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Ecosystem Ecology

by: Larry Bogisich

Ecosystem Ecology ESPM 111

Larry Bogisich

GPA 3.74


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This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Larry Bogisich on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESPM 111 at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/226559/espm-111-university-of-california-berkeley in Environmental Science & Policy at University of California - Berkeley.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Part 1 Dennis Baldocchi Ecosystem Science DivisionESPM University of California Berkeley ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Outline Background Big Questions Concepts Carbon Stores and Fluxes Stores Vegetation and Soil C fxyz Soil Surveys Biomass Inventories Fluxes NEP fxyt Global Fluxes Methods ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology co2 pp Temperahlre Va39ialion PaleoCarbon Cycle Eamol at l Vostok lee core Years Helo re rresem ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology 1n 1 2 an Years before Presenl 2 2 s Vostok lee core rem u l 1999 Nature 12 1 2 an 002 in the past 4U 9102 30 nco2 N G U E 20 6quot g 10 0 i i i i 600 5IZIU 4IZID BDEI 2CIU 100 0 TI me Mm Figure 5 Plots of RISE2 lithe ratio of the mass of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in the past to that for the Dreind ustn39al present and 1603 during the Phaneruzoic eon Values If H gfmm the GED CARE III model values of 02erm ref 11 using the C data ofrefs12 and 13 E311 mated errors are 50f0r H602 and 7 for I112 Berner Nature 2003 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Current State of the Terrestrial C Cycle C Carbon 3 e e 3 ESPM m Ecosystem Ecology Contem orar CO2 Record Mauna Loa Keeling data 380 370 360 350 340 coz ppm 330 320 310 300 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 year ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology How much is C in the Air Mass of Atmosphere FPressure x Areag x Mass P 472R2 Surface Area of the Globe 47 R2 Matmos Vlatmos 101325 Pa 475 6378 103 m298 m2 8391 g 5310219 air Compute C in Atmosphere 380 ppm M0 Mam 8331015gC P ma mCOZ MC 219 Pgppm ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Perspective How big is 1015 or 1 GtC 15gC1001012m3921Og m39210 cm3 rn392 Equivalent to a 10 micron layer of water over a metersquared surface 1g 1 cm3 3 1km31Gt ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology 13C Isotope record Evidence of Fossil Fuel Combustion Antarctic Ice Core Hanceyetal1999 60 62 64 66 5 3c 68 R RS ample standard 1000 70 513C standard 13 C 72 R 12 C 74 76 I 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 Year Pant based Carbon has a 13C signature 25 per mil Combustion of Fossil Fuels Dilutes the Atmospheric Background ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Net Global Carbon Fluxes 1015gC y391 19701999 19901999 20002006 Fossil Fuel 56 65 76 Emission Cement Land use 15 16 15 Change Atmospheric 31 32 41 Uptake Ocean uptake 20 22 22 Land Uptake 20 27 28 Canadell et al 2007 PNAS ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Role of Global Metabolism on the Atmospheric CO2 Burden Change in CO2 Gt 1015g per year 0 Rate of Change in Atmospheric C Mauna Loa data of Keeling v Fossil Fuel Emissions data of Marland et al 8 Indonesia Fires 7 average A 308 Gt C yr391 6 std dev 121 Gt c yr391 v v v 5 39wv39vw39 v v 4 V A v s v u v 1 v v vvw 2 39 XX 1 Mt Pinatubo Eruption 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology 2010 Carbon 6 5 aquot Frac nn or amnspnenc some 521111122 ZEIEIE 7 mm mar mm mm 1rva m atmvsvhere 1 9411an211 Ammr vtabat c w Ecosystem Service Only 45 of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere