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Theories of Traditionality and Modernity

by: Mrs. Carolina Denesik

Theories of Traditionality and Modernity FOLKLOR C262A

Marketplace > University of California - Berkeley > Folklore > FOLKLOR C262A > Theories of Traditionality and Modernity
Mrs. Carolina Denesik

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Carolina Denesik on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FOLKLOR C262A at University of California - Berkeley taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/226630/folklor-c262a-university-of-california-berkeley in Folklore at University of California - Berkeley.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
Integrative Biology 200A PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGEN39ETICS Spring 2008 University of California Berkeley Kipling Will 28 Feb Names and More Names Folk taxonomies kinds and particular kinds earned by memorization in preliterate societies Ancient GreekRoman handcopied manuscripts Printing press and expanded exploration increased the distributionadoption of classifications and initiated a significant increase in the species diversity recognized Linnaeus used the tools available to him to basically update the regional taxonomy northern Europe Simplification and standardization was applied to the system in use The system names were paragraph long description diagnosis and identification tool written in Latin Common and well known kinds were already frequently referred to by the genus name eg Crocus Iris Narcissus Particular kinds were sometimes referred to using a binomial eg Iris sylvestn39s Linnaeus used the binomial nicknames uniformly and still provided the more protracted name The binomial shortcut caught on fast and names proliferated more foreign material and better microscopes and lenses renaming species not previously given binomials emending names not properly formed the result was chaos Codes and More Codes Various rules were proposed even by Linnaeus none were applied generally The first general use code was the Strickland Code 1842 It was intended for plants and animals Split between Zoologist and Botanists and in 1867 Candolle and others developed a separate set of rules Dall 1877 combined code International Congress of Geology 1881 code for fossils American Ornithologists Union 1886 code for birds International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria in ICBN then ICNB 1947 dropped 1980 Future editions to be called the International Code of Nom enclature of Prokaryotes International code ofBotanical Nomenclature ICBN Stems from the Candolle code but was first created in 1905 Americans kept using NLBritton s code for about 25 years Current edition published in 2006 The code is here httpibotsavskicbnmainhtm International code of Zoological Nomenclature The Code often as ICZN but this acronym formally is for the commission not the code I use it below for brevity Draws on the Strickland code but officially dates from 1889 International congress of Zoology subsequently published in 1905 Currently fourth edition published in 1999 effective 2000 is in use The Code is here httpwwwicznorgicznindexjsp And a Wiki for the code of the future httpicmansporg Some shared features of ICBNICZN Purpose is to ensure a unique scientific name for every taxon Provides rules for publication validation documentation and typification of names Allow assignment and changes in names without interfering with scientific freedom Commissions provide an administrative system to oversee and interpret rules but not based on Case law Some differences between ICBNICZN Codes are independent names are not required to be unique eg Pier is butter y Pien39s 7 heath It is strongly recommended to avoid this when naming supraspecific taxa ICBN the concept of priority includes a particular binomial combination Cucamis chrysocomus Shumacher 1827 when moved to a different genus it becomes Rhaphiodiocystis chrysocoma Shumacher C Jeffrey 1962 ICZN species authorship is unchanged Bolhynoproclus ponai Straneo 1941 Neolalis portai Straneo 1941 ICBN regulates Division to subform taxa ICZN regulates Superfamily to subspecies Species number in most inclusive taxa are similar Probably has something to do with the human mind ICBN names based on a Recent type specimen have priority over names based on a fossil type ICZN first valid publication in all cases ICBN no tauton s ICZN tautonyms allowed Bison Bison bison bison is an available name Types Designation of a type specimen was made mandatory in 1958 in the ICBN but not until 2000 in the ICZN it remained a recommendation for many years The type is the name bearing specimen associated by description and publication given the rules of nomenclature Acts as an objective basis for the nomenclature voucher or supervoucher of our research a single datum that provides a fixed reference point for our specieslevel hypothesis not necessarily average or typical in the sense of being the common form can t represent variation only makes sense in the postLinnaeus nontypological context The kinds of types Type series All specimens on which a description is based may be only one Syntypes Two or more specimens included in