPredictable kc t Sensitive to Initial Conditions Path dependency SelfOrganization ScaleEmergent Pro ertIes Sum Ofparts does Resmency and Robustness notwhole ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Complex Dynamic Attributes of an Ecosystem Pulses swntcnes Lags Pubes Respiration following Rain Swnches Phenology Leafout Leaf Senescence FrostFreeze Insect or Pathogen Infestation Thresholds rainfall Disturbance Fire hurricane E 45 11H Ecosystem slate index a HIH 1955 19m 1975 1950 1955 1990 Grazing Lags Interann covewto Stress Drought Heat Spell Differential Pools and Turnover Times Photosynthesis and Soil Respiration Transpiration and Evaporation ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology uomplex Dynamical Responses Ecasysferh stats E ymsm was ELrV vyHbrl39 km 3 Cmd n cns Ccud nns Commons TRE N EWKBMm Sche er and Carpenter 2003 TREE ESPM W Ecosystem Eco ogy Alternative Stable States BE Beisnel em Ca u ses Perturbation in State variables Shiftin Shi in I Parameiers Shifts in Parameters Variables r Attributes V Hysteresis Beissner et al 2003 Frontier Ecol Resilience Examples in Semi39Arid SyStemS Vulnerability to Catastrophe Grass vs Shrubs w Grazing Vegetation vs Bare Soil w Climate Fluctuations ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Alternative Stable States a Second View Hysteresis in Ecosystem Recovery or Collapse l l ill 91 L517 5 395 2 E E E 2 P1 IN Equot W a m 5 m E1 E Enwironrrantal condition En39imnrnental condition TRENDS in Ecology 5 Evolution Lesson for Ecosystem Restoration Suding et al 2004 TREE ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Many Ecosystem Responses are Conditional Like PrecipitationVegetation Feedbacks S Grassland Savanna Forest lt gt o I Max 2 1 l a 0 E a 139 l E 5 Tree covsr m miseries 4 o 0 am quotw Factors suppressing 3 use cavev e 9 Viral F browsing x quot 4 Factors enhancing nee cover a rainfall vanamllty spahal heterogeneity Global climatic parameter TRENDS in Ecology J Evolution Hawaii gt Vegetation has a positive effect on convective rainfall Vegetation is reduced as rainfall drops below a threshold Sankaran et al 2004 Ecol Letters Schef39fer and Carpenter 2003 TREE ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Dynamics of a Coupled 3Pool Model with different Turnover Times dCairdt PCair RecoCecol pbl delantdt PCair RautoCpantht VM CW 127 KmCm Csoilldt deantldt RheteroCsoizsoi R heteor T auto 50 zIplant R ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology C Dynamics of Coupled Air Plant and Soil Pools 1 500 days 1000 2 C soll Cplant 1oo Cw39r 10 1 39 01 10 100 1000 10000 Day ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology PopulationGrowth Dynamics Exponential Growth 01M 0 r rate of growth is constant 7 WNW Logistic SShaped NO 2 N0 exprt UrOWth uurve K Carrying Capacity Population growth is Density dependent dN N rfN N 1 ranges from r to O in a dt K linear fashion NOK N0 2 N0 K N0 eXp rt ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology N population Exponential Growth I gluvvul 1000 O 1 growth 0 5 growth 100 V 10 growth 10 Doubling I I 39I 10 100 Time ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology 1000 Logistic or Saturating Growth Rates K growth 20 1398 39 o 1 growth 39 O 5 growth V 10 growth V c y 2 16 V g v a v 8 V V 239 14 v V V v 12 I 039 10 10 100 1000 Time ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Predicting Doubling Time solve fort Nt NO eXpkt NU N0 k01 10 growth t69 years ln ln2 069 kt k 005 5 growth t138 years k 002 2 growth t345 years k001 1 growth V years ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Rule of 69 R growth Doubling Time is 69growth rate 1 growth 69 year doubling time 3 10 growth 69 year doubling time 1 000 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Attributes of rSelection re roduce earl because unpredictable disturbances cause high mortality individuals who do not reproduce early are likely to die before reproduction produce many offspring at a time mortality is high so individuals who save energy to reproduce more later ma die before re roducin produce small offspring producing large offspring would reduce the number of offspring that can be produced produce small adults they reproduce as early as possible before attaining a large size ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Attributes of Kselection reproduce later in life early reproduction before large adult size is attained will result in production of small offspring that are not competitive roduce few offs rinv at a time producing