remains there 1950 1970 1951 Vesv 1990 Brugeusmences ESFM 111 Ecusystem Eculugy The amount of fuel we burn in 1 year took 175000 Hamv on ears to se uester 01 Gun Cum mm mum emuan Jurassm s Tnassm wy nmw Syumnu A35 Grumman Cnmmmn my mum 1 am mu quotm rm msVv Patzek and Pimental 2005 Crit Rev Plant Sci ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology 51 man W 150 002 in 50100 years Business as sual Current Anthropogec C Emissions 7 GtCyr 1 GtC 1015 g1Pg 45 retention in Atmosphere Net Atmospheric Efflux over 50 years 7 50 045 157 GtC Atmospheric Burden over 50 years 833 380 ppm 157 990 GtC Conversion back to mixing ratio 451 ppm 219 Pgppm or 16 x preindustrial level of 280 ppm To keep atmospheric C02 below 450 ppm the world must add less than157 GtC into the atmosphere over the next 100 to 200 years ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Terms Gross Primary Productivity GPP Net Primary Productivity NPP Autotrophic Respiration Ra Heterotrophic Respiration Rh Net Biome Productivity NBP ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Concepts GPP z LAIVCC gm 05 V0C T NPP GPP Ram mass growth T NEP GPP R auto Rheter0T9 6 Z lNBP NEP FC re herbivory disturbance ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Net Biome Productivity Net Ecosystem Procitrrzrtiirityr Net Primary Prod ucijwity l co Gross Primary Productivity 30 C0 302 C02 CO 302 quot PS roducis 39 ar1 Rn 15 Rh I TI Heterotrophic R piration Soil Organic MatEq39 J 3 rpmquot mm liter 3quot E ln 39 J l passive 1 Fire 39 Blackc Schulze 2006 Biogeosciences ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology NBP NEP GPP NPP oRh oRa Global Carbon Cycle Gross Fluxes and Pools Atmosphere 13 lGlobal Grass Primary Fossil lFual Proclamation and Combustion and Resolution lndush ia 53 39 Prams Ocean 35000 Gillian Flux In l l d by Mums mural Flu An nmpngmln Fm auntunlab Source Intergovernmental 3anel on Climata Change Climate Strange 2001 The Scientti Basis NJquot 2001 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Gross Carbon Fluxes Gross Terrestrial Photosynthesis 1201015 gCy Net Terrestrial Photosynthesis 601015gCy Autotrophic Respiration 601015gCy Heterotrophic Respiration 601015gCy Oceanic Photosynthesis 901015gCy Oceanic Respiration 901015gCy Ocean Net Primary Production 481015gCy ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology What is the Upper Bound of GPP EOttorn Up39 TopDown ountmg E Transfer Productivity on r1 rgy 39eaVeS Plant by Plant species by species ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology UpperBound on Global Gross Primary Productivity Global GPP is 120 1015 gC y391 Solar Constant 8 1366 W m392 Ave across disk of Earth S4 Transmission of sunlight through the atmosphere 1017083 Conversion of shortwave to visible sunlight 05 Conversion of visible light from energy to photon flux density in moles of quanta 46106 Mean photosynthetic photon flux density Qp Fraction of absorbed Qp 10109 Photosynthetic efficiency a 002 Arable Land area 110 1012 m2 Length of daylight 12 hours 60 minutes 60 seconds 43200 sday Length of growing season 180 days Gram of carbon per mole 12 GPP 1366083O546O9002 1243200180124 106120 1O15 gC y391 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology GlobalScale Carbon Pools Schimel Stich Falkowski et 1995 et al al 2003 2000 Pool 1059 10159 10159 Vegetation 610 923 6001000 Soilslitter 2190 1841 1200 Atmosphere 750 761 720 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Concepts Fluxes Pools and Time Constants dC F F 239 dt m out Csoil CV8 NEP GPP g 239 239 veg soil ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Turnover Time MassFlux Atmosphere MNBP 750 Pg3 Pgy 250 yr Vegetation MNPP 600 Pg6O Pgy 10 yr Soil MRh 2000 Pg6O Pgy 33 