The Planet Earth
The Planet Earth EPS 50
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adele Hoeger on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EPS 50 at University of California - Berkeley taught by C. Wang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/226570/eps-50-university-of-california-berkeley in Earth And Space Sciences at University of California - Berkeley.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
EPS 50 Spring 2011 Midterm 2 Review I Rocks A Igneous rocks are formed by cooling and solidi cation of magma a Composition i Felsic light highest silica content low Mg and Fecontaining minerals low density eg Granite ii Intermediate grey mix felsic ma c eg Andesite iii Ma c dark low silica content high Mg and Fecontaining minerals high density eg Basalt iv Ultrama c dark lowest silica content high Mg and Fe containing minerals especially olivine eg Peridotite b Texture i Intrusive magma slowly cools and solidi es within the crust thus rocks are coarse grained e g Granite ii Extrusive magma quickly cools and solidi es at the Earth s surface thus rocks are negrained e g Basalt DJ Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediments are deposited out of wind andor water and transported to the depositional areas These sediments then get converted into sedimentary rocks though physical and chemical changes eg compaction and cementation this process is called diagenesis a Composition i Siliciclastic quartz feldspars clays ii Carbonate calcite dolomite iii Evaporite halite gypsum anhydrite b Texture i Clastic discrete solid particles derived from weathering and erosion e g Sandstone ii Biological accumulation of skeletons from microorgnisms e g Chert silicarich Limestone carbonaterich iii Chemical minerals in the solution become supersaturated and get precipitated out eg Evaporite C Metamorphic rocks are formed by physical and chemical changes eg pressure temperature in ux uids of preexisting rocks a Composition common minerals are feldspars pyroxene garnet glaucophane kyanite b Texture i Foliated nonuniform pressure is applied creating wavy banding texture eg Gneiss ii Nonfoliated uniform pressure is applied to all sides e g Marble c Types of metamorphism Regional metamorphism is due to a collision of two continental plates e g subduction zone mtn building which produces high P but relatively low T in rocks e g Blueschist Eclogite Contact metamorphism is a result of an intrusion of hot magma into cooler native rocks high T low P e g Homfels iii Shock metamorphism occurs when a meteorite hits the Earth s surface ultrahigh P with moderate T eg Coesite Stishovite iv Hydrothermal metamorphism is a result of the interaction of arock with a high T uid eg Sul des Serpentine V Burial metamorphism occurs in deep basins gt 10 km where T and P are great enough to metamorphose rocks e g Zeolites d Prograde and Retrograde metamorphism Prograde involves the change of mineral assemblages as well as the loss of water and C02 with increasing T and P while Retrograde is the reconstitution of a rock under decreasing T and P allowing the mineral assemblages formed in prograde metamorphism to revert to those more stable at less extreme conditions II Deformation CHAPTER 7 A Forces pg 168 Understand convergent and Divergent plate boundaries and the associated deformation Tensional Forces 7 divergent boundaries stretching normal faults Compressive Forces 7 convergent boundaries squeezing and shortening reverse faults Shearing Forces 7 transformfault boundaries offsetting of material B Deformation Structures Faulting occurs when material is brittle low confining pressures pg 172 174 0 Normal FaultDip Slip 0 Reverse Fault Thrust o StrikeSlip Fault Folding occurs when material is more ductile high confining pressures pg 175177 0 Anticline o Syncline o Tilted layers C Hydrocarbon traps stratigraphic structural III Evolution of continents CHAPTER 10 Understand the transition from subduction to transform plate boundary along California coast pg 251 A Margin types active margins passive margins B Ways that continents can grow gpg 2542581 Accretion eX Franciscan Melange Magmatic Addition C Super Continents IV Weathering erosion and mass wasting CHAPTER 16 Weathering 7 Bowen s Reaction series quartz resistance A Climate and Weathering pg 423426 Understand feedback loops between weathering and atmospheric CO2 levels See Figure 164 Role of Feldspar in weathering and atmospheric CO2 levels 0 Very common mineral in crustal rocks 0 Weathers t0 clays 0 Chemical weathering I Carbon Dioxide C02 dissolves in water H20 to form carbonic acid H2C03 This carbonic acid acts to dissolve rock Feldspar 2KAlSi30g carbonic acid H2C03 water H20 gtdissolved kaolinite Al2Si2050H4 dissolved silica 4Si02 dissolved potassium ions 2K dissolved bicarbonate ions 2HC0339 I Weathering of silica can decrease atmospheric C02 B Mass wasting 7 all the processes by which weathered and unweathered materials move downslope in large amounts and in large single events V Tectonics and landscape CHAPTER 22 Feedback between Tectonics Topography and Climate pg 6126131 Faster mechanical weathering rates at high elevations because streams run faster glaciers carve rock and produces steep topography Slower mechanical weathering rates at lower elevations but chemical weathering becomes more important due to higher temperatures produces gentle topography 0r0graphic effect and preferential weathering Feedback between Uplift and Erosion pg 613614 Isostatic Rebound See gure 2218 0 As erosion decreases the mass of the mountains less buoyancy is needed so they oat upward in the mantle and result in increased heights VI Field Trip A Ophiolite sequence Understand the process that creates the ophiolite sequences that we see on the western edge of the North American Continent Sheeted gabbro dikes pillow basalts chert layers greywacke B Lithifrcation Diagenesis 7 physical and chemical changes that result in the creation of rock from simply deposited sediment Compaction 7 a decrease in volume and porosity due to the weight of overlying sediments Cementation 7 chemical change that involves the precipitation of cementing agents between sediment particles and effectively binds them together VII Atmosphere and climate CHAPTER 15 Lecture 17 A Atmosphere a What gases make up the atmosphere b Layers of Atmosphere Height Temperature function and composition of layers ie what layers re ect different parts of the sun s spectum Fig 152 c Atmospheric Circulation i Atmospheric circulation cells 1 drive mean temperature and precipitation patterns around the globe wet where air rises dry where air sinks 2 Hadley cell at equator very dry and home to large deserts where air sinks 30 degrees latitude ii Driven by TemperaturePressure Coriolis eg Tradewinds Westerlies B Climate a Weather vs Climate b Climate Variability i Long term variability order of thousands of years 1 Ice Ages Milankovitch Cycles 2 Vostok Ice Core gives a view into long term variability of the past 400 thousand years 3 Carbon Cycle Fig 1516 a Interface between atmosphere ocean biosphere and geology Human alteration since the industrial revolution Fig 15 17 U Fossil Fuel burning deforestation cement production Results in global warming ocean acidi cation of ocean death to corals 4 Calcium Cycle mountain building Fig 1515 ii Short term variability order of months to decades El Nino La Nina seasons i39 VIII Ocean and waves CHAPTER 20 See lab 9 Lecture 18 A Ocean Circulation a Thermohaline conveyor belt Fig 153 i Equator Warm Warm water carried FROM equator i Poles 7 Cold Cold water carried FROM poles ii39 Gulf Stream heat ux from Equator to Arctic Latitudes iv Warming of East Coast of US and Northern Europe v Dense cold and salty water sinks in North Atlantic Ocean driving circulation N Atlantic cold from polar Labrador Current coming from North Pole Freezing of ice in the North Atlantic removes fresh water leaving more salty water b Driven by Temperature Salinity Coriolis Continental configuration Wind B Waves a Crash when then feel the bottom of the ocean b Driven by wind weather shape of shore c Tides Neap and Spring configurations Fig 204 i Gravity Newton s Law Earth s rotation centrifugal force gt on average 2 times perday ii Effects of Moon larger bulge closer and Sun V
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