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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Notetaker on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 121 at Missouri State University taught by Manley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 12 Psychological disorder De ning Psychopathology Psychopathology The study of abnormal thoughts feelings and behaviors Early explanations of Mental Illness 0 Ancient times Evil spirits released via trepanning o Trepanning The process of cutting holes into the skull of a living person Hippocrates Mental illness from imbalance of body s four humors 0 Although Hippocrates was not correct in his assumptions about the humors of the body phlegm black bile blood and yellow bile his was the rst recorded attempt to explain abnormal behavior as due to some biological process 0 Middle Ages Spirit possession and exorcism o Exorcism formal casting out of the demon through a religious ritual o Renaissance Mentally ill labeled witches 0 During the Renaissance belief in demonic possession gave way to a belief in witchcraft and mentally ill persons were most likely called witches and put to death What is Abnormal Behavior Statistically rare Deviant form social norms Causes subjective discomfort Does not allow daytoday functioning Causes a person to be dangerous to self or others Abnormal behavior that includes at least two of these ve criteria is perhaps best classi ed by the term psychological disorder 0 Psvcholodical disorder any pattern of behavior that causes people signi cant distress causes them to harm themselves or others or harms their ability to function in daily life 0 The term abnormality is different from insanity o In the United States insanity is not a psychological term o It is a legal term used to argue that a mentally ill person who has committed a crime should not be held responsible for his or her actions because that person was unable to understand the difference between right and wrong at the time of the offense LJ39gtLJLJI I Models of Abnormality 0 Biological model 0 Behavior is caused by biological changes in the chemical structural or genetic systems of the body Psychodynamic model 0 Abnormal behavior stems from repressed con icts and urges that are ghting to become conscious Behaviorism o Abnormal behavior is learned 0 Cognitive perspective 0 Abnormal behavior comes from irrational beliefs and illogical patterns of thought Biopsychosocial model 0 Abnormal behavior is the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological psychological social and cultural in uences DSM5 0 First published in 1952 0 Revised multiple times as knowledge and ways of thinking about psychological disorders has changed 0 Most recent edition DSM5 was published in 2013 Disorders in the DSM5 0 Useful in providing clinicians with descriptions and criteria for diagnosing mental disorders 0 20 categories 250 different disorders 0 Examples include Depressive disorders anxiety disorders schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders neurodevelopmental disorders 5 axes of the DSM5 Clinical disorders 0 contains the disorders that bring most people to the attention of a psychological professional 0 Personality disorders mental retardation 0 most often now called intellectual disability 0 General medical conditions 0 includes physical disorders that affect a person s psychological wellbeing such as juvenile diabetes chromosome disorders such as Klinefelter s syndrome and high blood pressure psychosocial environmental problems 0 contains information about problems in the person s life that might affect adjustment such as the death of a loved one the loss of a job or poverty 0 global assessment of functioning 0 an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person s mental health and adjustment literally a rating on a scale of 0 to 100 How common are Psychological disorders 0 262 percent of American adults over age 18 have a mental disorder in any given year 0 577 million people in US Pros and Cons of Labels 0 Labels 0 Help establish distinct diagnostic categories 0 Help patients receive effective treatment 0 Can be dangerous or overly prejudicial Rosenhan study at psychiatric hospitals 0 Psychological labels long lasting and powerful o Affect how other people see mental patients and how patients see themselves 0 Myths 0 In 1972 researcher David Rosenhan asked healthy participants to enter psychiatric hospitals and complain that they were hearing voices All of the participants were admitted into the hospitals and diagnosed with either schizophrenia or manic depression 0 Once they were admitted they stopped pretending to be ill and acted as they normally would but the hospital staff s interpretation of their normal behavior was skewed by the label of mental illness They had been diagnosed and labeled and those labels stuck even when actual symptoms of mental illness disappeared Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Phobic disorders Phobia Irrational persistent fear of an object situation or social activity 0 Social anxiety disorder social phobia Fear of negative evaluation in social situations 0 Speci c phobias Fear of speci c objects situations or events 0 Agoraphobia Fear of placesituation from which escape is dif cult or impossible o Free oating anxiety is the term given to anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic known factor and it is often a symptom of an anxiety disorder Panic Disorder 0 Panic attack 0 Sudden intense panic multiple physical and emotional symptoms 0 Panic disorder 0 Frequent disruptive panic attacks Generalized Anxiety Disorder Feelings of dreaddoom and physical stress lasting at least six months 0 Source of anxiety often cannot be pinpointed Worry about things most people would not worry about Other Disorders Related to Anxiety Obsessive Compulsive disorder 0 With DSM5 this disorder is no longer classi ed as an anxiety disorder 0 Now falls in the category of quotObsessiveCompulsive and Related Disordersquot Obsessive recurring thoughts create anxiety Compulsive ritualistic repetitive behavior or mental acts reduce that anxiety Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders Acute stress disorder ASD Symptoms occur immediately after traumatic event 0 include anxiety dissociation recurring nightmares sleep disturbances problems in concentration and moments in which people seem to relive the event in dreams and ashbacks 0 Anxiety dissociative symptoms nightmares Disorder is no longer classi ed as an anxiety disorder in the DSM5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 0 Symptoms include persistent ASD lasting longer than a month or can emerge