the type series Primary types these have nomenclature status Holozype Single specimen chosen as the nomenclature type Leclozype A single specimen subsequently chosen from the syntypes to act as nomenclature type Neolype A single specimen subsequently chosen to act as nomenclature type when all syntypes have been destroyed Isozype A duplicate holotype botany Hapanalype An ontogenetic series that acts as nomenclature type protistans ICZN Sec0ndary types Paralype nonholotype syntypes Usually distributed as vouchers Allozype paratype selected to represent the opposite sex from the holotype Other unregulated and not very useful types include Hom otype topotype plesiotype hypotype heautotype onomatype morphotype metatype ideotype Priority Availability Validity Mostly these concepts were needed postLinnaeus to deal with the chaos created by 100 years of unregulated names and to deal with subsequent nam ing Priority first published name is the correct one to use except when it is not Availabilily a properly published name is available known as validly published in ICBN use Latin alphabet to form name as bionomial published description type designated Validily the correct name to use known as correct name in ICBN Names in conflict Primary Homonyms Same name used for two species Carabus limbatus Fabricius 1776 senior homon m Carabus limbatus Say 1823 unior homonym later homonym in 1CBN Secondag Homonyms Classification change causes con ict Feronia si renua Panzer 1779 Pieroslichus slrenuus LeConte 1852 Csiki 1930 put both in Pleras chus so P slrenuus becomes a secondary junior hom onym and must have new name Pleras chus subslrennus Csiki 1930 Objective svnonvms I svnonvms ICBM spelling mistakes unjustified emendations eg Aban39s vs Abarys or Rabdalus vs Rhabdatus Priority prevails oldest nameform in most cases Even if misspelled usually Subjective svnonvms taxonomic svnonvms ICBM Conflicting species definitions and hypotheses Subjective but hopefully analysisbased decision that two described forms constitute one species Abaris darlingtani Straneo 1939 Abaris aenea Dejean 1831 Priority determines valid name However both names are still available Special cases can preserve a newer more commonly used name Prevailing usage is new to ICZN 1f the senior name has not been used in 50 years and the junior name occurs in 25 works published by 10 authors covering a 10 year span within the last 50 years Kinds of publications that involve nomenclature directly Descriptions Species descriptions isolated descriptions of taxa in unrevised groups is not recommended especially if presented without a key or identification aid However there are many reasons why it might be necessary to provide a valid name without a full analysis Redescription adds significant information and new material Description of higher tax Less common Usually within a more extensive analysis Tends to highlight exceptional novelties General treatments Smopsis Summarizes current knowledge with a focus on species identification Review Critical study of previous concepts and material Usually with new material and taxa Revision Descriptions phylogeny classification Monograph All aspects and complete detail Special use publications Phylogenies May explore various character systems biogeography or behaviors in detail Classifications Usually published with phylogenies but may be compiled from various sources Floras faunas checklists fieldguides atlases Focus on identification synthesis and presentation of knowledge of the group Preamble ICBN Botany requires a precise and simple system of nomenclature used by botanists in all countries dealing on the one hand with the terms that denote the ranks of taxonomic groups or units and on the other hand with the scientific names that are applied to the individual taxonomic groups of plants The purpose of giving a name to a taxonomic group is not to indicate its characters or history but to supply a means of referring to it and to indicate its taxonomic rank This Code aims at the provision of a stable method of naming taxonomic groups avoiding and rejecting the use of nam es that may cause error or ambiguity or throw science into confusion Next in importance is the avoidance of the useless creation of names Other considerations such as absolute grammatical correctness regularity or euphony of names more or less prevailing custom regard for persons etc notwithstanding their undeniable importance are relatively accessory ICZN The objects of the Code are to promote stability and universality in the scientific names of animals and to ensure that the name of each taxon is unique and distinct All its provisions and recommendations are subservient to those ends and none restricts the freedom of taxonomic thought or actions Priority of publication is a basic principle of zoological nomenclature however under conditions prescribed in the Code its application may be modified to conserve a longaccepted name in its accustomed meaning When stability of nomenclature is threatened in an individual case the strict application of the Code may under specified conditions be suspended by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature


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