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Introduction to Linguistic Science

by: Nigel Buckridge

Introduction to Linguistic Science LINGUIS 100

Marketplace > University of California - Berkeley > Linguistics > LINGUIS 100 > Introduction to Linguistic Science
Nigel Buckridge

GPA 3.84


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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nigel Buckridge on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LINGUIS 100 at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/226621/linguis-100-university-of-california-berkeley in Linguistics at University of California - Berkeley.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Handout Lingl 00 Elisabeth Wehling The overall question we are asking ourselves In what ways do languages encode grammatical relations GR 3 Coding Properties a verb agreement b case marking and 0 position of argument within sentence frequently called constituent order Note that verb agreement and case marking are morphological processes the words get somehow changed Constituent order is a syntactic process the NP is situated somewhere in the sentence and that informs as of its grammatical relations Now let us look at those in some detail a Agreement Although it is most common that Subjects trigger verb agreement there may be multiple agreement ie agreement with other terms but the subject If a given language has verb agreement with only one term it usually is S Examples a English verb agreement with Subject b Lakhota transitive verbs agree with both arguments c Basque ditransitive verbs agree with all three arguments b Case Nonlinativeaccusative system P argument gets distinctive case marking S and A usually in citation form Case marking in German a language that follows the nominative accusative system In such languages the Subject is usually in the nominative case Direct objects are commonly expressed in the accusative case Nominative 0 normally equals citation form for nouns 0 case of the single argument of an intransitive verb 0 translates as the actor argument of an active voice transitive verb Accusative 0 normally only occurs in clauses with transitive verbs 0 does not correspond to the citation form for nouns 0 translates as the undergoer of an active voice transitive verb Ergativeabsolutive system A argument receives distinctive case marking S and P normally being in citation form Languages that have the ergative absolutive system have the following cases absolutive 0 undergoer of a transitive verb P and subject of an intransitive verb S 0 usually equals citation form for nouns ergative 0 actor of a transitive verb A 0 usually occurs with transitive verbs 0 does not correspond to the citation form for nouns c Constituent Order Some languages have neither verb agreement nor case marking In those cases the only coding property is position within the clause The position of a Noun Phrase in with regard to the verb of the sentence informs us about its grammatical relations Eg in English S usually surfaces before the verbs Direct and indirect object surface after the verb We ignore syntactic mechanisms for now that might move them to other positions Other languages eg Malagasy have the S at the end of the sentence and the direct object following the verb and preceding the S


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