as late as six months after trauma Disorder is no longer classi ed as an anxiety disorder in the DSM5 Causes of Anxiety Disorder Psychodynamic Repressed urges and desires trying to come into consciousness create anxiety that is controlled by the abnormal behavior Behavioral Disordered behavior learned through operant and classical conditioning techniques 0 Cognitive Excessive anxiety from illogical irrational thought processes 0 Biological Chemical imbalances in the nervous system genetic transmission 0 Biological explanations of anxiety disorders include chemical imbalances in the nervous system in particular serotonin and GABA systems 0 Genetic transmission may be responsible for anxiety disorders among related persons Dissociative Disorders Altered Identities Dissociative Disorders Dissociative disorders Break in conscious awareness memory andor sense of identity 0 Dissociative amnesia Memory loss for personal information either partial or complete Dissociative fugue Travel from familiar surroundings with amnesia for trip and possibly personal identity Dissociative identity disorder Person seems to have two or more distinct personalities 0 Known as multiple personality disorder Causes of Dissociative Disorders Psychodynamic Point to repression of memories seeing dissociation as a defense mechanism against anxiety 0 Cognitive and behavioral Traumarelated thought avoidance is negatively reinforced by reduction in anxiety and emotional pain 0 Biological Lower than normal activity levels in areas responsible for body awareness depersonalization disorder 0 Depersonalization disorder a mild dissociative disorder in which people feel detached and disconnected from themselves their bodies and their surroundings Mood Disorders Disorders of mood Bipolar and Related Disorders and Depressive Disorders 0 Affect An emotional reaction Disorders of Mood Disturbances in emotion ranging from mild to moderate or even extreme Depressive Disorder 0 Severe depression sudden no apparent external cause 0 Most common of the diagnosed disorders of mood o 15 to 3 times more likely in women as in men Bipolar Disorder 0 Bipolarl Disorder 0 Normal to manic with or without episodes of depression Manic having the quality of excessive excitement energy and elation or irritability o Bipolar ll Disorder 0 Normal mood with episodes of major depression and episodes of hypomania Causes of Disordered Mood Behavioral Link depression to learned helplessness Cognitive See depression as the result of distorted illogical thinking 0 Biological Variation in neurotransmitter levels or speci c brain activity genes and heritability play a part Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa 0 BMI less than 185 in adults 0 Vomiting laxative abuse food restriction and excessive exercise used to control food intake Bulimia Nervosa o Binging on large quantities of food with attempts to rid self of food through inappropriate means 0 Binge Eating Disorder 0 Uncontrolled binge eating but no attempts to purge or to use inappropriate methods to avoid weight gain Causes of eating disorders Adolescents and young adults are most at risk 0 Eating disorders have been observed in nonWestern cultures that are not focused on thinness Genetic components for eating disorders account for 40 to 60 percent of the risk for anorexia bulimia and bingeeating disorder Schizophrenia Schizophrenic Disorder Schizophrenia o Severely disordered thinking 0 Bizarre behavior 0 Inability to separate fantasy from reality Schizophrenia is a split between thoughts emotions and behavior o It is a longlasting psychotic disorder in which reality and fantasy become confused Symptoms of Schizophrenia 0 Positive 0 Excesses of or additions to normal behavior Delusions Unshakeable false beliefs Hallucinations Seeing or hearing things that don t exist 0 Negative 0 Less than normal levels or even an absence of normal behaviors Poor attention Flat affect A lack of emotional responsiveness Poor speech production Causes of Schizophrenia Positive symptoms appear to be associated with overactivity of dopamine areas of the brain negative symptoms are associated with lower dopamine activity Genetics and brain structural defects have been implicated Genetic causes supported by twin and adoption studies 0 Biological roots supported by universal lifetime prevalence across cultures of approximately 7 8 people out of 1000 Stressvulnerability model suggests people with genetic markers for schizophrenia will not develop the disorder unless they are exposed to environmental or emotional stress at critical times in development Genetics and Schizophrenia The greater the degree of genetic relatedness the higher the risk of schizophrenia in individuals related to one another 0 The only individual to carry a risk even close to that of identical twins who share 100 percent of their genes is a person who is the child of two parents with schizophrenia 0 Based on Gottesman 1991 Categories of Schizophrenia o Disorganized o Hallucinations o Confused speech 0 Inappropriate emotion 0 Social impairments Catatonic o Periods of statuelike immobility mixed with bursts of wild agitated movement and talking Paranoid o Delusions of persecution grandeur and jealousy together with hallucinations Personality Disorders 0 Personality Disorders 0 Persistent rigid maladaptive behavior interfering with normal social interaction 0 Antisocial Personality Disorder 0 Disorder is more common in men 0 Symptoms May habitually break the law disobey rules or tell lies with no regard for others feelings Indifferent or able to rationalize taking advantage of or hurting others 0 Borderline Personality Disorder 0 Moody o Unstable sense of identity 0 Clings to others 0 More common in women Types of Personality Disorders 0 Odd and eccentric o Paranoid o Schizoid o Schizotypal o Dramatic emotional or erratic o Antisocial o Borderline o Histrionic o Narcissistic Anxiety or fearfulness o Avoidant o Dependent o ObsessiveCompulsive Causes of personality disorders Cognitivebehavioral Speci c behaviors learned over time associated with maladaptive belief systems 0 Genetic factors Biological relatives of people with personality disorders more likely to develop similar disorders 0 Stress tolerance Individuals with antisocial personality disorder are emotionally unreactive to stress or threat and have lower than normal levels of stress hormones 0 Family relationships Linked to disturbances in family communications and relationships 0 Other possible causes of personality disorders may include childhood abuse neglect overly strict parenting overprotective parenting and parental rejection
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