yr ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Carbon Content and Turnover Time are fT ELI I ma 5393 CLUE WE 1 an E E L of 39 005 n o D an 39 9 39 9 r m E 004 3 V D m 3 quotC quotI 902 hquot m U CLIJU 271 am 22y 235 22m 2 36 MAT K3 Sanderman et al 2003 Glob Biogeochem Cycles ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Estimate of Global Soil C Pool An example of current equilibrium Adapted from Sanderman et al 2003 Tmean15 C 60 C 12 kg m392 50 r2041 Terrestrial Land area120M km2 A 4 39 Cpool144OGtC g 30 Literature 20 ool 15oo GtC C aich Schlesinger Terrestrial and Ocean NPP 90 m2 y391 Field et al 1998 Science ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Vegetation and Soil C by Biome Biome Area 106 Soil C Plant C NPP Pg y391 kmz P9 P9 Tropical Forest 175 692 340 219 Temperate forest 104 262 139 o I Boreal forest 137 150 57 26 Arctic Tundra 56 144 2 5 Mediterranean 28 124 17 14 Shrubland Crops 135 248 4 Tropical Savanna 276 345 79 149 and Grassland Temperature 15 172 6 56 Grassland Desert 277 208 10 35 Total 1493 2344 652 626 Frozen soil 400 Pg Wetland 450 Pg Saugier et alSabine et al ESPM 1 ECOSyStem ECOlogy Global Vegetation Carbon Content cam Din mm Mn um Otsun J 5 JA Watts and LJ AHsmn 1985 ORNL CDtAC ESFM 111 Ecusystem Eculugy Soil Organic Carbon Density l Soil Organic arbon Density kglmz to 1m depth 0 is 12 is 24 Data taken from lGBPrDlS Global Soil Dataet 1998 Atlas of the Biosphere Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment University of Wisconsin Madison ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Methods To Assess Terrestrial Carbon Budgets at Landscape to Continental Scales and Across Multiple Time Scales GCM Inversion Eddy Flux Modeling Measurements FLUXN ET Remote Sensing MODIS Physiological Measurements Biogeochemical Ecosystem Dynamics ESPMlllEcosyttemEt Modeling Manipulation Expts Flask Network and Inversion models m spam eet Waw i Pros I at nth mew Produces Global and Zonal C fluxes Hi 9 Remedy Use isotopes 13C and surface ux measurements to constrain sourcesink calculations More sites measuring C in xy and 2 Better Transport Model ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Satellites Remedy Satellite platforms EOS Validate Algorithms with Direct Eddy Flux Measurements Presr Global Regional and Local Coverage Can detth Seasonal trends Cons Inferred estimates of NPP and LAI Relies on Unvalidated Algorithms Intermittent Coverage Can t Assess NEP ESPM 11 1 Ecosystem Ecology 0 i itro a tor iimrardon o Con o Valid only under ideal conditions o ffected by Advection Needs information on Remedy COZabove PBL o Improve estimates of entrainment uxes M iii Ecosystem Ecology ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology 739 Micrometeorological Eddy Fluxes Pr Mx ma mmmem EMEMKQ W deamgagm amd MWemamhdat mmeEX es Pmm pmo e WEwm t Cons Nighttime biases small Tootprint lt 1 Km Validate with Leaf physiology Not applicable in Complex and plantsoil samples Terrain sapflow biometry and Network of Towers is Watershed measurements Discrete in Space system E o Regimme o 0 ft and mm mg wgmmig ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology r085 A direct measure of plant growth and soil C sequeslratiOn m y gammyme MFA 1 may mawma l fr de mil 14152 mme 11 fwmfmmm frzm T ika t 1amp3 Mal 53mm Ecosystem and Biogeochemical Models Glubal net primary productivin Pros Di screteContin ous Fluxes in Time and Space Cons Errors in inputs 0 Scarcity of Parameters Variation in Parameters in Time and Space Errors Attributed to Model Simplicity o mart Eddy Hum data to Beta P ameee R ll Data g g f f Q Ex qj39g 111 Ecosystem Ecology ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology son sci soc AM L VOL I MAncnmmzma soc kp39mz Dam Smrca STATSGO Guo et al 2006 Soil Sci Soc Am ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Carbon Emission and Ecosystem Services US accounts for about 25 of Global C emissions o257o1o15 gC 1751o15 gC Per Ca ita Emissions US 175 1015 gC3OO 106 5833 106 gCperson 5833 th Ecosystem Service net C uptake 100 gC m392 Land Area per Person 303 104 m2person 303 haperson US Land Area 91 108 ha 175 109 ha needed by US population to offset its C emissions Naturally ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology 664 Tropicui ruln ores Tropical seasonal forest Temperate ever reen lotes Temperate decl duous forest Boreul forest Mediterranean scrub Tropical grass lund Temperate grassland Desert Fig 1819 Biomass annual primary production leaf area index and montth p1 production during the growing season Biomass k9 ml 5 o u r ED SCHULZE Annual primary pro duction kg m39q aquot Lead area index quot17 m39z Monlhly primary pro dunnomkgmzmomrr39 e 0 lt 1 brood leavers coniferous E1 3L 1 1 1 mewmm F E g Table l8 Columns averages line range of conditions given In Table 1 Encyclopedia Plant Physiol 1982 ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology of different vegetation formations ac 3 39imary cording to Ocean vs Terrestrial NPP dIE LIIUEL39 UEHIIL39U U 33quot Ocean NPP Land NPP Seasonal April to June 109 151r JulI to September 130 180 October to December 123 115 January to March 113 112 Biogeographic Oligotrophh 110 Tropical rainforests 178 Mesetro phic 2T4 Breadleaf deciduous forest 15 Eutrophic 91 Broadlle and needleleaf forests 31 Macrophytes 10 Needleleaf evergreen forests 31 Needleleraf deciduous forest 14 Savannas 1158 Perennial grasslands 24 Broadleaf shrubs with bare soil 10 Tundra 08 Desert 05 Cultivation Em Total 485 564 Field et al 1998 Science ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Net Primary Productivity by Biome TABLE 2 Estimates by the TEM of annual NFP ana nltmgen uptake for potential vegetation In the terreslnsl biosphere at an atmospheric concentratwn at 355 ppmv co2 Mean Max Min Area Total NPP NPP NPP NPP Total N uptake Mean N Uptake Vegetation type 106 km Cells 10quot3 g c yr g c or2 yrquot 1012 g N yr quot1 g N m 1 yr39il Polar desertalpine r 50 3147 0 4 87 216 o 3 07 Wetmorst tundra 4 7 3738 05 120 423 34 4 03 Eureat wooul 53 4414 11 173 420 39 9 15 Boreat forest 122 7406 29 238 434 124 31 25 Temperate coniferous r 24 1081 465 704 208 9 3 7 t 115 41 53 370 o 15 1 3 And shruotand 14 5 5708 129 454 6 A6 3 2 Short grassland 4 7 2 050 1 435 72 17 3 7 Tait grasstano39 3 5 1557 335 755 136 16 4 4 emperate a 6 3 2335 342 785 58 29 4 3 Temperat muted toresz 5 1 2 250 669 1 066 231 37 7 3 Temnemte deciduous s 3 5 1 614 2 2 820 978 81 27 7 6 Temperate broadieaf v re 5 s 32 1 205 24 741 1001 322 20 62 Mediterranean shrubland 14 554 05 343 534 32 12 87 roprcal saven 13 7 4624 54 353 786 88 162 115 Xeromorphic forest 68 2357 31 461 992 0 79 117 Tropicat deciduous forest 46 1577 4 0 871 1398 323 121 25 2 Troproal evergreen forest 174 5727 19 1 1098 1422 407 436 251 Total 1273 56090 532 418 1422 0 1073 a 4 Ecosystembased esttmates may not sum to totals because of the eifects of mundmg m repomng these estimates Melillo et al 1993 Nature TEM ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Do Changes in Photosynthesis affect Atmospheric Oxygen Molar Flux C Flux 02 Mass of Oxygen in Atmosphere 7 P02 amp 21221021g02 383 1019m0l6502 a ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology Do Changes in Photosynthesis affect Atmospheric Oxygen M02 2 383 1019moles O2 GPP 120 x1015gC 1 x1016 moles r MF 3830 years NPP 60 x1015gC 05 x1016 moles r MF 7660 years NEE 3 x1015 90 251014 moles r MF 153200 years ESPM 111 Ecosystem Ecology


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