Introduction to Linguistic Science
Introduction to Linguistic Science LINGUIS 100
Popular in Course
Popular in Linguistics
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nigel Buckridge on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LINGUIS 100 at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/226621/linguis-100-university-of-california-berkeley in Linguistics at University of California - Berkeley.
Reviews for Introduction to Linguistic Science
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/22/15
Linguistics 100 Syntax and Morphosyntax Review and reminders l Clitics a They are like affixes in always being bound b But they are unlike af xes in generally being less connected to what they attach to i It might not matter what word class they attach to ii It might condition any phonology e g deMOcracy demoCRAtic iii The appear after all af xes have been attached and they might attach to phrases not single words He has a they can do whatever they want with my resources quot ish attitude c The are indicated with an i a they can do whatever they want with my resourcesish attitude 2 Allmorphy can be phonologically morphologically or lexically conditioned 3 Word class Reread CL pp 152155 If you39re feeling adventurous you can also read pp 68 in Van Valin New stulT l Syntax What39s syntax a How do you make sentences It39s easy Just i Have a predicate ii Express the arguments what arguments are available Check the valence b Two general views on the bits of syntax i Dependency how are the arguments related to the predicate subject object indirect object oblique argument ii Constituency What words go together with what How are they hierarchicially related c Dependencies i Grammatical relations and semanticsyntactic roles A A one arg of atransitive verb prototypical agent volition causation stable P one arg of a transitive verb prototypical patientundergoer affected unstable S single argument of intransitive verb B Look for the prototypical agentive and transitive verbs kick push kill break Possibly also build make bake Less typical see fear read love C If there39s no argument that looks like a good A or P just see which one acts more like the typical As or Ps ii In most languages the S will act like either the A or the P If it acts like the A nominative accusative If it acts like the P ergative absolutive iii In nominativeaccusative languages the nominative case generally marks the subject and the accusative marks the object In ergativeabsolutive languagesthe notion of subject and object can be tricky iv Coding case Usually an affix on a noun indicating a grammatical relation with a predicate Or word order which argument comes before the verb and which after Or which appears closer to the verb Chechen ergativeabsolutive or nominativeaccusative 1 Swo Vuuzhu I fall I m falling 2 Ysh duuzhu they fall They are falling 3 As du u ysh I eat they I m eating them 4 Caara Vu39u swo they eat I They are eating me