many offspring would require producing small offspring who would not be competitive produce large offspring small offspring would not survive well would not be competitive Have many reproductive bouts during the life notjust one have large adults they can produce large competitive offspring ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Dynamics in Space and Time Last Glacial Maximum 20000 1B000 YBP 7 Present Hargrove and Hoffman 2005 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Dynamics Following Retreat of Glaciers oaks W x a n 39 3929 02mm I TREES I name yrBP Ouercus quot TREES 500 yr B P Delcourl and Delcourt Quart SclRev1987 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Distribution 16000 BP minimum mm a mp9u mm 135 a m ssmzis 16000 map I n a 39 mbcbwnnnd y p Delcou and Delcou Quart Sci Rev 1987 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Distribution 500 BP momma mum n Tempcm haqu 131 J i 3 39 A II All i 1 iquotquot r 4 2 algal liii x a l I W swig Delcou and Delcou Quad Sci Rev 1987 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystem Dynamics Following Retreat of Glaciers I983 DAvls QUATERNARY HISTORY 555 FIGURE 3 39 39 39 39 arrival times in thousands of years before present an individual siles as indicaled by fossil pollen 5 ext 39 39 39 39 39 39 m p 1 dl 1000 mm I 39 J 5 thegenusor 39 D3 1933 Davis 1983 Annals Mo Bot Garden ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Modern Stories Red IVIapIe Advance White UaK Reduction White Oak Oak dominant genus in East prior to Settlement 20 to 40 of forests in mid Atlantic states Recruitment is limited in all but most xeric site Red Maple Wide expansion of range in East Has modest ecophysrologlcal attributes Is a generalist and does many things well Requires less light nutrients and water for survival than other Eastern species Implications Change in VOC emissions and ozone production Abrams 1998 2003 Bioscience ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Trophic Dynamics Energy Flow Through Ecosystem Primary Producers autotrophs Consumers Heterotrophs Plantbased consumers Herbivores Detritusbased Secondary Producers Carnivores Microbivores ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Trophic efficiency is net effect of component efficiencies Consumption ef ciency Econsump pro nrl An Assimilation ef ciency Eassim I n Prodquot Production ef ciency Eprod T Prodquot TrOPhIC emCISHCY Etroph Econsu mp X Eassim X Eprod p 1 n ProdM lt gt Respiration In 1 Production 2 Produ ction Very little NPP becomes animal biomass From Chapin et al iropnic FrOClUCIlVIIy Function of Productivity of Lower Trophic Level P a Pr 0d ophic r0 n l Prod n l Efficiency ofthe current Trophic Pr 0d Pr 0d 5 Level n quot 1 W Trophic Efficiency is a function of the product of consumption assimilation and production efficiencies Consumption eff Fraction of vegetation consumed Assimilation eff portion of ingested energy that is digested and assmiliated Production eff fraction of assimilated energy that produces biomass atrophic gconsumption gassimilan39on gproduction ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Inefficiencies of food chains result in energy pyramids Terresliral etosyslem Blomass 2quot Carnivore 1n Carnivore Herbivores Aqualit etosyslem 1quot Producers Terresliral emsystem Energy ow Aq uati emsystem ZDCamivores 1DCarnivores Herbivores 1quot Produters From Chapin et al mn uu 391 log scale 3 E Consum ion by herbivores kJ m39 yr T mu Dun mum manna Foliage production kJ m392 yr391 log scale Frum Chapm 213 Production efficiency depends mainly on the energy expenditure of the animal 11 fassimil a m z a a a z a z g NPP constrains the energy flow through plantbas d ebs mu In Less biomass is consumed in 1 forests than you would expect r s Most biomass is consumed in m T 56 aquatic ecosystems 7 m D E 5 GO 6 Es m I D50 6 S Elgassmnd 39 um 3 55 FForest DD RUDD in mm i EIEID Aboveground N PP H m 2 yr391 log scale From Chapin et al ESPM I I I Ecosystem Ecology More Livestock is produced per NPP on AgLand than natural ecosystems Harbtvore biomass log N m E J 23 23 3 7 52 33735 33 7 t1 42 44 AMP log Ikd mquot yrquot 1 Osterheld et al 1992 Nature ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Terminologr Ecosystem Dynamics Reproduction Growth Flowering Competition for Pollination Resources K and r selection FaCi39itation Dispersal Succession Recruitment Primary Predation Secondary Competition Mortality Facilitation Disturbance Mortality ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology