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Introduction to Sociology

by: Lionel Will

Introduction to Sociology SOCIOL 1

Lionel Will

GPA 3.97

A. Swidler

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A. Swidler
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lionel Will on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIOL 1 at University of California - Berkeley taught by A. Swidler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/226563/sociol-1-university-of-california-berkeley in Sociology at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Sociology Final Notes 0 Weber Main argument how people organize 39 class 7 situation in market leads to common interest to organize and potential groups 0 credit commodity labor markets 39 status 7 similar claim to honor actual group 0 honor positive or negative 0 interrupts free development of market 39 pa1tv 7 have goals sta Comparisons 39 Marx more than just class in social organization matters 39 Marx class needs class consciousness Priveleged Groups 7 monopolize material and symbolic things to maintain power Material monopoly o wealth in people 7 control obligations gt land ownership gt in debt people cultural capital 7 better than economic capital 7 can lose have to divide children can39t have while parents do 0 educational skills 0 Toro of Uganda 7 inherit titlestatus most capable of taking care of cattle gt more social mobility Family backgpound will determine jobeducation in Europe go to certain type of school French try to equalize that 39 DemogIaphy of immigrant gpoup 7 if waves stop community can grow skills 0 Structural inequality explanatory 39 number of years of education matters not quality 39 schools don t cary much 39 within school variance more than bt school 39 social background matters more than school quality policy research 7 summer learning decreases test score advancement 0 Culture values 7 fundamental di erence bt places Preschool in Three Cultures 0 ideas Hegelian and Weber 7 shape history and culture 39 make goals 39 shape actioe 39 material and ideal interest motivate not directly shape like ideas 0 ethos 7 39 values spilt ofa people 0 practices 7 Italians hanging out Americas showing ambition Japanese showing moderation 0 Categories 7 culturally constructed but important because seem real white marked and unmarked bear ethnic categories important with schools using them Semiotic codes 7 what your doing says signals 39 mother39s day says something 7 giving owing is a behavior part of it 39 girls hair gt says rich gt in uence people to have that hair to look rich Culture and Modern Sociology more power more categories habitus 7 signals you give off allow you to be categorizes amongst others Ethos Weber 7 Protestant Ethic and SpiritEthos of Capitalism 39 Catholics 7forgiveness 7 Martin Luther gt NO forgiveness of sins because of God39s transcendence and Grace vs Works live the way God wants 39 John Calvin 7 predestination can39t understand God39s designs of lives God has abandoned world proof of salvation in a calling so keep working 0 Ideas become ethos 7 psychological consequence of rationalizing self and world 39 no one could help you loneliness selfscrutiny rational selfcontrol disciplined caling 0 Social consequences practices 39 moral scrutiny and discipline voluntarist group formation individualism The ethos outlasts ideas 7 hence is born American individualism American Individualism culture as code egoism individuality voluntarism individual autonomous choice honestcommunicatoin group different group unique interests conformity avoid politics Harding 7 Living the Drama Question How neighborhood affects adolescents behavior Argument 1 violence 39 violence makes neighborhood central lowers expectations stronger relationships with neighbors ad older males institutional distrust 39 less violence in working class area Argument 2 cultural heterogeneity 39 cultural heterogeneity confuses with too many frames 0 star career alternate education women distrust father status 39 Wrong theories 0 social isolation 7 not just dominant subculture 7 mainstream too 0 social organization theory 7 don t lack organization just di erent have resources too Assumption mainstream is best culture Fischer 7 Inequality by Design Question Why is inequality so high in US compared to other countries Argument policies 39 taxes 7 not enough on rich regulation of labor 7 hurting labor unions education 7 less investment less social mobility housing 7 racial segregation loans health care 7 not universal more likely to die here Argument against Bell curve whites are inherently smarter 39 doesn t take into account structural inequality by public policies Preschool in Three Cultures 0 Question How is culture values ideologies and beliefs re ected in preschools for a particular society Argument 39 US autonomy creativity self expression teachers invovled 39 Japan less teachers work out problems group solidarity childlike 39 China old group mechanical obedience 39 China new more group play playful creativity autonomy o Comparisoins Change to concerted cultivation Lareau Marx 7 German Ideology Argument material forces and class struggle drive history material forces and class struggle drive history not ideas modes of production 7 industrial capitalism 0 creates division of labor and alienation of product from producer means of production 7 factor capital relations of production 7 proletariat andd bourgeiosie 0 Material history basic needs then new needs and wants the reproduction 0 Natural production competition for surviva with 2 classes capitalism 0 Social production working together communism socialism Marx 7 Communist Manifesto Argument communism inevitable because con ict of proletariat will make them rise 39 polarized classes and capitalism will destory itself Class is total classes polarize at revolution Feudalism versus Capitalism 39 feudalism Power Elite Theory difficult to study resistance consent real interest see power Theory elite hold power There is a personnel board of directors Method reputation and association Critique how do you know even using their power can t show they are using power Mills 7 militaryindustrial complex Pluralist Theory Theory power held by multiple groups equal field competing for interests Focus on decisions made Critique not saying all equal decisions made my others elections matter MarxClassDialectical Theory Theory power serves the capitalist class Focus on outcomes Method look at history 39 states prevents capitalism from destroying itself Block 0 39 Critique nonfalsifiability political fatalism nothing anybody does makes a difference Whit Question Whether pluralist elitist or Marxist classdialectical theory best applies to construction of BART Argument Pluralist 7 organized interest groups that compete in level playing field win by best ideas and resources Elitist 7 select group of elite control military and industry Mills same people values connected make social change Marxist 7 capitalists have more power but society made from class struggle and working class can organize Block7 Ruling Class Does Not Rule Question Alternatives to Marxist theory 7 does capitalist class need to work consciously to conserve capitalism Argument 39 Capitalist class doesn t need class consciousness because state is mutually reinforcing 39 State mediates con ict between capitalists and between capitalists and working class to help maintain the economy and prevent revolution and collapse Institutional theories of power Power is not zero sum A over B 39 Political Institutions make a dilTerence inputs affect power in political insitutions which thus affect outcomes Institutions matter 7 institutional capacity Revolution 7 state breakdown gt revolutions 39 wars make bankrupt gt state breakdown 39 fighters don39t rule skilledknowledgable become governing 39 original power still exists not much change institution still the same Chinese Revolution 39 Communist Party try to alter institution by rooting out power humiliating power holders 39 Power is deeply imbedded in society 39 this wasn39t working 7 have to put experts in power again same institutions Skocpol Argument 1 institutional capacity and political outcomes 39 NIRA7 didn39t have institutional capacity 39 AAA 7 land grant colleges agricultural research USDA easier to regulate Argument 2 wars lead to revolutions China Russia France Native Americans Institutional Capacity and Cultural Match need formal state institutions 7 strong central or legistlature better than council need cultural match 7 to match with history of tribe measure by economic development employment income Chinese Governments 7 success equals providing public goodsservices Village temples embedded and encompasing Village churches only encompassing Lineage 7 communite wide both Lineage 7 subvillage a little embedded try to involve formal institutions officials Critiques of Institutional Theories of power state power used for public or private state strength versus survival democracy and equity equal strong or fragile equal strong Transformation of Modern Society 0 Knowledge class 7new mode of production technology or education shows divide in class Marx State clients and beneficiares versus Taxpayers Weber 0 39 goods given by state 7 benefit by public spending 0 Global capitalists versus local societies 7 shift in capital decreasing interest in local 39 human rights and citizenship 7 global tribunals and international orgs 39 ritual shell better than nationalist 39 global capitalism 0 Institutional Resilence 39 don39t like institutions 39 challenge to nation state limiting


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